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  • tissues
  • The universal muscle involvement and resulting respiratory insufficiency in these diseases have focussed attention on the need for systemic vector delivery in vivo to mammal tissues and organs (Boland et al. (google.com)
  • Theoretically, tissues generated from cells cloned from a patient's own adult nucleus should not trigger an immune response, but it is possible that subtle differences caused by the foreign cytoplasm in the donor egg might cause a rejection response. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs), which are the primary antigen-presenting cells (APCs), of the donor tissue migrate to the recipient's peripheral lymphoid tissue (lymphoid follicles and lymph nodes), and present the donor's self peptides to the recipient's lymphocytes (immune cells residing in lymphoid tissues). (wikipedia.org)
  • FPR1 is prominently expressed by mammalian phagocytic and blood leukocyte cells where it functions to mediate these cells' responses to the N-formylmethionine-containing oligopeptides which are released by invading microorganisms and injured tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Arrestin-4 was cloned by two groups and termed cone arrestin, after photoreceptor type that expresses it, and X-arrestin, after the chromosome where its gene resides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second approach, pioneered by Oliver Smithies and Mario Capecchi, involves modifying embryonic stem cells with a DNA construct containing DNA sequences homologous to the target gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was there that Clevers cloned the T-cell gene CD3 epsilon. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was the first to link Wnt signaling with adult stem cell biology, when he showed that TCF4 gene disruption leads to the abolition of crypt stem cell compartments of the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • He went on to show that the Tcf4-driven target gene program in colorectal cancer cells is the malignant counterpart of a physiological crypt stem cell program. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is well known that viruses naturally deliver nucleic acids to cells and have therefore been exploited as gene delivery vehicles. (google.com)
  • The recent cloning of full length cDNAs for gene products implicated in several muscular dystrophies (Lim et al. (google.com)
  • The protein phosphatase calcineurin performs a critical function in the procedures by which various kinds AT13387 cells react to extracellular indicators or environmental strains through adjustments in gene appearance. (cylch.org)
  • In mice and human beings MCIP1 can be expressed mainly in cardiac and skeletal muscle groups (16) and transcription from the MCIP1 gene can be potently activated by triggered calcineurin (17) therefore establishing a poor feedback system that presumably acts to safeguard cells from in any other case deleterious outcomes of unrestrained calcineurin activity. (cylch.org)
  • Purified DNA ligase is used in gene cloning to join DNA molecules together to form recombinant DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is formed by alternative splicing of a proteolytic fragment of DNA ligase III and does not have its own gene, therefore it is often considered to be virtually identical to DNA ligase III. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of the ISMs to commit suicide requires de novo gene expression, and we have use a variety of molecular techniques to clone death-associated transcripts from these cells. (pvlsi.org)
  • Apoptotic Signals Delivered Through the T Cell Receptor Require the Immediate Early Gene Nur77. (pvlsi.org)
  • Otherwise, the number of mismatched gene variants, namely alleles, encoding cell surface molecules called major histocompatibility complex (MHC), classes I and II, correlate with the rapidity and severity of transplant rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the gene rearrangement leads to an irreversible change in the DNA of each cell, all progeny (offspring) of that cell inherit genes that encode the same receptor specificity, including the memory B cells and memory T cells that are the keys to long-lived specific immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene was first cloned by scientists at Myriad Genetics, Endo Recherche, Inc., HSC Research & Development Limited Partnership, and the University of Pennsylvania. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor cell surface protein that binds and is activated by N-Formylmethionine-containing oligopeptides, particularly N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Fortunately, the λmax values of virtually any pigment can now be measured by expressing specific opsins in cultured cells, reconstituting them with 11- cis -retinal, and measuring the λmax values of the purified pigments ( Y okoyama 1997 ). (genetics.org)
  • biotechnology
  • Electrofusion - the process of using electric shocks to fuse two or more living cells - is a growing technology with a wide variety of applications in research, biotechnology and medicine. (psychcentral.com)
  • Naturally occurring circular plasmids can be modified to contain multiple resistance genes and several unique restriction sites, making them valuable tools as cloning vectors in biotechnology applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • As a noun, a clone is an identical genetic copy of either a piece of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a cell, or a whole organism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They had created a clone, a second individual with the exact genetic blueprint of the first. (str.org)
  • In 1981 the laboratories of Frank Ruddle from Yale University, Frank Costantini and Elizabeth Lacy from Oxford, and Ralph Brinster and Richard Palmiter in collaboration from the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Washington injected purified DNA into a single-cell mouse embryo utilizing techniques developed by Brinster in the 1960s and 1970s, showing transmission of the genetic material to subsequent generations for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first scenario would preclude the possibility of changing one type of mature cell into another because the cell would no longer contain the genetic wherewithal to perform all possible functions. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • I would like to know as much information as you have on genetic cloning, so that I can gain an understanding of it and how it works. (probe.org)
  • Cloning produces a nearly identical genetic copy of the original by taking the nucleus of a cell from an organism and placing inside an egg cell of the same species. (probe.org)
  • Currently only bulls are cloned to make more copies of good genetic stock for normal animal husbandry purposes. (probe.org)
  • Many of the surviving clones are plagued with serious physiological and genetic problems. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is not yet known whether clones will develop and age normally, or whether subtle failures in genomic reprogramming or genetic imprinting might lead to various defects. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These breaks can be caused by natural and medical radiation or other environmental exposures, but also occur when chromosomes exchange genetic material during a special type of cell division that creates sperm and eggs (meiosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem-Cell Res
  • Also in 2002 he became director of the Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem-Cell Research at the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique is integral to stem cell research, where it affords researchers greater insight into how genes guide protein synthesis. (psychcentral.com)
  • Also see: Stem Cell Research and Embryo/Fetal Research. (humanlifeaction.org)
  • bacteria
  • For larger pieces, or for protein production, DNA is almost always cloned in bacteria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • copies
  • Clones are no more exact copies than any two identical twins are. (str.org)
  • The total number of a particular plasmid within a cell is referred to as the copy number and can range from as few as two copies per cell to as many as several hundred copies per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deficient
  • With these insights and in a collaboration with Bert Vogelstein, he proposed that in APC-deficient colon cancer, it is the inappropriate activation of the Wnt pathway that transforms cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Johannes Carolus (Hans) Clevers (born 27 March 1957) is a professor in molecular genetics, a geneticist, physician, medical researcher who was the first to identify stem cells in the intestine and is one of the world's leading researchers on normal stem cells and their potential for regenerative therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of red-green color vision in mammals, we have cloned and sequenced the red and green opsin cDNAs of cat ( Felis catus ), horse ( Equus caballus ), gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis ), white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ), and guinea pig ( Cavia porcellus ). (genetics.org)
  • Inasmuch as the V domains can occur in a nearly unlimited variety of amino acid sequences, immunoglobulins collectively have the potential of binding to virtually any molecular structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • premature
  • For example, the Rev. Richard Land, social-issues spokesman for the Southern Baptist Convention, notes the premature aging among cloned mammals and says 'sooner rather than later, we are going to be presented with horrific human tragedies coming out of these laboratories. (washingtontimes.com)
  • organism
  • For example, if you had to supply cells from your own body or from another live organism, you would want to take as few as possible. (psychcentral.com)
  • Human
  • Isolate and purify all the DNA from a sample of human cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Can we use clones to create a race of slaves or as a living warehouse of human parts? (str.org)
  • The Raelian movement may or may not prove it produced the first cloned human, but the sect already can claim another distinction: It is virtually the only religious group that says this type of reproduction is a good idea. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The market for human clones could be huge - especially if they can be frozen (and they can) and only produced some years after the death of the clone donor. (globalchange.com)
  • Is human cloning possible? (probe.org)
  • Human cloning is not possible at this time. (probe.org)
  • Do You Have More Information on Human Cloning? (probe.org)
  • Below is the recent announcement by the first group to publicly say they are actively going to seek to clone a human. (probe.org)
  • Yes, because of the potential physical dangers and the profound ethical dilemmas it poses, the cloning of human beings should be prohibited. (encyclopedia.com)
  • No, the cloning of human beings should not be prohibited because the potential for medical accidents or malfeasance is grossly overstated, and the ethical questions raised by detractors are not unique to cloning-indeed, ethical questions attend every scientific advancement. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Eventually animal research may indicate that human cloning can be accomplished with no greater risk than in vitro fertilization posed when Louise Brown, the first "test-tube baby" was born in 1978. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, the French and German governments jointly asked the United Nations to call for a worldwide ban on human reproductive cloning. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After a heated debate about human cloning, on July 31, 2001, the U. S. House of Representatives voted 265-162 to institute a total federal ban on human cloning. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The emotional nature of the debate, and the lack of understanding of the scientific aspects of the subject, is epitomized by House Majority Whip Tom Delay (R-Texas) who declared: "Human beings should not be cloned to stock a medical junkyard of spare parts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Human Cloning Prohibition Act outlaws the process known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using human cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Human cloning is a form of asexual reproduction. (humanlifeaction.org)
  • Human cloning dehumanizes human procreation and treats human beings as laboratory products. (humanlifeaction.org)
  • Banning all human cloning would not impede medical progress. (humanlifeaction.org)
  • Legislation to ban human cloning was first introduced in Congress in 1998. (humanlifeaction.org)
  • Defects in the regulation of cell death serves as the basis of many human diseases, including auto-immunity, neurodegeneration and most cancers. (pvlsi.org)
  • In mammalian cells, there are two or more genes encoding cytosolic Hsp90 homologues, with the human Hsp90α showing 85% sequence identity to Hsp90β. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies
  • But biological engineer Chang Lu has done just that with a new and cheaper method to electrically fuse cells - a vital technology for studying stem cells, creating clones and finding disease antibodies. (psychcentral.com)
  • Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Herein we have identified apoptosis-related genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori and compared them to those from insects, mammals, and nematodes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kumarswamya and colleagues [ 29 ] recently used Sf9 cells to demonstrate that cyosolic cytochrome-c release is an essential event for caspase activation during Lepidopteran apoptosis, and that cytochrome-c release might occur independent of mitochondrial membrane potential loss and permeability transition pore formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Editors Methods in Cell Biology Series, Apoptosis. (pvlsi.org)
  • Do All Programmed Cell Deaths Occur Via Apoptosis? (pvlsi.org)
  • Defects
  • Clones are often born with a condition called "large offspring syndrome," as well as severe respiratory and circulatory defects, malformations of the brain or kidneys, or immune dysfunction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • vivo
  • Peptide inhibitors of the ICE protease family arrest programmed cell death of motoneurons in vitro and in vivo. (pvlsi.org)
  • MEF2
  • In cultured skeletal myocytes MCIP1 blocks calcineurin signaling by binding right to the catalytic subunit (CnA) from the calcineurin holoenzyme and inhibiting its activating results on nuclear element of triggered T cells (NFAT) and myocyte enhancer element-2 (MEF2) protein AT13387 that transduce calcineurin-generated indicators to focus on genes (16). (cylch.org)
  • immune
  • The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells that carry out the adaptive immune response are white blood cells known as lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two main broad classes-antibody responses and cell mediated immune response-are also carried by two different lymphocytes (B cells and T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells play a large role in the humoral immune response, whereas T cells are intimately involved in cell-mediated immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • photoreceptor
  • This also turned out to be a misnomer: arrestin-1 expresses at comparable very high levels in both rod and cone photoreceptor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • An inherent problem with this method is that responses from rods and different types of cones can contribute to the recorded signals and the separation of a specific photoreceptor cell type is sometimes difficult ( N eitz and J acobs 1984 ). (genetics.org)
  • fundamental
  • A report last year from the conservative Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod said cloning is 'a fundamental assault on the created order of God' taught in the Bible, in which each child is unique. (washingtontimes.com)
  • There are some fundamental differences in apoptotic signaling pathways between Drosophila and mammals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • neuronal
  • In addition to muscle, MEF2A is expressed in neuronal cells and at low levels in a wide range of cell types during embryogenesis and adulthood. (scielo.br)
  • A cell destined to become muscle need not retain its ability to fire neuronal messages, nor must a brain cell remember how to soak up nutrients in the intestine. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • In 1921 Otto Loewi provided the first substantial evidence that neuronal communication with target cells occurred via chemical synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • In addition, it has also been shown to appear in stress fibers of fibroblastic cells during pathological situations involving contractile phenomena such as wound healing and fibrocontractive diseases. (fishersci.ca)
  • In addition, it has also been shown that smooth muscle actin appear in stress fibers of fibroblastic cells during pathological situations involving contractile phenomena such as wound healing and fibrocontractive diseases. (fishersci.ca)
  • Reprogrammed cells also afford novel approaches toward understanding currently inscrutable diseases and for screening drugs to thwart these conditions. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Cloned cells could be used to create replacement tissue for diseased hearts, pancreatic cells for diabetics, treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, nerve cells for victims of spinal cord injuries, and skin cells for burn victims. (encyclopedia.com)
  • fetal
  • The expression of individual variable Ags is independent and stochastic, resulting in fetal NK "clones" being potentially composed of hundreds of phenotypically distinct cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • We hypothesize that fetal NK cells behave as progenitor cells that are undergoing a process of rapid, extensive, and continuous diversification and that are individually capable of generating and regenerating a complex NK cell repertoire. (jimmunol.org)
  • souls
  • All creatures that normally possess souls would still have souls even when cloned. (str.org)
  • Would Clones Have Souls? (probe.org)
  • An interesting question to ask is, What if clones did not have souls and were biologically viable? (probe.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Although the existence of NK cells has been known for more than 20 years, many of the basic issues concerning these cells, such as their developmental pathway, their mechanisms of recognition, and their physiologic function, are still poorly understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • Even less is understood about the mechanisms of positive recognition used by NK cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • There are several differences in apoptotic mechanisms between mammals and nematodes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pigment
  • The pink skin is devoid of pigment cells (melanocytes), and appears pink from the underlying network of capillaries. (wikipedia.org)