• The virus can be transmitted by many mosquito species and survives in mosquito eggs in arid environments. (uptodate.com)
  • Summaries of the Online Report chapters are published in the Journal of General Virology, ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profiles section . (ictvonline.org)
  • The study of viruses is known as virology , a sub-speciality of microbiology . (wikipedia.org)
  • Review Virology and cell biology of the hepatitis C virus life cycle: an update. (nih.gov)
  • Teams of the Department of Virology, of Global Heath, of Structural Biology and Chemistry and of Computational Biology study viruses causing infections to understand their epidemiology and to develop alternative strategies to fight them and overcome drug resistance. (pasteur.fr)
  • The studies involved with Virus, is Virology. (slideshare.net)
  • A microbiologist is attaining his complete knowledge about the Virus, through Virology studies. (slideshare.net)
  • A serious attempt was made to deal concisely with every major topic of chemical virology and to present examples from different classes of viruses. (springer.com)
  • Viruses is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by MDPI covering all aspects of virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA viruses with small DNA genomes have genome sizes of less than 10 kilobasepairs , whereas DNA viruses with large genomes are over 30 kilobasepairs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This month's Genome Watch highlights how high-throughput sequencing has provided new insights into the diversity, evolution and genome organization of arthropod viruses. (nature.com)
  • Artist rendering of genome standards being applied to deciphering the extensive diversity of viruses. (energy.gov)
  • Microbial studies in this location and others unintentionally formed a foundation for research into viruses at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI). (energy.gov)
  • In a study published by Cell Press in Cell Host & Microbe , an in-depth evolutionary analysis of whole-genome sequences of different types of avian flu viruses has revealed that new H7N9 viruses emerged from distinct H9N2 viruses in a two-step process, first occurring in wild birds and then continuing in domestic birds. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To address this problem, Jiang teamed up with Daxin Peng of Yangzhou University and their collaborators to analyze whole-genome sequences of avian flu viruses from humans, poultry, and wild birds from China. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Whole genome analyses have been reported for several of these viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • 2003. Coevolution of viruses with hosts and vectors and possible paleontology. (tolweb.org)
  • Organisms and physical objects that carry or transmit viruses are called vectors . (angelfire.com)
  • Aphids are the vectors of Narcissus yellow stripe virus and several other viruses. (rhs.org.uk)
  • The risk of a global spread of Zika virus to areas where the competent vectors, the Aedes mosquitoes, are present is significant, given the wide geographical distribution of these mosquitoes in various regions of the world. (who.int)
  • Baranyi U, Klein R, Lubitz W, Kruger DH, Witte A (2000) The archaeal halophilic virus-encoded Dam-like methyltransferase M. phiCh1-I methylates adenine residues and complements dam mutants in the low salt environment of Escherichia coli. (springer.com)
  • 2000. The origins and ongoing evolution of viruses. (tolweb.org)
  • 2000. A hypothesis for DNA viruses as the origin of eukaryotic replication proteins. (tolweb.org)
  • 2000. Virus Taxonomy. (tolweb.org)
  • 2000. Virus nomenclature: consensus versus chaos. (tolweb.org)
  • The unchanging part of the exhibit's name refers to the Love Bug virus that circulated widely in May 2000 and was one of the 'computer virus family's first media stars,' according to Nori. (wired.com)
  • Several studies since 2000 have suggested that the virus is also linked to colorectal cancer , as JCV has been found in malignant colon tumors, but these findings are still controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Q. What do you think were the "important" viruses in 2000? (zdnet.com)
  • The ILOVEYOU virus in 2000 had a similarly devastating effect. (howstuffworks.com)
  • An interest of Post is to understand how drugs enter an interior binding pocket and, once bound, how the drug alters conformational and fluctuation properties of the virus capsid to give rise to the observed antiviral activity. (purdue.edu)
  • 2004) Solution structure of dengue virus capsid protein reveals another fold. (purdue.edu)
  • 2004. The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a double-stranded DNA viral capsid type that spans all domains of life. (tolweb.org)
  • The capsid and envelope protect the virus from physical damage. (angelfire.com)
  • In the case of some DNA viruses, the capsid can be surrounded by a membrane that is formed from cellular membranes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • You can then cut/paste the capsid gene into an 'alive' virus in place of its own capsid, and voila! (scienceblogs.com)
  • The protein encoded by these early sequences, T-antigen, also plays a key role in viral proliferation, directing the initiation of DNA replication for the virus as well as performing a transcriptional switch to allow for the formation of the various capsid and regulatory proteins needed for viral fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers found that the motor is located at the intersection of the capsid and the virus 'tail' and is made of a circular array of proteins called gene product 17 (gp17). (nsf.gov)
  • As a T4 virus assembles itself, the lower ring of the motor structure attaches to a strand of DNA, while the upper ring attaches to a capsid. (nsf.gov)
  • The process draws the DNA strand upwards into the capsid where it is protected from damage, enabling the virus to survive and reproduce. (nsf.gov)
  • After the DNA is inside the capsid, the motor falls off, and a virus tail attaches to the capsid. (nsf.gov)
  • On a search-and-destroy mission, a virus can spread easily from an infected floppy disk as well as from files downloaded onto a hard drive from an e-mail attachment, the Internet, online services and bulletin boards. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • It is now well-established that viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and are estimated to harbor the second greatest biomass after prokaryotes, equivalent to the amount of carbon found in ~75 million blue whales (the largest organism on Earth) Suttle (Nature 437(7057):356-361, 2005). (springer.com)
  • Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most abundant type of biological entity. (wikipedia.org)
  • First seen as poisons, then as life-forms, then biological chemicals, viruses today are thought of as being in a gray area between living and nonliving: they cannot replicate on their own but can do so in truly living cells and can also affect the behavior of their hosts profoundly. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The categorization of viruses as nonliving during much of the modern era of biological science has had an unintended consequence: it has led most researchers to ignore viruses in the study of evolution. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Because they were clearly biological themselves and could be spread from one victim to another with obvious biological effects, viruses were then thought to be the simplest of all living, gene-bearing life-forms. (scientificamerican.com)
  • We're looking at software viruses and biological viruses becoming one and the same. (zdnet.com)
  • To understand the limitations of the current strategies, imagine there's an outbreak of a biological virus. (newscientist.com)
  • The term computer virus is often used instead of just virus to specify that a virus in the computing sense, rather than the biological sense, is being referred to. (wiktionary.org)
  • The most abundant type of biological entity on Earth, viruses, live across all ecological niches. (energy.gov)
  • Researchers believe the body may act correctly to repel an invading virus but then extend its attack to molecules similar to those in the virus. (redorbit.com)
  • The researchers hoped these proteins would give the viruses a greater ability to enter and attack the tumour cells as part of a targeted therapy. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers used the adenoviruses to transfect (infect) cell lines derived from cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3), and assessed how much of the virus ended up inside the cell, as well as the activity of beta-galactosidase that they had introduced into the cell. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers also made viruses that would allow the DNA sequence for proteins that could kill the cancer cells to be carried into the cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Peering at structures only atoms across, researchers have identified the clockwork that drives a powerful virus nanomotor. (nsf.gov)
  • Purdue researchers studied the virus structures, such as the motor, while the Catholic University researchers isolated the virus components and performed biochemical analyses. (nsf.gov)
  • T4 is what's called a 'tailed virus',' says Purdue biologist Michael Rossmann, one of the lead researchers for the study. (nsf.gov)
  • Having already determined the structures of a number of other viral components and how they self-assemble, in this study the researchers focused their attention on the small motor that some viruses use to package DNA into their 'heads', protein shells also called capsids. (nsf.gov)
  • The hunt for further clues is expected to take months and researchers may still never know who is behind the virus. (cnn.com)
  • In contrast, researchers wanted to identify viruses that live in natural habitats all over the world. (energy.gov)
  • Viruses' unusual characteristics make it hard for researchers to study them using the same techniques they use to study microbes. (energy.gov)
  • That status changed when JGI researchers developed new technology that enabled them to mine their existing database for viruses. (energy.gov)
  • Researchers from the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom - together with the Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare in Helsinki - wanted to find out which airport surfaces harbored the highest number of respiratory viruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers then tested the swabs taken from these samples for " influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus , adenovirus, rhinovirus, and coronaviruses . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers also found the influenza A virus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The hosts for a virus are system-call interfaces that are accessible from the point of entry (an infected program), such as sendmail or an HTTP server. (qnx.com)
  • The hosts are platform-specific, so a virus for Linux would in all likelihood terminate the host under QNX Neutrino as soon as it tried to do anything damaging. (qnx.com)
  • Viruses dont have that (they steal everything from their hosts). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Aphids do not breed on daffodils, but winged forms do visit and feed and can therefore transmit viruses. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Tumor viruses are those viruses that are able to infect cells and cause changes within the cell's operating machinery such that the cell's ability to regulate its growth and division is destroyed and the cells become cancerous. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Human papillomavirus, hepatitis B, Epstein-Barr virus , human T-cell leukemia virus , SV-40, and Rous sarcoma virus are all tumor viruses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Authorities traced the electronic fingerprints of the virus to Smith, who was arrested in northeastern New Jersey on April 1, 1999. (fbi.gov)
  • Back in March 1999, the Melissa virus was so powerful that it forced Microsoft and a number of other very large companies to completely turn off their e-mail systems until the virus could be contained. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Most public health organizations, including the WHO, do not recognize airborne transmission except for aerosol-generating procedures performed in healthcare settings," the letter states, "Hand-washing and social distancing are appropriate, but in our view, insufficient to provide protection from virus-carrying respiratory microdroplets released into the air by infected people. (npr.org)
  • The unit focuses on the mechanisms of virus evolution and virus-host protein-protein interactions as well as the large collection of influenza and other respiratory viruses of the National Reference Center for Respiratory viruses. (pasteur.fr)
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospitalization due to acute lower respiratory infection especially in infants and young children. (who.int)
  • Several countries test for RSV as part of influenza and other respiratory virus surveillance. (who.int)
  • The article, 'Why virus taxonomy is important' , published in Microbiology Today by Stuart Siddell, ICTV Vice President, discusses the importance of virus taxonomy and its role in helping to define the evolutionary relationships between viruses and understand the consequences of virus diversity. (ictvonline.org)
  • The long evolutionary reach of viruses. (tolweb.org)
  • This possible threat highlights the importance of understanding the evolutionary history of H7N9 viruses for developing appropriate strategies to monitor and control outbreaks. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This unit recently demonstrated the potential of synthetic molecules that destabilize the RED-SMU1 splicing complex as an antiviral, host-directed therapy which could be active against a wide range of influenza viruses and be less prone to drug resistance. (pasteur.fr)
  • A deep understanding of how the novel H7N9 viruses were generated is of critical importance for formulating proper measures for surveillance and control of these viruses and other potential emerging influenza viruses," says senior study author Taijiao Jiang of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This means that the potential risk of exposure to blood-borne viruses is considered from a range of activities. (hse.gov.uk)
  • There are additional requirements for more specialised work involving the deliberate handling and genetic modification of blood-borne viruses. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. (tolweb.org)
  • Die Entscheidung über verschiedene Taxa wird von einem internationalen Gremium, dem International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), beraten und getroffen. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 1000 plant diseases are caused by viruses. (angelfire.com)
  • The virus causes PML and other diseases only in cases of immunodeficiency , as in AIDS or during treatment with drugs intended to induce a state of immunosuppression (e.g. organ transplant patients). (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial interest in viruses stemmed from their association with diseases-the word "virus" has its roots in the Latin term for "poison. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Not all viruses have a motor such as the one found in the T4 virus, but some viruses that cause human diseases posses molecular motors with similar functions, and likely have similar structures. (nsf.gov)
  • But a small percentage can carry diseases like West Nile virus. (kidshealth.org)
  • Ninety to ninety-five percent of people with MS have proteins in their spinal fluid that are typically found in the spinal fluid of people with nervous system diseases that are known to be reactions to viruses. (nationalmssociety.org)
  • UPDATE - As of March 2016 testing for the Powassan Virus will be available through Coppe Laboratories. (google.com)
  • Hepatitis C Viruses: Genomes and Molecular Biology. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, even though biologists long favored the view that viruses were mere boxes of chemicals, they took advantage of viral activity in host cells to determine how nucleic acids code for proteins: indeed, modern molecular biology rests on a foundation of information gained through viruses. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Biology of Viruses of the Tick-borne Encephalitis Complex. (cdc.gov)
  • However, as long as flu viruses are circulating, vaccination should continue throughout flu season, even into January or later. (cdc.gov)
  • We estimated the number of clinical cases, hospitalizations, and deaths prevented in the United States that were directly attributable to the 2009-2010 A(H1N1)pdm09 virus vaccination program. (cdc.gov)
  • Even among the giant viruses, these are weird. (newsweek.com)
  • Giant viruses have taken up real estate, using the algae's cellular machinery to make more viruses. (energy.gov)
  • The giant viruses themselves are infected with tiny viruses called virophages. (energy.gov)
  • For this reason, viruses are often grouped by the type of file they infect, such as boot viruses and macro viruses . (f-secure.com)
  • Lately, 'macro' viruses have proliferated in the computer world. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • More than 90 macro viruses have been discovered, up from nine last August, Frederick said. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The most common macro viruses attack Microsoft Word software. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Symantec, publisher of the popular anti-virus program Norton Anti-Virus, is one of the forerunners against the fight against viruses also runs the Symantec Anti-Virus Research Center (SARC). (zdnet.com)
  • We have known viruses mating and creating new hybrid viruses,' said Carey Nachenberg, chief architect of the Symantec Anti-virus Research Center, based in Cupertino, Calif. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Viruses and the Evolution of Life. (tolweb.org)
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer , which increases genetic diversity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Like DIPs, vaccines also use a defective version of viruses, but as a preventive treatment building immune memory rather than a curative treatment based on competition and co-evolution. (ibm.com)
  • They discovered that H7N9 viruses are genetically diverse, suggesting that complex genetic events were involved in their evolution. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As for human papillomavirus, the molecular mechanism by which hepatitis B virus triggers cancerous growth of cells is unknown. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Recognition of Hepatitis C Virus Transmitted/Founder Variants by RIG-I Is Dependent on U-Core Length. (nih.gov)
  • This exposure to multiple complex chemical structures that carry out the processes of life is probably a reason that most molecular biologists do not spend a lot of time puzzling over whether viruses are alive. (scientificamerican.com)
  • After displacing the virus, the antiviral agents will die out because of their inability to survive alone. (ibm.com)
  • Certain transcription factors present in the early promoter sequences of the JC virus can induce trophism and viral proliferation that leads to PML. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible to insert human DNA sequences into the viruses' genetic material, so that the human DNA will also be carried into the cell and "transcribed" into a substance called RNA. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Sequences of DNA often differ radically between groups of viruses, making it hard to sort out viral DNA from non-viral DNA. (energy.gov)
  • Even individual viruses in the same group can have DNA sequences so different from each other that it's difficult to compare them. (energy.gov)
  • Their analysis revealed that the new H7N9 viruses emerged through a two-step process involving the exchange of genetic material between distinct viruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the first step, which took place in wild birds, genetic material from H9N2 viruses and unspecified H7 and N9 viruses was mixed to create precursor H7N9 viruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The second step, which occurred in domestic birds in eastern China early last year, involved the exchange of genetic material between the precursor H7N9 viruses and other H9N2 viruses to create new, genetically diverse H7N9 viruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A virus is generally considered to be an infection that runs code on the host (e.g., a Trojan horse). (qnx.com)
  • heir environment is totally immune from any virus, worm, trojan, spyware, adware and similar beasts coming from the net. (osnews.com)
  • Atanasova NS, Roine E, Oren A, Bamford DH, Oksanen HM (2012) Global network of specific virus-host interactions in hypersaline environments. (springer.com)
  • There are several challenges in viral ecology right now, from the actual identification and classification of unknown viruses to their interactions with their host and environments," said David Paez-Espino, a researcher at JGI, a DOE Office of Science user facility. (energy.gov)
  • Enveloped viruses acquire lipid membranes as their outer coat through interactions with cellular membranes during morphogenesis within, and egress from, infected cells. (mdpi.com)