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  • gene
  • In hepatoma cell lines or HBV transgenic mice models, HBV mutant genomes with a defective X gene are replication competent after being transfected with HBx expression plasmid [ 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • protein
  • The role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) in the regulation of HBV replication remains controversial. (mdpi.com)
  • For the C-terminal two-thirds of the protein (amino acids [aa] 51 to 154) was required for this function of HBx, and the regions spanning aa 52 to 72 and 88 to 154 were found to be important for the stimulatory function of HBx on HBV replication. (mdpi.com)
  • activity
  • The distribution and quantitative expression of pre-S1 and pre-S2, however, were closely related to the status of hepatitis B virus replication, but not to the histological activity. (bmj.com)
  • role
  • In the present study, the role of HBx in regulating HBV replication was initially investigated in both HepG2 and Huh7 in vitro cell lines with a transient transfection system. (mdpi.com)
  • response
  • Seroconversion is a more desirable outcome, because antibody response to HBsAg can lead to virus clearance and a functional cure [ 6 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • genomes
  • Baltimore, D. (1971) Expression of animal virus genomes. (springer.com)
  • Seven basic replication strategies exist based on genome type (including DNA or RNA and single‐ or double‐stranded genomes) but these may vary widely within a specific type. (els.net)
  • Some viruses have genomes in multiple parts (segments) and must have ways to make sure that all of the necessary segments are packaged. (els.net)
  • Hepatitis B viruses synthesize their open circular DNA genomes by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. (sciencemag.org)
  • In some, simpler viruses, this pattern of expression is clearly defined, while in those with more complex genomes, such as the herpesviruses, these expression periods overlap. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phage with RNA genomes are relatively rare and poorly understood, with only one other recognized group - a family of double-stranded RNA viruses called the Cystoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • These studies will allow the team to identify the genes that enable the virus to cause disease, laying the groundwork for antiviral drug development. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in 2016 in South America with specific pathogenic outcomes highlighted the need for new antiviral substances with broad-spectrum activities to react quickly to unexpected outbreaks of emerging viral pathogens. (mdpi.com)
  • Very recently, the natural compound silvestrol isolated from the plant Aglaia foveolata was found to have very potent antiviral effects against the (−)-strand RNA-virus Ebola virus as well as against Corona- and Picornaviruses with a (+)-strand RNA-genome. (mdpi.com)
  • Of all these genes implicated on the virus vital cycle, 168 might be targets for developing antiviral drugs for the treatment of H1N1 infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • Examples are given for viruses with a single‐stranded DNA genome, either (a) linear ( Parvoviridae , genus Dependovirus ) or (b) circular ( Geminiviridae , genus Mastrevirus ), and with a double‐stranded DNA genome, either (c) linear ( Adenoviridae , genus Mastadenovirus ) or (d) circular ( Papovaviridae , genus Polyomavirus ). (els.net)
  • The Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus of the genus Flavivirus within the Flaviviridae family. (mdpi.com)
  • Allolevivirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Leviviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Leviviridae Genus: Allolevivirus Enterobacteria phage FI Enterobacteria phage Qbeta Viruses in Allolevivirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Spherical geometries, and T=3 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mosavirus is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Picornaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Mosavirus A. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Mosavirus Mosavirus A Viruses in Mosavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral, spherical, and round geometries, and T=pseudo3 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhabdovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases associated with viruses of this genus include: breathing and swimming problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferlavirus is a genus of viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is currently only one species in this genus (Reptilian ferlavirus) to accommodate a single virus, Fer-de-Lance virus (FDLV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Nodaviridae Genus: Alphanodavirus Black beetle virus Boolarra virus Flock House virus Nodamura virus Pariacoto virus Genus: Betanodavirus Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus Striped jack nervous necrosis virus Tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus While NoV remains the type species for this group, Flock house virus (FHV) is the best studied of the Nodaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Closterovirus, also known as beet yellows viral group, is a genus of viruses, in the family Closteroviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • This genus has a probably worldwide distribution and includes among other viral species the Beet yellows virus (the type species) and Citrus tristeza virus, rather economically important plant diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Teschovirus Teschovirus A Viruses in Teschovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral, spherical, and round geometries, and T=pseudo3 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogens
  • Hepatitis B virus is one of the most important human pathogens," says Ou. (asm.org)
  • Add to this the clinical significance of these human pathogens- 99% of the population of the world is infected with at least one of the viruses discussed in this volume (hepatitis B virus, EptsteinBarr virus or herpes simplex virus) - and it is difficult to overstate the importance of this group. (indigo.ca)
  • membrane
  • Once bound to the host cell, viruses enter by a range of mechanisms, often involving uptake into vacuoles, although other routes such as fusion with the cell membrane may be used. (els.net)
  • Viruses that require a lipid envelope (enveloped viruses) can acquire this from a range of cellular sources, including the plasma membrane or internal membranes. (els.net)
  • Acquisition of lipid at the plasma membrane allows the virus to exit from the cell by budding. (els.net)
  • Desiree Benefield, a postdoctoral researcher in the Ahlquist Lab at the Morgridge Institute, says all positive strand RNA viruses rely on host membrane rearrangement and the formation of replication compartments in order to copy their genome. (eurekalert.org)
  • genes
  • Different viral genes are expressed at different stages of replication. (els.net)
  • The genome of a positive-sense ssRNA virus usually contains relatively few genes, usually between three and ten, including an RdRP. (wikipedia.org)
  • That allowed identifying 295 host-cell genes needed for the virus to complete its lytic cycle, 23 of which are used during the entry steps, and the 219 remaining for the post-entry steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • In a third set of experiments, the researchers removed the androgen receptor by genetic knockout, once again abolishing the androgen's effect on hepatitis B replication. (asm.org)
  • Then they drilled down still further, discovering elements within the HBV genome which are recognized by the host's activated androgen receptor, which then boosts viral gene expression and replication. (asm.org)
  • Enhancement of hepatitis B virus replication by androgen and its receptor in mice. (asm.org)
  • The glycoproteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer to form the viral spikes in the mature virion that are crucial for receptor recognition and virus entry while the SSP is responsible for modulating the response of GPC to acidic pH [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Transcription
  • Covey, S. N. and Hull, R. (1981) Transcription of cauliflower mosaic virus DNA. (springer.com)
  • They frequently subvert cellular pathways involved in transcription, translation, DNA replication and cellular defence. (els.net)
  • Early/late gene expression (transcription) and the DNA replication stages can occur either in the cytoplasm (poxviruses) or in the nucleus of the infected cell. (els.net)
  • Moss B (1990) Regulation of vaccinia virus transcription. (els.net)
  • The RNPs are responsible for viral transcription and replication as well as assembly of the genome segments into progeny virions ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • It is now possible to propose a detailed strategy for reverse transcription by hepatitis B viruses that can be instructively compared with that used by retroviruses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1971
  • Bancroft, J. B., McLean, G. D., Rees, M. W. and Short, M. N. (1971) The effect of an arginyl to a cysteinyl replacement in the uncoating behaviour of a spherical plant virus. (springer.com)
  • Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus Double-stranded RNA virus Baltimore classification Sense (molecular biology) Baltimore, D (1971). (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Their study is providing key information for designing strategies of virus control and, at the same time, DNA viruses are extremely useful molecular tools to delineate the mechanisms behind basic cellular processes. (els.net)
  • In addition to the standard scanning process to start translation, two other mechanisms (ribosome shunting and leaky scanning) are used by different DNA viruses to control translation of various viral ORFs. (els.net)
  • The details of this process have been examined with the use of mammalian hepatitis B viruses to map the sites for initiation and termination of DNA synthesis and to explore the consequences of mutations introduced at short, separated direct repeats (DR1 and DR2) implicated in the mechanisms of initiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • intracellular
  • In Sindbis virus, tobacco mosaic virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and several bacterial infections, autophagy may have a protective function by restricting intracellular pathogen replication or by ensuring the survival of infected and/or uninfected cells ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • interactions
  • Gaard, G. and DeZoeten, G. A. (1979) Plant virus uncoating as a result of virus cell wall interactions. (springer.com)
  • DNA viruses have evolved very different replication strategies as well as a rich variety of molecular interactions with their host cells. (els.net)
  • The complex series of interactions during virus entry is a rapidly emerging and promising target for inhibitors of HIV and many other viruses. (springer.com)
  • bacteria
  • In this regard, autophagy serves as an innate host defense mechanism, and some viruses and bacteria produce virulence factors that counteract these antimicrobial processes ( 4 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Among known (+)ssRNA viruses, only the Leviviridae are bacteriophages (that is, viruses that infect bacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus exits the host cell by bacteria lysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • ssRNA
  • Positive-sense ssRNA viruses belong to Group IV in the Baltimore classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The (+)ssRNA viruses are classified into 3 orders - the Nidovirales, Picornavirales, and Tymovirales - and 33 families, of which 20 are not assigned to an order. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive-sense ssRNA viruses are the most common type of plant virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the (+)ssRNA picornavirus group are also extremely abundant - to the point of "unexpected dominance" - in marine viruses characterized by metagenomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many pathogenic (+)ssRNA viruses are arthropod-borne viruses (also called arboviruses) - that is, transmitted by and capable of replicating in biting insects which then transfer the pathogen to animal hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • stages
  • The main stages constituting the replicative cycle of a DNA virus are depicted. (els.net)
  • 1998
  • Greber UF (1998) Virus assembly and disassembly: the adenovirus cysteine protease as a trigger factor. (els.net)
  • Kasamatsu H and Nakanishi A (1998) How do animal DNA viruses get to the nucleus? (els.net)
  • molecular biology
  • We will highlight current research regarding the role of molecular biology of Junín virus in elucidating virus attenuation. (mdpi.com)
  • US - Researchers from the University of Georgia have used molecular biology to devise a way to stop viruses such as Newcastle disease replicating in poultry. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • siRNA
  • Inhibitions of PKC by a PKC-specific chemical inhibitor or siRNA suppressed NS5 phosphorylation in vivo, increased viral replication and reduced viability of the DENV-infected cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • membranes
  • In a mitochondrion infected with the virus, the space between those membranes is expanded and filled up with spherules, round vesicles about 50 nanometers in size. (eurekalert.org)
  • enhances
  • Interestingly, overexpression of poIRF1 enhances dsRNA-induced IFN-β and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activation, whereas knockdown of poIRF1 cannot significantly affect the activation of IFN-β promoter induced by RNA viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • vitro
  • We have previously shown that the N-7 substituted acyclic nucleoside analog 2-amino-7-[1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]purine (compound S2242) is, both in vitro and in animal models, a potent inhibitor of the replication of several herpesviruses (Neyts et al. (kuleuven.be)
  • Mice
  • Following treatment with H961 at 100 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days (either via oral gavage or s.c. injection) VV-inoculated SCID mice were completely protected, for at least 3 months, against virus-induced morbidity and mortality. (kuleuven.be)
  • At that time, no virus could be recovered from the organs of these mice (as assessed by titration for infectious virus, a DNA hybridization assay, and a PCR for VV-specific sequences). (kuleuven.be)
  • induce
  • Viroporins expressed transgenically, in the absence of their virus of origin, induce the same effect, a feature that has facilitated viroporin discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • origin
  • The Ti plasmid contains regions for origin of replication, the new DNA (with T-DNA transfer functions), T-DNA that encodes for tumor growth, and nopaline utilization. (macalester.edu)
  • This was the first time that more than a single origin of DNA replication had been shown to be used in a prokaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) after a long latent period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In general, type I interferons are produced when the body recognizes a virus has invaded it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once released, type I interferons will activate molecules which prevent the virus from producing and replicating its RNA and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • Picovirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Caudovirales, in the family Podoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noroviruses (NoV) are a genetically diverse group of single-stranded positive-sense RNA, non-enveloped viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae family. (wikipedia.org)