• All of these offer ultimate explanations for virulence in pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • At one time, some biologists argued that pathogens would tend to evolve toward ever decreasing virulence because the death of the host (or even serious disability) is ultimately harmful to the pathogen living inside. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolution of virulence in pathogens is a balance between the costs and benefits of virulence to the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virulence factors are factors that allow pathogens to avoid host defense mechanisms and adversely affect the host. (answers.com)
  • In this book, the authors present current research in the study of the virulence mechnisms, diagnosis and management of bacterial pathogens. (novapublishers.com)
  • But while immune suppression in diabetic infections has been well reported, the investigators noted, " … to our knowledge, there have been few studies that address how hyperglycemia in diabetic infections influences the virulence potential of bacterial pathogens. (genengnews.com)
  • Significance: By attenuating the virulence of pathogens rather than eradicating them, mucin glycans are attractive candidates for novel therapeutics. (mrsec.org)
  • Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • might lead to the discovery of completely novel antibiotic scaffolds" and suggest that "considering YbeY's high level of conservation, its essential nature in many pathogens, and its ability to sensitize pathogens by disrupting stress tolerance and virulence, a YbeY-specific antibiotic could have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. (redorbit.com)
  • Links between environmental stress responses and virulence in these bacteria suggest a central role for σ B in contributing to the ability of bacterial pathogens to survive environmental stress conditions, to direct expression of virulence genes, and to cause disease. (asm.org)
  • Serum C-reactive protein relationship in high- versus low-virulence pathogens in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Little is known about the relationship between the virulence of pathogens in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The initial impetus for testing these virulence factors was analogy to other pathogens and/or identification of mutant strains with an obvious phenotype. (genetics.org)
  • The study of fungal regulatory networks is essential to the understanding of how these pathogens respond to host environmental signals with effective virulence-associated traits. (jci.org)
  • These data show that fungal virulence-associated genes are coordinately regulated and that an analysis of such transcriptomes allows for the identification of important new genes involved in the normal growth and virulence of fungal pathogens. (jci.org)
  • produce a variety of so-called virulence factors that permit them to evade the defense mechanisms of the host and thus cause disease. (britannica.com)
  • Virulence factors of Francisella tularensis. (nih.gov)
  • INRS professor Albert Descoteaux and his team, in collaboration with researchers from McGill University, Université de Montréal, and Tohoku University, have discovered that Leishmania exploits an intracellular transport mechanism already present in macrophages to spread its virulence factors. (eurekalert.org)
  • It's like there's a train travelling among the different intracellular compartments that the parasite boards to deliver its virulence factors inside the infected cell," says Professor Descoteaux, the study's lead author. (eurekalert.org)
  • These are known as virulence factors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Upon infecting the macrophage, Leishmania enters a parasitophorous vacuole that it hijacks with the help of virulence factors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Most research teams study the impacts of virulence factors, but until now no one understood how Leishmania was able transfer virulence factors from the vacuole to the cytoplasm of the infected cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • We discovered that Leishmania co-opts the macrophage's membrane fusion machinery to export virulence factors out of the vacuole," he adds. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since the parasite successfully transfers its virulence factors (GP63 and LPG molecules) to the other side of the vacuole's membrane, it was necessary to determine what other compartment of the infected host cell contained these factors. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers observed that most of the virulence factors were found in a compartment called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (eurekalert.org)
  • They concluded that this facilitated the spread of virulence factors within the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • They then used the latest genetic technology to identify the molecules involved in intracellular trafficking that are needed to spread Leishmania virulence factors in the infected host cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team found that by decreasing the expression of two host cell molecules, sec22b and syntaxin-5, that are responsible for regulating intracellular traffic in the ER, they could block the spread of virulence factors in the infected cell and interfere with their actions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Virulence factors of Candida species. (nih.gov)
  • This review will focus on the molecular dissection of virulence factors of C. albicans, including adhesion, proteinases secretion, hyphal formation, and phenotypic switching. (nih.gov)
  • This review will also describe briefly the virulence factors in non-albicans Candida spp. (nih.gov)
  • Is the Subject Area "Virulence factors" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • V ibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the epidemic disease cholera, requires the coordinated expression of multiple virulence factors. (pnas.org)
  • Regulation of these factors involves the concerted actions of three proteins, ToxR, TcpP, and ToxT, which together form the V. cholerae virulence gene regulatory cascade ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • ToxT is a cytoplasmic transcriptional activator responsible for directly activating the transcription of the structural genes for CT, TCP, and other virulence factors ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, the true nature of the in vivo regulation of these virulence factors within a host remains unclear. (pnas.org)
  • The factors of virulence are the colonization of a niche in the host, immunoevasion, immunosuppression, entry and exit of cells and obtaining nutrition from the host. (answers.com)
  • How does the rocky mountain spotted fever organism result in disease & what are the virulence factors? (answers.com)
  • A virulence marker is a diagnostic tool in detecting viral factors. (answers.com)
  • Osmotic stress also contributes to the regulation of virulence factors, contributing to the detection of a new host, and L-proline enhanced the bacterial response to high osmotic medium. (sciencemag.org)
  • Deletion of the candidate proline transporters from P. luminescens abolished the induction of some small molecules and increased the abundance of others, suggesting that L-proline or its metabolites differentially regulate the production of virulence factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, these bacteria appear to know they are in an insect by sensing proline, which then regulates metabolic pathways involved in producing antibiotic and virulence factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using techniques of cellular and molecular biology, and of biochemistry, they sought to identify the nature and function of T. cruzi genes which code for the factors responsible for the virulence, in particular a protein called Tc52. (innovations-report.com)
  • Virulent strains of bacteria are ones that produce "virulence factors," small molecules and proteins that convert a benign bacterium into a pathogen. (eurekalert.org)
  • Virulence factors allow bacteria to evade the human immune system, to infect tissues and cells and to establish a foothold within the body. (eurekalert.org)
  • Tim Wencewicz, PhD, assistant professor of chemistry in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis, thinks we should be looking for agents that block virulence factors rather than continuing to search for ones to kill bacteria outright. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rather than focusing on therapeutics that target in vitro viability, much like conventional antibiotics, an alternative approach is to target functions essential for infection, such as virulence factors required to cause host damage and disease. (nih.gov)
  • the most repressed genes encode the mexGHI-opmD multidrug efflux pump and genes involved in the synthesis of QS-regulated virulence factors including pyocyanin (phz operon), 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS) signal (pqs operon), pyochelin (pch operon) and pyoverdine (pvd operon). (nih.gov)
  • Genes expressed in the Bvg+ phase encode known virulence factors, including adhesins such as filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and fimbriae, as well as toxins such as the bifunctional adenylate cyclase/hemolysin (ACY). (mendeley.com)
  • Recent advancements in the field have identified new functions of encoded transcription factors and greatly expanded our understanding of virulence gene regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecules known as virulence factors are produced by bacteria, viruses, and fungi to help them to infect host cells. (prnewswire.com)
  • One of virulence factors found in the influenza A viruses is hemagglutinin (HA). (prnewswire.com)
  • To successfully establish an infection, E. amylovora uses a complex regulatory network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors involving two component signal transduction systems, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and quorum sensing. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present review, we present the recent findings on virulence factors research, focusing on their role in bacterial pathogenesis and indicating other virulence factors that deserve future research to characterize them. (mdpi.com)
  • We think control of biofilm formation [and of numerous other virulence factors in S. aureus ] proceeds via agr. (asm.org)
  • Little is known about the prevalence of different virulence factors and the ability to produce toxin among Campylobacter isolates obtained from different sources. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Mycobacterial Infections, Virulence Factors and Therapy Conference aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Mycobacterial Infections, Virulence Factors and Therapy Conference. (waset.org)
  • It also provides a premier interdisciplinary platform for researchers, practitioners, and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Mycobacterial Infections, Virulence Factors and Therapy Conference. (waset.org)
  • Transition from the yeast form to the hyphal form is one of the key virulence factors in C. albicans contributing to macrophage evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Tat pathway uniquely exports folded proteins including virulence factors across the cytoplasmic membranes of bacteria. (diva-portal.org)
  • Taken together, our results showed that these factors were important features for fungal virulence in humans and suggested that thermolabile components in the blood serum may induce M. circinelloides virulence. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Our objective here is to characterize the viral evolution and viral factors determining HIV virulence, the evolution of the HIV reservoir in PBMC and the co-evolution of anti-HIV CD8 T cel. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Thus, ec240 dysregulated several uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) virulence factors through different mechanisms and independent of its effects on type 1 pilus biogenesis and may have potential as an antivirulence compound. (asm.org)
  • Preventing piliation and motility through altered regulation and assembly of these important virulence factors could aid in the development of novel therapeutics. (asm.org)
  • This study increases our understanding of the regulation of these virulence factors, providing new avenues by which to target their expression. (asm.org)
  • On the basis of prior knowledge of virulence factors in C. neoformans , a number of genes have been mutated and their contribution to virulence analyzed using these model systems. (genetics.org)
  • Many factors required for F. tularensis virulence have been identified, yet we know relatively little regarding how these factors are regulated at the level of transcription. (harvard.edu)
  • In order to further understand the regulation of virulence factors in F. tularensis, we have systematically determined the genomic regions associated with all of the transcription factors implicated in virulence using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq). (harvard.edu)
  • A genome-wide association study across all VNB isolates revealed sequence differences between clinical and environmental isolates in virulence factors and stress response genes. (broadinstitute.org)
  • It is therefore possible that other factors than virulence factors are of importance for the ability of PNSP strains to expand. (diva-portal.org)
  • Topics covered include: host cell recognition and binding, pathogen ingression and invasive mechanism, enzymes, toxins and other pathogenic factors, regulation of virulence genes and signal transduction, and pathogen of host-defence mechanisms. (foyles.co.uk)
  • A well established statistical tool known as multivariate linear regression may offer a new approach in determining contributions of multiple virulence factors to the overall virulence of pathogenic microbes say researchers from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York and Westminster College, Salt Lake City, Utah. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Although there is much literature discussing the contribution of virulence factors to microbial virulence, there is no designated methodology for determining the impact of individual virulence factors on overall microbial virulence. (rxpgnews.com)
  • This approach was applied to Cryptococcus neoformans and Bacillus anthracis and results showed the method to be useful in determining the relative contributions of virulence factors in pathogenesis. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Multivariate linear regression can be used to identify the relative levels of importance of virulence factors in virulence studies, and this information can be used to prioritize antigen identification for vaccine development and the design of antimicrobial strategies that target virulence mechanisms," say the researchers. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The factors that determine the virulence of S. pneumoniae are very complex but a key aspect of the organism's disease causing potential is the ability of the bacteria to regulate virulence factor expression and activity. (bl.uk)
  • zelmeda4 at wfu.edu ('derek a. zelmer') writes: -If virulence increases to the point of high host mortality, the -host resource will be depleted, and selection will be again for -less virulent forms. (bio.net)
  • Thus, if producing a virulent infection increases an organism's genetic representation in the next generation, virulence will be selected for whether or not this ultimately leads to host number depletion. (bio.net)
  • Presumably virulence is being selected against in this organism, unless virulent organisms have other characteristics that increase their representation in the population. (bio.net)
  • Virulence is the state of being virulent, that is, highly infectious, malignant or deadly. (answers.com)
  • Bordetella species utilize the BvgAS (Bordetella virulence gene) two-component signal transduction system to sense the environment and regulate gene expression among at least three phases: a virulent Bvg+ phase, a nonvirulent Bvg- phase, and an intermediate Bvgi phase. (mendeley.com)
  • Collaborating with the lab of David Weiss, PhD, the researchers showed that the virulence-disabled bacteria could be used as a live attenuated vaccine in mice, protecting them against later infection by the virulent form. (phys.org)
  • This textbook is a resource for undergraduate, graduate, and medical students, as well as other health-oriented learners, postdoctoral scholars, basic scientists, and professors intent on expanding their knowledge of bacterial infection and virulence mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • These results open up new avenues for understanding the control of S. aureus virulence mechanisms. (news-medical.net)
  • In order to better understand the mechanisms behind the rapid expansion of these strains, the virulence of 10 clinical and two transformed PNSP strains were compared with the virulence of three fully susceptible strains in a mouse model of bacteremia and a rat model of acute otitis media. (diva-portal.org)
  • One definition of virulence is the host's parasite-induced loss of fitness . (wikipedia.org)
  • Many virulence determinants of E. amylovora have been characterized, including the Type III secretion system (T3SS), the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran, biofilm formation, and motility. (mdpi.com)
  • To understand the role of VAD1 in virulence, a functional genomics approach was used to identify 3 additional virulence determinants dependent on VAD1: PCK1, TUF1, and MPF3, involved in gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial protein synthesis, and cell wall integrity, respectively. (jci.org)
  • We anticipate that many investigators will take advantage of the S. agalactiae genome sequence to identify new virulence determinants and potential targets for vaccine development. (innovations-report.com)
  • Mice usually succumb very quickly to C. neoformans infections, but the research group found that mice infected with strains carrying mutations in QSP1 lived twice as long as those infected with the normal fungus, indicating that the gene plays an important role in virulence. (ucsf.edu)
  • Its role in virulence suggests that CuvA may be a useful target for novel inhibitors of M. tuberculosis during infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this paper, we develop a model for understanding the evolution of virulence (disease-induced mortality) when virulence and transmission change over the course of an infection. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The hypothesis of the paper is that virulence and rate of infection would necessarily be highly correlated as virulence increases. (bio.net)
  • Ideally I would like to measure virulence in time from infection to death of host and transmission in time from infection of first host to infection of second host. (bio.net)
  • We devised a noninvasive genetic selection strategy to identify positive regulators of bacterial virulence genes during actual infection of an intact animal host. (pnas.org)
  • Application of this technology to the human intestinal pathogen Vibrio cholerae identified several regulators of cholera toxin and a central virulence gene regulator that are operative during infection. (pnas.org)
  • To extend our knowledge of virulence gene regulation during infection, we developed a noninvasive genetic selection that incorporates the use of the recombination-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET) and transposon mutagenesis to identify positive regulators of virulence genes during infection. (pnas.org)
  • A number of these regulators are described, some of which affect virulence gene induction only during infection. (pnas.org)
  • Research scientists from the IRD and INSERM (1) who are studying this trypanosome found that one of the proteins it secretes, Tc52, is a virulence factor that plays a pivotal role in the infection mechanism. (innovations-report.com)
  • Research scientists from the IRD research unit "Pathogénie des Trypanosomatidae" and co-workers from INSERM have studied the parasite s development cycle, its virulence and its involvement in the infection process, with a view to identifying possible prevention and control methods. (innovations-report.com)
  • At the same time, however, the host species is evolving resistance to the infection, which then provides an environment for increasing pathogen virulence. (the-scientist.com)
  • S. L. Reckseidler, D. DeShazer, P. A. Sokol, and D. E. Woods, "Detection of bacterial virulence genes by subtractive hybridization: Identification of capsular polysaccharide of Burkholderia pseudomallei as a major virulence determinant," Infection and Immunity , vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 34-44, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Production of both toxins was required for full infection virulence. (medindia.net)
  • Most models of virulence evolution assume that transmission and virulence are constant during an infection. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We find that ESS virulence decreases when expressed early in the infection or when transmission occurs late in an infection. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In contrast, ESS virulence first increased and then decreased with transition rate when there was little virulence early in the infection and a rapid recovery rate. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • I 2 is an infectious class with a later infection age as well as class-specific transmission and virulence rates that differ from those of I 1 . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • To illustrate, an L. monocytogenes σ B null mutant survives less well than the wild-type parent at low pH (pH 2.5) and in a murine infection model ( 45 , 67 ).σ B has been demonstrated to contribute to transcription of prfA , which encodes the central virulence gene regulator PrfA in L. monocytogenes ( 45 ). (asm.org)
  • An M. tuberculosis ΔRv1422 strain is markedly attenuated for virulence in a mouse infection model, where it elicits decreased inflammation in the lungs and shows impaired bacterial persistence. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The requirement for different virulence gene regulators varied according to the murine model of infection used. (bl.uk)
  • Only 13.5% of the isolates were positive for the virulence plasmid vir B11. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • To address their hypothesis, the authors inoculate vaccinated or unvaccinated chickens with a series of MDV isolates that range from low to high virulence. (virology.ws)
  • Our study showed that several pathogenic Aeromonas species possessing virulence traits and antimicrobial resistance similar to those of Aeromonas isolates causing clinical diseases were present. (asm.org)
  • Races of isolates of Plasmopara halstedii from Spain and studies on their virulence. (cabi.org)
  • According to the proposal of a new system for characterization of the isolates of P. halstedii in the late 1990s, Coded Virulence Formulae (CVF) were assigned to bulk isolates and single-sporangium ( ss ) isolates obtained from them. (cabi.org)
  • These data highlight the complex evolutionary interplay between adaptation to natural environments and opportunistic infections, and that selection on specific pathways may predispose isolates to human virulence. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The distribution of MgrA, R1rA and PPI2 varied between clinical S. pneumoniae isolates emphasizing the likelihood of a different repertoire of virulence genes and regulators amongst different serotypes and strains of this important human pathogen. (bl.uk)
  • Sree V. Aroori, Tristan A. Cogan, and Tom J. Humphrey, "Effect of Noradrenaline on the Virulence Properties of Campylobacter Species," International Journal of Microbiology , vol. 2014, Article ID 279075, 10 pages, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Chui Yoke Chin et al, A high-frequency phenotypic switch links bacterial virulence and environmental survival in Acinetobacter baumannii, Nature Microbiology (2018). (phys.org)
  • In wild rabbits, the combination of host resistance and increased viral virulence resulted in typical myxomatosis presentation, but when naive rabbits were exposed to the new viral strains, bacterial infections bloomed in their immunosuppressed bodies, killing nearly all of the hosts before they developed the classic disease. (the-scientist.com)
  • The researchers also studied the virulence of two strains of the pandemic H1N1 virus in a nonhuman primate model as a way to predict how the strains would affect humans. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Finally the virulence property of vaccine culture was screened by Mouse Weight Gain Test (MWGT) and lymphocytosis promoting factor (LPF) test using LACA strains of laboratory mice weighing 14-16 grams. (grin.com)
  • A pathogenicity island acquired by horizontal transfer, coding for a type IV secretion system, is a major determinant of virulence. (sciencemag.org)
  • We have identified mucins, the major gel-forming components of mucus, and their complex sugar structures (glycans) as protective molecules that suppress microbial virulence traits including toxin secretion, bacterial communication, and surface attachment. (mrsec.org)
  • Pathogenic Yersinia cause a manifold of diseases in humans ranging from mild gastroenteritis ( Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica ) to pneumonic and bubonic plague ( Y. pestis ), while all three have a common virulence strategy that relies on a well-studied type III secretion system and its effector proteins to colonize the host and evade immune responses. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, the role of other protein secretion and/or translocation systems in virulence of Yersinia species is not well known. (diva-portal.org)
  • The expression of genes encoding the Type VI Secretion System and associated exported proteins are strongly induced, suggesting that V. tapetis activates this virulence factor when living in biofilm. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we describe a protocol for the identification of pathogenicity and virulence genes through random insertional mutagenesis using the fungal wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae as an example for the protocol. (wur.nl)
  • This efficient system for targeted gene deletion holds great promise for rapidly enhancing our knowledge of the biology and virulence of this increasingly common invasive fungal pathogen. (jci.org)
  • There is some controversy about whether coagulase is a virulence factor, but one way coagulase contributes to pathogenicity is that it binds prothrombin to form staphylothrombin, which then cleaves fibrinogen to form fibrin clots in which the bacteria can live and avoid phagocytosis by neutrophils. (answers.com)
  • The virulence factor for diphtheria is an exotoxin named diphtheria exotoxin. (answers.com)
  • Borges M, cordeiro-Da-Silva A, Sereno D & Ouaissi A. Peptide-based analysis of the amino acid sequence important to the immunoregulatory function of Trypansosma cruzi Tc52 virulence factor. (innovations-report.com)
  • Now that the complex biochemistry of this virulence factor is better understood, they plan to start looking for agents that block its synthesis or activity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Besides conferring methicillin resistance, the SCCmecIV genes also code for the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) virulence factor. (medscape.com)
  • Cigarette smoke does so by enhancing S. aureus' ability to form biofilms, which are an important virulence factor, according to the study. (asm.org)
  • The report concludes, "Assuming that complement is as critical to orthopoxvirus containment in humans as it is in rodents, SPICE seems to be a virulence factor for variola virus. (umn.edu)
  • In this study, a virulence-associated DEAD-box RNA helicase-encoding gene (VAD1) was isolated from a mutant defective in the virulence factor laccase. (jci.org)
  • An Institut Pasteur-CNRS research team has characterized a Staphylococcus aureus gene involved in virulence, biofilm formation and resistance to certain antibiotics. (news-medical.net)
  • This component interacts with the WalKR system to control its activity and its absence leads to a strong decrease in virulence, biofilm formation (bacterial aggregates), and resistance to certain antibiotics. (news-medical.net)
  • In the present study, we used RNA-seq analysis to identify biofilm- and virulence-related genes displaying altered expression in biofilms compared to the planktonic condition. (mdpi.com)
  • Detection of Seven Virulence and Toxin Genes of Campylobacter jej. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • A high prevalence (93.3-100%) of six virulence and toxin genes (the fla A , cad F, ceu E, cdt A, cdt B, cdt C, cdt gene cluster) was found. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Specifically, we show that the recent acquisition of glcA and glcC by S. aureus is essential for full toxin production and virulence potential in hyperglycemic SSTIs," they wrote. (genengnews.com)
  • Marine pathogenic bacteria are able to form biofilms on many surfaces, such as mollusc shells, and they can wait for the appropriate opportunity to induce their virulence. (mdpi.com)
  • This volume brings together studies on the differences and profound similarities in the molecular mechanism of virulence between bacteria pathogenic for humans, animals and plants. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Proton motive force (PMF), a consequence of metabolic activity, also contributes to the regulation of bacterial virulence, and the addition of proline to the medium allowed P. luminescens to form colonies in the presence of drugs that disrupted PMF, suggesting that proline oxidation may provide an electron source for generation of PMF. (sciencemag.org)
  • For example, σ B has been linked with regulation of virulence gene expression in S. aureus ( 6 , 12 ). (asm.org)
  • We found that the loss of Tat pathway causes a drastic change of the transcriptome of Y. pseudotuberculosis in stationary phase at environmental temperature with differential regulation of genes involved in virulence, carbon metabolism and stress responses. (diva-portal.org)
  • The findings highlight the importance of spatial genome organization in gene regulation and the control of virulence in malaria parasites. (phys.org)
  • Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the function of the CaCla4p protein kinase is essential for virulence and morphological switching of C. albicans in a mouse model. (mendeley.com)
  • A total of 23 proteins showed increased expression in the presence ofσ B in a two-dimensional gel comparison of proteins isolated from both the wild-type S. aureus strain and its isogenic sigB null mutant ( 27 ).σ B also has been shown to contribute to virulence in Bacillus anthracis . (asm.org)
  • identified proline as a molecular trigger in insect extracts that stimulated the production of small molecules with virulence or antibiotic properties in two species of symbiotic bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 and Xenorhabdus nematophila ATCC19061. (sciencemag.org)
  • The mechanism causing viable Francisella tularensis to lose virulence in aerosols has been investigated. (nih.gov)
  • Our results suggest that while the loss of functional genes through disuse could be accelerated by negative selection, the genome decay in Francisella could also be the byproduct of adaptive evolution driven by complex interactions between host, pathogen, and thier environment, as evidenced by several of its virulence genes which are undergoing strong, positive selection. (springer.com)
  • We could give anti-virulence antibiotics to people with healthy immune systems, who would be able to clear infections with this assistance," he said, "and traditional antibiotics combined with antivirulence therapies to people with compromised immune systems, who really need them. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now Ritwij Kulkarni of Columbia University, New York, NY, and colleagues show that cigarette smoke actually boosts virulence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Richardson is senior author of the team's published paper in Science Advances , which is titled, " Lack of nutritional immunity in diabetic skin infections promotes Staphylococcus aureus virulence . (genengnews.com)
  • They found that in the diabetic mice, the strain of S. aureus with four glucose transporters quickly formed biofilms and activated pathways that increased virulence. (genengnews.com)
  • The development of resistance in Salmonella shows that it is a multifactorial process and the acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance might have significant influences on the bacterial fitness and virulence. (intechopen.com)
  • The precise role of one protein in bacteria, EF-P, remains a mystery, but this team found that it plays an essential role in the virulence of Salmonella enterica typhimurium, a common foodborne pathogen causing diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps, and occasionally lifetime chronic arthritis. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • We hypothesized that the observed frequency of gene loss/pseudogenes may be an artifact of evolution in response to a changing environment, and that genes involved in virulence should be under strong positive selection. (springer.com)
  • This may account for the growing difficulty eradicating the bacteria as well as high virulence. (phys.org)
  • The ability of the parasite to switch its antigenic profile correlates with the parasite's high virulence. (phys.org)
  • Any movement on the virulence axis, towards higher or lower virulence, will result in lower fitness for the parasite, and thus will be selected against. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, under natural conditions, a newly emergent, highly lethal pathogen that kills very rapidly is expected to evolve lower virulence. (the-scientist.com)
  • Our results, obtained by comparing the five malaria parasites with B. microti and T. gondii , strongly suggest that genome organization in malaria parasites has been shaped by parasite-specific gene families that affect virulence," Le Roch said. (phys.org)
  • Phosphatidylthreonine and Lipid-Mediated Control of Parasite Virulence. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A research team led by UC San Francisco scientists has discovered a cellular signaling system that regulates the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans , a fungus that has been estimated to cause nearly a million cases of meningitis worldwide per year, about 625,000 of which are fatal. (ucsf.edu)
  • These findings led us to name this gene cuvA (carbon utilization and virulence protein A) and to suggest a model in which deletion of cuvA leads to changes in nutrient uptake and/or metabolism that affect cell wall structure, morphology, and virulence. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We analyzed a subset of virulence and housekeeping genes from several F. tularensis subspecies genomes to ascertain the presence and extent of positive selection. (springer.com)
  • Here we review the current knowledge of environmental adaptation by F. tularensis , its transcriptional regulators and their relationship to animal virulence. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence: a Successful or Deleterious Association in the Bacterial World? (pnas.org)
  • Distribution of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Genes in Enterococcus spp. (asm.org)
  • Candida parapsilosis is a major cause of human disease, yet little is known about the pathogen's virulence. (jci.org)
  • The results of this comprehensive "transcriptomic" analysis firstly showed that when the bacterium reaches the intestine, and then the bloodstream, it radically changes the activity of its genome and successively activates various groups of virulence genes. (pasteur.fr)
  • An international research team led by scientists at the University of California, Riverside, and the La Jolla Institute for Immunology has found that malaria parasite genomes are shaped by parasite-specific gene families, and that this genome organization strongly correlates with the parasite's virulence. (phys.org)
  • He came to the conclusion that virulence tends to remain especially high in waterborne and vector-borne infections, such as cholera and Dengue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Parasites infecting long-lived primates may require escape from adaptive immune responses to establish chronic infections and ensure transmission to a susceptible host, while parasites infecting short-lived rodent hosts may benefit from more flexible expression of their virulence genes. (phys.org)
  • Analyses of selection yielded one housekeeping gene and 7 virulence genes which showed significant evidence of positive selection at loci implicated in cell surface structures and membrane proteins, metabolism and biosynthesis, transcription, translation and cell separation, and substrate binding and transport. (springer.com)
  • According to evolutionary medicine , virulence increases with horizontal transmission (between non-relatives) and decreases with vertical transmission (from parent to child). (wikipedia.org)
  • When virulence increases survival/representation, it will be selected for. (bio.net)
  • Sporulation on blood serum increases the virulence of Mucor circinelloides. (bioportfolio.com)