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  • symptoms
  • While 80% of West Nile virus infections produce no symptoms in people, or symptoms which are mild or moderate, about 20% of cases produce mild symptoms including fever, headache, and body aches, often with skin rash on the chest, stomach and back, vomiting, and sometimes and swollen lymph glands - these symptoms generally last a few days, although some healthy people have reported having the illness for several weeks. (news-medical.net)
  • There is no specific treatment for West Nile virus infection and in most people with milder symptoms such as fever and aches, these will pass on their own without medical attention. (news-medical.net)
  • West Nile
  • Risk through medical procedures is very low as all donated blood is checked for West Nile virus before being used and the risk of getting West Nile virus through blood transfusions and organ transplants is very small, and should not prevent people who need surgery from having it. (news-medical.net)
  • infection
  • Further research by Stanley and others established that a virus consists of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat that may also shelter viral proteins involved in infection. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But when a virus enters a cell (called a host after infection), it is far from inactive. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Glandular fever is an infection caused by the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). (sa.gov.au)
  • Although JC virus infection is classically associated with white matter demyelination and PML pathogenesis, recent literature has identified viral variants as etiological agents of other novel syndromes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actual treatment of the virus after infection is not possible but early, professional treatment of symptoms like dehydration considerably increases survival chances. (wikipedia.org)
  • EVD due to SUDV infection cannot be differentiated from EVD caused by other ebolaviruses by clinical observation alone, which is why the clinical presentation and pathology of infections by all ebolaviruses is presented together on a separate page (see Ebola virus disease ). (wikipedia.org)
  • These virion replication factories are themselves subject to infection by the virophage satellite viruses, which inhibit or impair the reproductive capabilities of the complementary virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steve, viral dose plays a role in whether or not HIV exposure results in infection, as well as the host immune system and various mutations which impact binding of the virus to cell surfaces. (scienceblogs.com)
  • genome
  • A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes (green and blue), the agnogene (yellow), and the non-coding control region (NCCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of a virus is given by its coat of proteins, which surround the viral genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike cells, which contain all the structures needed for growth and reproduction, viruses are composed of only an outer coat (capsid), the genome, and, in some cases, a few enzymes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The length of helical viruses can depend on the length of the genome, the DNA or RNA within, since there are often regular structural interactions between the nucleic acids of the genome and the proteins that cover it. (encyclopedia.com)
  • replicate
  • First seen as poisons, then as life-forms, then biological chemicals, viruses today are thought of as being in a gray area between living and nonliving: they cannot replicate on their own but can do so in truly living cells and can also affect the behavior of their hosts profoundly. (scientificamerican.com)
  • 7. As a general rule all DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus, except the Pox viruses which replicate in the cytoplasm We will use Adenoviruses as a model system for understanding replication of DNA viruses in general Most DNA viruses are naked (see model of soccer ball), with 12 blue penton bases on the vertices and 20 yellow hexons on the rest of the face. (slideshare.net)
  • This sets up the general replication scheme: first of enzymes to help the virus replicate (early stage), then double-stranded DNA replication (semi-conservative mode) begins (late stage), followed by translation of structural proteins, such as the penton and hexon precursors. (slideshare.net)
  • Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • The article, 'Why virus taxonomy is important' , published in Microbiology Today by Stuart Siddell, ICTV Vice President, discusses the importance of virus taxonomy and its role in helping to define the evolutionary relationships between viruses and understand the consequences of virus diversity. (ictvonline.org)
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids -pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery and subsequent characterization of these giant viruses has triggered some debate concerning the evolutionary origins of the giruses, going so far as to suggest that the giruses provide evidence of a fourth domain of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • capsid
  • The protein encoded by these early sequences, T-antigen, also plays a key role in viral proliferation, directing the initiation of DNA replication for the virus as well as performing a transcriptional switch to allow for the formation of the various capsid and regulatory proteins needed for viral fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • While few have been characterized in detail, the most notable examples of giant viruses are the phylogenetically related megavirus and mimivirus, belonging to the Megaviridae and Mimiviridae families, respectively, having the largest capsid diameters of all known viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these viruses, cell-surface interactions are mediated by the capsid proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Subcommittee
  • We are sad to report the passing of Dr. Said A. Ghabrial , Professor Emeritus in the Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, and Chair of the ICTV Subcommittee on Fungal Viruses from 1987-1993 and 2011-2014. (ictvonline.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • Viral replication in giant viruses occurs within large circular virus factories located within the cytoplasm of the infected host cell, similar to the replication mechanism used by Poxviridae, though whether this mechanism is employed by all giant viruses or only mimivirus and the related mamavirus has yet to be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • malware
  • Most people have a pretty good idea of what computer malware and viruses look like in the current era: pop-up windows, spam sites set as the homepage, and bogus apps installed if they're lucky, with spyware and software that allows remote hacking being some of the worst. (slashgear.com)
  • Two former employees, who of course desires to remain anonymous, reveals that Kaspersky has been covertly working to undermine rival anti-virus software by flagging innocent and important system files as malware, causing these other AV programs to delete those files, turning unsuspecting users into collateral damage in their wake. (slashgear.com)
  • Molecular
  • Interestingly, even though biologists long favored the view that viruses were mere boxes of chemicals, they took advantage of viral activity in host cells to determine how nucleic acids code for proteins: indeed, modern molecular biology rests on a foundation of information gained through viruses. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This exposure to multiple complex chemical structures that carry out the processes of life is probably a reason that most molecular biologists do not spend a lot of time puzzling over whether viruses are alive. (scientificamerican.com)
  • encode
  • The genomes of giant viruses are the largest known for viruses, and contain genes that encode for important elements of translation machinery, a characteristic that had previously been believed to be indicative of cellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • They are giant nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) that have extremely large genomes compared to other viruses and contain many unique genes not found in other life forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the exact criteria as defined in the scientific literature vary, giant viruses are generally described as viruses having large pseudo-icosahedral capsids (200 to 400 nanometers) which can be surrounded by a thick (approximately 100 nm) layer of filamentous protein fibers with large double-stranded DNA genomes (300 to 1000 kilobase pairs or larger) encoding a large contingent of genes (of the order of 1000 genes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Table 1 : Largest giant viruses with complete sequenced genomes The whole list is in the Giant Virus Toplist created by the Giant Virus Finder software. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactivation
  • Rather than simply rendering the virus inactive, some viral inactivation processes actually denature the virus completely. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to achieve inactivation of the viruses in the sample, it is necessary to perform "special" purification processes that will chemically alter the virus in some way. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus usually reaches his inactivation temperature at 60-65 °C. Dark conditions slow down the virus multiplication, while light speeds it up. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Chromatographic methods of removing viruses are great for purifying the protein and are also effective against all types of viruses, but the level of virus removal is dependent on the column composition and the reagents that are used in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many viruses contain lipid or protein coats that can be inactivated by chemical alteration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding the virus genetics and protein functions has been used to explore the potential for commercial use by biotechnology companies. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The categorization of viruses as nonliving during much of the modern era of biological science has had an unintended consequence: it has led most researchers to ignore viruses in the study of evolution. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Because they were clearly biological themselves and could be spread from one victim to another with obvious biological effects, viruses were then thought to be the simplest of all living, gene-bearing life-forms. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most abundant type of biological entity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term computer virus is often used instead of just virus to specify that a virus in the computing sense, rather than the biological sense, is being referred to. (wiktionary.org)
  • It's 2017 and we are still under constant threat from viruses, even biological ones. (slashgear.com)
  • microcephaly
  • A new report from the CDC suggests the mosquito-borne virus has spiked the risk of births with microcephaly and related defects. (newsweek.com)
  • MARV
  • Two different marburgviruses, MARV and Ravn virus (RAVV), cocirculated and caused disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • tobacco
  • Their demotion to inert chemicals came after 1935, when Wendell M. Stanley and his colleagues, at what is now the Rockefeller University in New York City, crystallized a virus- tobacco mosaic virus-for the fi rst time. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The first virus to be discovered (see below) was Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lassa
  • Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent , requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lassa viruses are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Lassa virus gains entry into the host cell by means of the cell-surface receptor the alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG), a versatile receptor for proteins of the extracellular matrix . (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunodeficiency
  • HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). (nih.gov)
  • The virus causes PML and other diseases only in cases of immunodeficiency , as in AIDS or during treatment with drugs intended to induce a state of immunosuppression (e.g. organ transplant patients). (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Half a century ago even regular folks like the Kramdens had some knowledge of viruses-as microscopic bringers of disease. (scientificamerican.com)
  • More poetically, virologists Marc H. V. van Regenmortel of the University of Strasbourg in France and Brian W. J. Mahy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recently said that with their dependence on host cells, viruses lead "a kind of borrowed life. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This myopic view allows them to see only how viruses co-opt cells or cause disease. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The virus would cause Oropouche fever, an urban arboviral disease that has since resulted in >30 epidemics during 1960-2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses in wild plants have been poorly studied, but those studies that exist almost overwhelmingly show that such interactions between wild plants and their viruses do not appear to cause disease in the host plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1898, Martinus Beijerinck, who was a Professor of Microbiology at the Technical University the Netherlands, put forth his concepts that viruses were small and determined that the "mosaic disease" remained infectious when passed through a Chamberland filter-candle. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2018
  • An article appearing in the Nucleic Acids Research 2018 Database issue, ' Virus taxonomy: the database of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ' describes the ICTV database and the web-based tools available to query that database: Lefkowitz EJ, Dempsey DM, Hendrickson RC, Orton RJ, Siddell SG, Smith DB. (ictvonline.org)
  • malicious
  • Today we're taking a peek at the so-called Android virus, and how one might destroy said malicious entity. (slashgear.com)
  • Google's got a fairly good handle on the "virus" game at this point, and any app you've installed from Google Play is going to be remotely removed if it's found to be malicious. (slashgear.com)