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  • vectors
  • Viral vectors have been available in various fields such as medical and biological research or gene therapy applications. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although Ad subgroup C vectors demonstrate very efficient gene transfer, their tropism is limited in vitro and in vivo by receptor expression on target cells ( 2 , 3 , 15 , 22-24 , 35 , 45 , 47-54 ). (asm.org)
  • Gene delivery using viral vectors holds great promise for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. (igem.org)
  • genomes
  • After extraction, the genetic materials were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the viral near full length genomes (NFLGs) from 5 overlapped fragments. (nih.gov)
  • We mapped 14 transcriptomes of neuroblastoma as well as positive and negative controls to the human and all known viral genomes in order to detect both known and unknown viruses. (jove.com)
  • Genome
  • These viruses possess a reporter gene instead of a VSV G gene in their genome, and therefore it is easy to evaluate their infectivity in the study of viral entry, including identification of viral receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • As for the application of a pseudotype virus system for VSV, a recombinant virus system with a heterologous viral envelope gene together with a reporter gene encoded into its own genome instead of the G gene has also been developed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted (reverse transcribed) into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase , that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing of PCR products from integrated proviruses reveals that reverse transcription and integration of the viral genome has occurred as expected. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Capsids
  • Modularization and modification of the viral capsids for retargeting approaches and directed gene delivery of suicide genes resulted in many different BioBricks. (igem.org)
  • etiology
  • Recently however, interest in an exogenous viral etiology of human breast cancer was rekindled after the presence of MMTV-specific (distinctive from HERV) sequences were detected by at least three independent research groups in humans ( 12 - 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, a viral etiology of neuroblastoma is currently contested. (jove.com)
  • coreceptor
  • Depending on the overall context in which changes are made, alterations in V1 and V2 sequence alone sometimes can alter viral tropism and coreceptor use ( 14 - 18 ), as can changes in the V3 loop ( 11 , 19 - 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have monitored the evolution of coreceptor use over time in pig-tailed macaques infected with a simian HIV (SHIV) containing a X4 HIV-1 Env protein ( 35 - 37 ) and correlated this with changes in viral tropism and Env sequence. (pnas.org)
  • Tropism was predicted from each sequence with geno2pheno [coreceptor] . (springer.com)
  • Therefore, coreceptor usage, also known as viral tropism, has to be determined before administration of a regimen containing maraviroc. (springer.com)
  • Infectivity
  • Allosteric Regulation of HIV-1 Capsid Structure for Gag Assembly, Virion Production, and Viral Infectivity by a Disordered Interdomain Linker. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of the viral protease (PR) leads to cleavage of Gag and dramatic morphological rearrangements, termed maturation, which are required for infectivity ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • particles
  • However, receptors or co-receptors of several viruses have been difficult to identify because of the lack of reliable cell culture systems, an insufficient amount of native viral particles, or difficulty in handling because of the requirement for biosafety level (BSL)-3 or -4 containment. (frontiersin.org)
  • sequence
  • However, technical problems such as low abundances of viral transcripts in large volumes of sequencing data, viral sequence divergence, and homology between viral and human factors significantly confound identification of tumor viruses. (jove.com)
  • tumor
  • Recent advances in sequencing technology have enabled systematic screenings of human tumor transcriptomes for viral transcripts. (jove.com)
  • Structural engineering of the three dimensional viral capsid by introducing four distinct targeting sites led to successful differential transduction of tumor cells. (igem.org)
  • membrane
  • The virus is initially produced in an immature form, where the Gag polyproteins form a radially arranged layer underneath the viral membrane. (pnas.org)
  • viruses
  • Of the total 25 plasma samples for which viral subtype was determined, 17 (68%) were classified as subtype B, 3 (12%) were sub-subtype F1, and 5 (20%) were BF1 recombinant viruses (Table 2). (nih.gov)
  • We have developed a novel computational approach for detecting viral transcripts in human cancers that takes the aforementioned confounding factors into account and is applicable to a wide variety of viruses and tumors. (jove.com)
  • cell
  • The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, integrase , and host co-factors . (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma
  • Discordant tropism in CSF and plasma may have implications for R5 inhibitor therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Sexually-transmitted/founder HIV-1 cannot be directly predicted from plasma or PBMC-derived viral quasispecies in the transmitting partner. (nih.gov)