• Quantification of extracellular viral genomic RNA suggested that the number of virus particles released from cells infected with the U strain at a MOI of 1 was 47-fold lower than from M-infected cells, but U and M virions were equally infectious by particle to infectivity ratios. (usgs.gov)
  • At an MOI of 1, U strain intracellular viral genome accumulation and transcription were 37- and 12-fold lower, respectively, than those of the M strain at 24 h p.i. (usgs.gov)
  • Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of salmonids. (usgs.gov)
  • The report that will be published in an upcoming issue of Nature Immunology and is receiving early online release describes finding that a protein called GEF-H1 is essential to the ability of macrophages - major contributors to the innate immune system - to respond to viral infections like influenza. (redorbit.com)
  • But how microtubule-based movement of viral components contributes to induction of the immune response has been unknown. (redorbit.com)
  • A series of experiments by Reinecker's team found that GEF-H1 is expressed in macrophages - key components of the innate immune system - and activated in response to viral RNA and that it controls the expression of beta interferon and other cytokines. (redorbit.com)
  • We are hopeful that this discovery will allow the development of new strategies to curtail viral mechanisms that impede the immune responses to infections that are often associated with high mortality rates. (redorbit.com)
  • Infectious disease specialists at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center have identified a protein that regulates the body's immune response to cytomegalovirus (CMV), a common pathogen that causes lifelong infections and can lead to devastating illness in newborns and those with weakened immune systems. (eurekalert.org)
  • That same protein, the Johns Hopkins team found, also appears to regulate the body's immune response to CMV by initiating a chemical signaling cascade that curbs viral spread. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some of these viral anti-immune regulators are expressed as secreted proteins that engage specific host immune targets in the extracellular environment, where they exhibit potent anti-immune properties. (jimmunol.org)
  • We review here viral immunomodulatory proteins that have been tested as anti-inflammatory reagents in animal models of disease caused by excessive inflammation or hyperactivated immune pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • The potential for such viral molecules for the development of novel drugs to treat immune-based or inflammatory disorders is discussed. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, studies of individual viral anti-immune mechanisms tend to shed light on specific pathways that regulate the immune or inflammatory responses encountered by that particular virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • In fact, the growing collection of viral strategies that modulate these aspects of the immune system can be considered as comprising the discipline of anti-immunology and is the subject of a vast body of scientific literature (e.g., see Refs. (jimmunol.org)
  • This combination of high potency and highly specific biochemical targeting provides a powerful platform with which to develop next-generation drugs based on viral protein immunomodulators to treat diseases based on excessive inflammation or hyperactive immune reactions ( 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Their study, published online May 19, 2016 in Cell Host & Microbe , suggests that altering or removing the NS5 protein from Zika virus would allow the human body's own immune defenses to attack the virus. (news-medical.net)
  • Partial protection was achieved with as little as 0.125 ng of L1 protein, and adjuvants appeared useful for prolonging the host immune response. (pnas.org)
  • They also produce both immune-enhancing proteins (cytokines/chemokines) to drive forward a vigorous immune response, as well as immune-suppressing proteins including interleukin-10 (IL-10) and PD-1, which act as a braking system that balances the immune response to keep within healthy (non-autoimmune) limits. (scripps.edu)
  • When a virus delivers its DNA into a cell nucleus, cellular proteins recognize the invader and alert the host's immune response. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the current study, the researchers reveal a new mechanism, in which a viral protein traps an important signaling molecule inside the cell nucleus, and prevents it from sounding an alarm to the immune system. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We will be investigating other viral proteins to determine whether they act similarly, in hiding alarm signals from the immune system," said Daphne C. Avgousti, Ph.D., the study's first author and a postdoctoral fellow in Weitzman's laboratory. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The authors also found that the benefit to viral survival conferred by the hydrophobic patch on the unmutated form of Nef was not seen in cellular studies, suggesting that it had developed in response to the immune system pressures present in a live animal. (massgeneral.org)
  • Murine immune responses to virus-like particle-associated pre- and postfusion forms of the respiratory syncytial virus F protein. (umassmed.edu)
  • You could program the cell to kill itself, or to secrete proteins that would allow the immune system to identify it as an enemy cell so the immune system would take care of it. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • Interferons are a group of proteins known primarily for their role in inhibiting viral infections and in stimulating the entire immune system to fight disease . (jrank.org)
  • L1 protein, which self-assembled into virus-like particles, was purified on CsCl gradients and injected intradermally into the foot pad of beagles. (pnas.org)
  • Modification of the respiratory syncytial virus f protein in virus-like particles impacts generation of B cell memory. (umassmed.edu)
  • Protein conjugation results with a red fluorescent protein (R-Phycoerythrin, R-PE) as a model protein showed significantly enhanced protein conjugation capacity of TMV-assembled particles (TMV-particles) over hydrogel particles without TMV templates. (aiche.org)
  • Further in-depth comparison of protein conjugation kinetics with slower conjugation reaction (strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reaction) showed less diffusion-limited structure of the TMV-particles for protein conjugation. (aiche.org)
  • We also examined target protein capture capacity of the TMV-particles by utilizing an anti-R-PE antibody (R-Ab)-R-PE pair as a model system, whose results showed considerably improved target protein capture capacity over R-Ab conjugated hydrogel particles. (aiche.org)
  • A catalytically inactive mutant of DGAT1 (H426A) blocks the localization of NS5A, but not core, to LDs in a dominant-negative manner and impairs the release of infectious viral particles, underscoring the importance of DGAT1-mediated translocation of NS5A to LDs in viral particle production. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Analysis of SCoV particles that were purified by either sucrose gradient equilibrium centrifugation or a virus capture assay, in which intact SCoV particles were specifically immunoprecipitated by anti-S protein monoclonal antibody, demonstrated that 7a protein was associated with purified SCoV particles. (asm.org)
  • Host cell lipid metabolism plays a major role in the infectious life cycle of HCV and several of the viral proteins are shown to be involved in the recruitment of viral complexes to the lipid droplets, LDs [ 6 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell lysis is an inevitable step in classical mass spectrometry-based strategies to analyse protein complexes. (ugent.be)
  • We have developed Virotrap, a viral particle sorting approach that obviates the need for cell homogenization and preserves the protein complexes during purification. (ugent.be)
  • Virotrap constitutes an elegant complementary approach to the arsenal of methods to study protein complexes. (ugent.be)
  • Recently, a single molecule pull-down (SiMPull) assay was developed to isolate and study single protein complexes directly from cell lysates. (illinois.edu)
  • Using a similar principle, the objective of this study is to extend the SiMPull assay to isolate and study single cellular RNA-protein complexes. (illinois.edu)
  • Many proteins self-assemble to form large supramolecular complexes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Teaming up with researchers across multiple disciplines at CHOP and Penn Medicine, Weitzman and colleagues investigated protein VII, a small protein produced by adenovirus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Cutting-edge and easy to use, Viral Applications of Green Fluorescent Protein: Methods and Protocols supplies researchers with an ideal guide to the many uses of GFP and a vital starting point for future studies utilizing this highly adaptable protein. (springer.com)
  • Researchers reported in the journal mBio that the virus uses secreted cellular packages called exosomes to send the viral protein Nef into the body. (unclineberger.org)
  • The range of information covered includes signal proteins, ion channels, and fusion proteins.This book has a place in the libraries of researchers and scientists in a wide array of fields, including protein chemistry, molecular biophysics, pharmaceutical science and research, bioanotechnology, molecular biology, and biochemistry. (ark.no)
  • To create their new system, the researchers needed to link zinc fingers' DNA-binding capability with a consequence-either turning on a fluorescent protein to reveal that the target DNA is present or generating another type of action inside the cell. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • The researchers achieved this by exploiting a type of protein known as an "intein"-a short protein that can be inserted into a larger protein, splitting it into two pieces. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • Keck School of Medicine of USC researchers have identified a human protein that could prevent cancer by restricting a type of herpes virus from replicating. (chemdiv.com)
  • Researchers found a protein that helps prevent human herpes virus 8 from replicating. (usc.edu)
  • MIP-2 Viral Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single,non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 70 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 7.9 kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • This communication describes the in vitro assembly of genetically recombinant Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) viral capsid proteins (CPs) into biological nanotubes, several micrometres long yet with a diameter of only 17 nm, triggered by double-stranded DNAs of different lengths. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Wei Y, Zhang Y, Cai H, Mirza AM, Iorio RM, Peeples ME, Niewiesk S, Li J. Roles of the putative integrin-binding motif of the human metapneumovirus fusion (f) protein in cell-cell fusion, viral infectivity, and pathogenesis. (umassmed.edu)
  • On the other hand, if the virus dominates by evolving quasispecies which code for altered proteins that interact differently with host proteins, or induce mutations in host protooncogenes, then the patient may develop liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Among the six DTMUV strains, mutations were observed only at thirteen amino acid positions across three separate domains of the E protein. (nih.gov)
  • Point mutations generating stop codons very early in the coding sequences were constructed to prevent the expression of amino-terminal protein fragments which might have biological activity. (nih.gov)
  • Specific mutations in the viral peplomer protein, S protein, allowed a SCoV-like virus to cross the species barrier and become a highly infectious human pathogen ( 22 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • The characteristic reticular ER morphology was visualized using a commercially available, soluble ER lumen fusion protein, pECFP-ER (Clontech). (nih.gov)
  • Then, using the Advanced Photon Source at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, the research team employed high intensity X-rays to obtain data from the crystals, which they then interpreted in order to reconstruct the structure of the F fusion protein--the culmination of several years' worth of research. (eurekalert.org)
  • An example of a Class I viral fusion protein is the HIV glycoprotein, gp41. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a Class III viral fusion protein is the rabies virus glycoprotein, G. Class IV: Class IV viral fusion proteins are fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • PIPO is expressed as a fusion protein with the N-terminal half of P3 (P3N-PIPO) via transcriptional slippage of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). (nature.com)
  • Wei Y, Feng K, Yao X, Cai H, Li J, Mirza AM, Iorio RM, Li J. Localization of a region in the fusion protein of avian metapneumovirus that modulates cell-cell fusion. (umassmed.edu)
  • 11 . The isolated nucleic acid of any one of claims 3 - 10 , wherein the transmembrane protein is gp41 or a modified form of gp41, wherein the modification alters the immunogenicity of the molecule relative to wildtype gp41. (google.com)
  • 12 . The isolated nucleic acid of claim 11 , wherein the transmembrane protein is the gp41 ectodomain. (google.com)
  • 13 . The isolated nucleic acid of claim 11 or 12 , wherein the transmembrane protein is modified by the absence or presence of one or more canonical glycosylation sites absent or present in the wild type gp120. (google.com)
  • Evidence against extracellular exposure of a highly immunogenic region in the C-terminal domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus gp41 transmembrane protein. (umassmed.edu)
  • Latency II neoplasm includes nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma and is characterized by the expression of LMP1 ( 9 ), a transmembrane protein with transforming capacity for rodent fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The 122-amino-acid (aa)-long SCoV 7a protein (also known as X4 protein or U122 protein) is a type I transmembrane protein consisting of a 15-aa signal peptide sequence at its N terminus, an 81-aa luminal domain, a 21-aa transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal tail ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • These data indicate that specific HECT ubiquitin ligases can link PPXY motifs to the VPS pathway to induce viral budding. (rupress.org)
  • Importantly, these inhibitors induce a defective viral assembly phenotype that resembles that of L-domain mutants. (rupress.org)
  • Therefore, understanding the interactions between viral proteins and host cell proteins is very important to develop drugs for these liver diseases and HCC. (hindawi.com)
  • CPNT increased uptake of the green flourescent protein (GFP) into the cell when covalently fused to GFP or when present in trans of GFP. (apsnet.org)
  • Solving the structure of this protein proved difficult, the scientists say, because F is an unusual protein that exists in two different forms, including the metastable shape that it adopts before it harpoons a cell and collapses into its stable post-fusion conformation. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this review we focus on the interaction of viral proteins with important regulators of cell cycle-oncoproteins YB-1, p53, and cyclin D1-which play a major role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, and genomic stability. (hindawi.com)
  • Genetic variants of HCV accumulate in patients and alter these interactions of host cell proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • The result was the identification of roughly 950 cell proteins potentially involved in cancer. (healthcanal.com)
  • Analyzing protein function is a key focus in cell biology research. (clontech.com)
  • The findings, published in the Aug. 22 online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), demonstrate that a viral protein associated with human herpesvirus 8, or HHV8, may help to cause lymphoma by activating a key pathway involved in the production of lymphocytes, a common cell type found in lymphoid tissue that divide over and over and eventually develop into lymphoma. (rxpgnews.com)
  • They found that protein VII alters cellular chromatin in cell culture, in human lung tissue in the laboratory, and in mouse models. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This protein is part of a ubiquitin ligase complex that adds ubiquitin to proteins to mark them for destruction by the cell. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This points toward a role for the protein outside of the cell. (unclineberger.org)
  • Transfection efficiency of both nanoparticles using a plasmid encoding tdTomato fluorescent protein has been first evaluated in-vitro in two cell lines, and therefore the best formulation has been used for in-vivo transfection assays by sub-retinal injections in Long-Evans rats. (arvojournals.org)
  • A modular system of proteins can detect a particular DNA sequence in a cell and then trigger a specific response, such as cell death. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • Cambridge, MA) have developed a modular system of proteins that can detect a particular DNA sequence in a cell and then trigger a specific response, such as cell death. (bioopticsworld.com)
  • The coronavirus spike protein is a critical determinant of cell tropism and pathogenicity. (cornell.edu)
  • It is expressed on the viral surface and is responsible for binding the host cell receptor and initiating fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. (cornell.edu)
  • The pattern of viral protein evaluated by flow cytometry was noticeably different in the two cell types. (arvojournals.org)
  • In addition to causing cell cycle arrest, Vpr activation of ATR also leads to cellular apoptosis through BRCA1 protein, which is directly involved in the repair of damaged DNA. (ideaconnection.com)
  • Due to the difficulty in differentiating between specific and unspecific binding a new method for studying RNA-protein interactions was developed using a surface based detection approach. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The high-affinity and specificity of the Rev-RRE binding has been well characterized and was used as a model system to gauge the sensitivity of the surface based detection system, which can be further used to characterize various RNA-protein interactions. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Protein sensing platforms with high performance are highly desired in various applications such as medical diagnostics, bioprocess monitoring and bioterrorism detection. (aiche.org)
  • Using an efficient VLP enrichment protocol, Virotrap allows the detection of known binary interactions and MS-based identification of novel protein partners as well. (ugent.be)
  • Unlike ensemble measurements, SiMPull is a powerful tool that allows detection of diverse proteins present in a single complex and quantitation of the number of interacting partners when the proteins are stoichiometrically labeled. (illinois.edu)
  • Furthermore, the viral protein Nef down-regulates MHC-I molecules after it is produced between 6 and 12 h postinfection ( 11 , 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • New findings described here shall give insights into the antigenicity and evolution of this new pathogen and provide guidance for further functional studies of the E protein for which no effective vaccine has yet been developed. (nih.gov)
  • The findings were extended to a group of singly spliced viral mRNAs that produce Env in the following biochemical analyses. (nii.ac.jp)