• Detection of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid in South Africa by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Bioassay. (apsnet.org)
  • The Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) was discovered soon thereafter, and together understanding of PSTVd and CEVd shaped the concept of the viroid. (wikipedia.org)
  • it lacked the protein coat that is found in viruses, hence the name viroid. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • It differs from viruses only in that it lacks a capsid, and hence the name viroid. (w3schools.blog)
  • I obtained my PhD in Plant Pathology where I developed a rapid detection method or the Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) variants in oil palm and my research focused on the study of viroid accumulation and translocation in the seedlings. (cabi.org)
  • Viroids are small single-stranded, circular RNAs that are infectious pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positively identified viroids composed of single-stranded RNA have been isolated from higher plants, but the existence of DNA viroids pathogenic to animals is suspected. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • Viroids are small (a few hundred nucleotides long), circular, single-stranded, non-protein-coding RNAs that replicate autonomously in higher plants. (ictv.global)
  • Viroids are small infectious agents, composed of a single- stranded circular RNA without a capsid. (w3schools.blog)
  • These viroids are small, covalently closed single-stranded RNA, allocated to the Pospiviroidae family. (intechopen.com)
  • Genome sequences of viroids vary from about 250 to 430 nt and are rich in G+C (53-60%), with the exception of avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd), which has 38% G+C. (ictv.global)
  • Could this be Avocado Sunblotch Viroid (ASBV)? (ufl.edu)
  • Viroid RNAs of both polarities are found in infected hosts. (ictv.global)
  • Upon infection, viroids replicate in the nucleus (Pospiviroidae) or chloroplasts (Avsunviroidae) of plant cells in three steps through an RNA-based mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • These structural elements, conserved among members of several species and genera, allow viroids to use host pathways to replicate and move systemically within plants. (ictv.global)
  • The viroid RNA does not code for any gene, hence they cannot replicate themselves. (w3schools.blog)
  • The human pathogen hepatitis D virus is a subviral agent similar in structure to a viroid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid and sensitive molecular-based detection methods specific to both viroids are available. (intechopen.com)
  • My work involved detection and gene analysis of viroid-infected oil palm using the latest molecular technologies. (cabi.org)
  • How should I prepare and send samples for virus/viroid detection? (dsmz.de)
  • The first recognized viroid, the pathogenic agent of the potato spindle tuber disease, was discovered, initially molecularly characterized, and named by Theodor Otto Diener, plant pathologist at the U.S Department of Agriculture's Research Center in Beltsville, Maryland, in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • This viroid is now called potato spindle tuber viroid, abbreviated PSTVd. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initiation of RNA synthesis for potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and ASBVd appears to occur at specific sites, suggesting that it is promoter-driven. (ictv.global)
  • 332-335 nt Viroids are only known to infect plants, and infectious viroids can be transmitted to new plant hosts by aphids, by cross contamination following mechanical damage to plants as a result of horticultural or agricultural practices, or from plant to plant by leaf contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the genomes of the majority of viruses, viroid genomes are not protected by a protein capsid (Table 1.Viroids). (ictv.global)
  • Although viroids are composed of nucleic acid, they do not code for any protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent metatranscriptomics study suggests that the host diversity of viroids and other viroid-like elements is broader than previously thought and that it would not be limited to plants, encompassing even the prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Field-grown citrus trees often harbor complex mixtures of 4-5 different viroid species, and the presence of citrus viroid III (CVd-III) has been shown to reduce the rate of tree growth without inducing disease. (agri.gov.il)
  • CEVd is the first viroid being described on citrus trees in 1948 in California. (intechopen.com)
  • Viroids are often ribozymes, having catalytic properties that allow self-cleavage and ligation of unit-size genomes from larger replication intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viroid genomes (family Avsunviroidae ) contain cis-acting hammerhead ribozymes embedded in the strands of both polarities that catalyze RNA self-cleavage during replication (probably assisted by host proteins). (ictv.global)
  • Circular forms of (+) and (-) polarity are generated in tissues infected by some viroids (family Avsunviroidae ), while in others (family Pospivioidae ) only the (+) polarity strand generates the circular form. (ictv.global)
  • Unlike viruses that primarily parasitize the host translation machinery, viroids mainly parasitize host transcription by subverting either nuclear RNA polymerase II (family Pospiviroidae ) or a nuclear-encoded chloroplastic RNA polymerase (family Avsunviroidae ) to recognize RNA templates. (ictv.global)
  • Plays Important Role in Apple Scar Skin Viroid Transmission. (bvsalud.org)
  • Small Heat Shock Protein (sHsp22.98) from Trialeurodes vaporariorum Plays Important Role in Apple Scar Skin Viroid Transmission. (bvsalud.org)
  • Trialeurodes vaporariorum, commonly known as the greenhouse whitefly, severely infests important crops and serves as a vector for apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd). (bvsalud.org)
  • To more fully define the structure of its quasi-species, we have examined nine citrus viroid complexes for the presence of previously undescribed sequence variants of CVd-III. (agri.gov.il)
  • All known viroids are inhabitants of angiosperms (flowering plants), and most cause diseases, whose respective economic importance to humans varies widely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus, viroid and spiroplasma diseases of citrus. (agri.gov.il)
  • Both diseases are controlled by using viroids-free budwoods for new plantations, launching budwood certification programs, and establishing a quarantine system for new citrus varieties introduction. (intechopen.com)
  • Analysis of 86 full-length cDNAs generated from these nine viroid complexes by RT-PCR revealed the presence of 20 new CVd-III variants. (agri.gov.il)
  • Following the discovery of retrozymes, it has been proposed that viroids and other viroid-like elements may derive from this newly found class of retrotransposon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The introduction and propagation of infected budwoods are the main causes of viroids spread in citrus orchards. (intechopen.com)
  • These results suggest that sHsp22.98 from T. vaporariorum is associated with viroid RNA and plays a significant role in transmission . (bvsalud.org)
  • Neither seed transmission nor vectors have been reported for both viroids. (intechopen.com)