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  • viral
  • Viral protein involved in the activation of host autophagy. (uniprot.org)
  • Some viruses such as poliovirus, use the autophagic pathway as a nonlytic mechanism for viral release. (uniprot.org)
  • Applying plasmid-based reverse genetics to analyze the role of PB1 protein in activating HA-induced MAPK cascade showed that recombinant H1N1 virus possessing the H3N2-PB1 (rgH1N1/H3N2-PB1) induced greater ERK activation, resulting in increased nuclear export of the viral genome and higr virus titers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 7 Thus, understanding the mechanisms of chemokine and cytokine responses to influenza virus is of high priority, as excessive cytokine production may contribute to viral pathogenesis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the innate immune recognition of many viral pathogens, including influenza virus. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 8 The potential contribution of TLR7 and TLR8 to inflammatory cytokine production by neutrophils in response to viral pathogens such as influenza virus has not been explored. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 15 In addition, we showed that influenza A virus (H3N2) can induce cytokines in a manner dependent on TLR7 and that influenza viral RNA is a potent inducer of TLR7 in several cell systems. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) structural proteins requires the presence of the viral trans-activator protein Rev. Rev is localized in the nucleus and binds specifically to the Rev response element (RRE) sequence in viral RNA. (rupress.org)
  • High-resolution structures are available for the HA precursor (HA0), the cleaved neutral pH conformation of HA, and the low pH conformation that the HA assumes when triggered by acidification of endosomes to mediate fusion of viral and cellular membrane during virus entry. (springer.com)
  • Interferon Regula
  • IRF5 is a member of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family, a group of transcription factors with diverse roles, including virus-mediated activation of interferon, and modulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune system activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Although little information as to what signal transduction pathways mediate NF-kappa B activation in monocytes-macrophages is available, our previous work indicated that classical protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes were not involved in the HIV-mediated NF-kappa B activation. (asm.org)
  • induces
  • The activation of certain Toll-like receptors (TLRs), particularly TLR7 and TLR9, induces the production of type I IFNs, and thus primes the host for a Th1 adaptive immune response. (pnas.org)
  • LMP1 has a molecular weight of approximately 63 kDa, and its expression induces many of the changes associated with EBV infections and activation of primary B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • Human hepatocyte line Huh-7 carrying an HCV replicon expressed TLR7, and activation of the receptor induced several antiviral genes including IFN regulatory factor-7. (pnas.org)
  • It can also interact with TRIF and TRAF6, and plays an essential role in virus-triggered TLR3-independent and TLR3-mediated antiviral IFN signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • PURPOSE The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) invites research grant applications for support of research on the regulation of activation of HIV in the lung and mechanisms by which co-factors may lead to increased HIV-associated pulmonary disease. (nih.gov)
  • The primary objectives of this special grant program are to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in activation of HIV in lung cells and the subsequent effects this has on the course of HIV disease, especially in the lung. (nih.gov)
  • The molecular mechanisms regulating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence in a major cell reservoir such as the macrophage remain unknown. (asm.org)
  • proteins
  • Mutant viruses that do not encode these proteins are highly attenuated in vivo. (asm.org)
  • Virus-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-and in target tissues was purchased from Invitrogen and was utilized at a concentration of 100 ng/ml. had been assayed for NF-(Santa Cruz # 203) and cFLIP (GeneTex # GTX26144) which recognizes the 55kD cFLIPL (Turn alpha) proteins. (sunolmolecular.com)
  • The remaining eight ORFs create the six main structural proteins for the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • titers
  • Blockade of this pathway retards RNP export and reduces virus titers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PKR inhibitor pre-treatment resulted in decreased virus titers, extra- and intracellularly, concomitant with reduction of cells with compromised membranes in IPNV-permissive cell lines. (mdpi.com)
  • subtypes
  • It has been known for decades that influenza strains and subtypes can vary with regard to HA cleavage properties and that cleavage site sequences and the proteases that recognize them can represent a major determinant for virus pathogenicity. (springer.com)
  • vivo
  • Dengue virus activates membrane TRAIL relocalization and IFN-alpha production by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo," PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases , vol. 7, no. 6, article e2257, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, the interaction of the Rev activation domain with a cellular cofactor is essential for Rev function in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • demonstrate
  • These results demonstrate a role for NOD2-RIPK2 signaling in protection against virally triggered immunopathology by negatively regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-18 production via ULK1-dependent mitophagy. (harvard.edu)
  • These studies demonstrate neutrophil activation by influenza virus and highlight the importance of TLR7 and TLR8 in that response. (bloodjournal.org)
  • caspase
  • Accordingly, Ulk1−/− cells displayed enhanced mitochondrial superoxide production and caspase-1 activation. (harvard.edu)
  • Cells had been incubated over night at 4C with antibodies aimed against NF- 0.001 at 48 h) and caspase 3 activation assays ( 0.001) (Shape 1). (sunolmolecular.com)
  • Expression
  • These can then be identified by the expression of sialoadhesin Since the 1987 classification of type 2 (North American-like) PRRSV, the virus has greatly diversified. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • 4 , 5 However, it was unclear from these studies whether neutrophils were among the virus-responsive instigators or only the final effectors of the immune response and tissue pathology. (bloodjournal.org)
  • cell
  • Both of these events were temporally associated with the rapid disappearance of NKT cells from the liver, presumably reflecting activation-induced cell death, and by the recruitment of activated NK cells into the organ. (rupress.org)
  • An important choice made at this level is whether the infected cell produces progeny viruses, dying in the process, or lives. (asm.org)
  • PKC-zeta belongs to this family and is known to be an important step in NF-kappa B activation in other cell systems. (asm.org)
  • production
  • Ripk2−/− cells displayed defective mitophagy leading to enhanced mitochondrial superoxide production and accumulation of damaged mitochondria resulting in increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-18 production. (harvard.edu)
  • Of the top ten swine production states in the United States as of 2010, viruses in 3 of the 9 major lineages were present. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • These IRF molecules are phosphorylated in the cytosol and are translocated to the nucleus upon activation ( 13 ). (pnas.org)