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  • plasma membrane
  • Here, we use voltage-clamp measurement of ionic currents and an antibody against sodium channels to show that loss of excitability results from the selective, precipitous, and complete internalization of voltage-activated sodium channel proteins from the plasma membrane of neurons dissociated from rat dorsal root ganglion. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we examined the role of membrane internalization in the process of sodium channel removal from the plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • In order to deliver their genomes into the host cells for their own purposes, viruses have to overcome the barrier of the cell, the plasma membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • Dynamin has been suggested to act both as a regulatory GTPase by controlling the early stages of CME, which is an important endocytic pathway used by many viruses, and as a chemical enzyme that induces membrane fission and pinches endocytic vesicles off from the cellular plasma membrane in later stages in several endocytic pathways, including CME. (hindawi.com)
  • cytosol
  • In the presence of MG132, the entering viruses accumulated in both the endosome and denser lysosome, suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in the release of virus from the endosome to the cytosol during the virus entry step. (asm.org)
  • Cell
  • The molecular bases of DENV-host cell interactions during virus entry are poorly understood, hampering the discovery of new targets for antiviral intervention. (asm.org)
  • A recent paper in Cell describes a new trick that the virus uses to infect resting T cells. (nih.gov)
  • The cell signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular processes and is often manipulated by viruses as they rely on the functions offered by cells for their propagation. (hindawi.com)
  • replicates
  • Supplementary Fig. S1 showed error bars of virus load in each strain at each day, with mean values and standard deviations calculated from the virus load of all biological replicates at the same day. (springer.com)
  • cellular
  • The ability to dissect these two tightly connected cellular processes would allow better understanding and provide insight on virus entry and trafficking. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Assessment of AAV binding and internalization are important first steps in determining the cause of transduction differences observed upon cellular modification by small molecules, CRISPR-based gene knockout, siRNA-based gene knockdown, or other experimental procedures. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus-type 2 (HIV-2) encodes Vpx that degrades SAMHD1, a cellular restriction factor active in non-dividing cells. (nih.gov)
  • In this paper, we discuss some recent advances in our understanding of cellular pathways for virus entry, molecular signaling during virus entry, formation of endocytic vesicles, and the traffic. (hindawi.com)
  • inhibitors
  • in contrast, in the presence of the proteasome inhibitors, either lactacystin or MG132, the virus production began approximately 8 h later than for the untreated cells, and the final virus titer at 24 h postinfection (p.i.) was 3 log units lower (Fig. 1B ). (asm.org)
  • Family
  • Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) belongs to the genus Megalocytivirus from the family Iridoviridae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MHV belongs to the Coronaviridae family, which includes the recently emerged virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Picornaviridae is a large family of vertebrate viruses that produce both clinically asymptomatic infections but often mild and fatal disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • dynamics
  • Since the preservation of the capsid function is deeply rooted in the virus evolutionary dynamics, here we review the current structural evidence focused on capsid antibody evasion mechanisms from that perspective. (frontiersin.org)
  • human
  • Dengue virus (DENV) is the etiological agent of the major human arboviral disease. (asm.org)
  • found
  • By 1972, the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis, was found to be the main reservoir of the virus in West Africa, able to shed virus in its urine and feces without exhibiting visible symptoms. (wikipedia.org)