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  • Replicase
  • By expressing various NS5 mutants, we found that the SUMO acceptor sites are located in the N-terminal domain of NS5 and that a putative SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) of this domain is crucial for its SUMOylation.SUMOylation-defective mutants also failed to suppress the induction of STAT2-mediated host antiviral interferon signaling.Here, we found that the replicase of DENV, nonstructural protein 5 (NS5), can be SUMOylated. (nih.gov)
  • replicon
  • We found that both viral protein expression (Fig. 1C) and replicon luciferase activity (Fig. 1D) were inhibited by silencing endogenous Ubc9 expression in BHK21-DENV2-SGR cells. (nih.gov)
  • interaction
  • The mechanism of translation enhancement remains unclear but may involve long range RNA-RNA interaction with the IRES, the binding of cellular proteins which stimulate translation and/or the recycling of ribosomes. (usask.ca)
  • Therefore, the protein-RNA interaction between NS5A and the poly-U/UC region has the potential to modulate viral translation. (usask.ca)
  • Therefore we set out to determine the role of NS5A and its individual domains in modulating viral translation and the role of the NS5A-poly-U/UC region interaction in this modulation. (usask.ca)
  • We use mass spectrometry-based approaches which can do more than simply determining the identity of a protein isolated in a polyacrylamide gel -- rapidly advancing technologies are allowing us to measure dynamic changes in protein abundances, post-translational modification states, splice isoforms, interaction partners, and localization across multiple cell states. (stanford.edu)
  • cytokine
  • METHODS: Human monocytes, human embryonic kidney cells transfected with TLR2, and peritoneal macrophages from TLR2, MyD88 knockout, and wild-type mice were studied to determine intracellular signaling and proinflammatory cytokine induction by HCV proteins. (umassmed.edu)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) attachment and nonstructural proteins modify the type I interferon response associated with suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins and IFN-stimulated gene-15 (ISG15). (nih.gov)
  • core protein
  • Nevertheless, core protein was detectable in the peak fractions from gradients of particles formed in the absence of NS2 (Fig. 5, lower panel). (nih.gov)
  • NSP1
  • The paper is to discuss the role of the non structural protein 1 also known as NSP1 which is found among the rotavirus as it is known to be responsible in the blockage of interferon also known as IFN. (write-right.net)
  • One will also discover that the over-expression of NSP1 can result to the blockage of IFN-β activation of the promoter which is induced by retinoic acid inducible gene I also called RIG-I. This will not inhibit the induction of IFN-β activation which is perpetrated mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) and indicates that the RIG-1 is targeted by NSP1. (write-right.net)
  • Rotavirus NSP1 contain 55-KDa of RNA binding of protein with a rotavirus gene 5. (write-right.net)
  • To establish the function of SARS NSP1 protein in translation regulation we attempted the identification of NSP1 protein partners using several types of protein affinity chromatography. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • antigen
  • Restoration of cytomegalovirus antigen presentation by gamma interferon combats viral escape. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Our lab focuses on developing new methods in protein fractionation, instrumentation, and data analysis to meet these challenges, and then applies them to studying important biomedical paradigms, including antigen presentation in cancer, and monitoring host responses to the gut microbiome. (stanford.edu)
  • Higher viral antigen positive cell frequencies were observed for DENV2 when compared with both vaccine viruses. (scielo.br)
  • NS5A
  • However, the role that NS5A and its individual domains may play in modulating viral translation remains controversial. (usask.ca)
  • Utilizing monocistronic RNA reporters which contain the viral 5´- and 3´-UTRs and an internal Renilla luciferase reporter gene, we determined that NS5A specifically down-regulates viral translation in a dose-dependent manner through a mechanism dependent upon the presence of the poly-U/UC region in the viral 3´-UTR. (usask.ca)
  • These results suggest that NS5A is able to interfere with the stimulation of viral translation exerted by the 3´-UTR. (usask.ca)
  • Having established a role for NS5A in modulating viral translation, we then aimed to determine which region of NS5A was responsible for this effect. (usask.ca)
  • We found that each of NS5A domains was capable of this modulatory effect on viral translation independently. (usask.ca)
  • ADP-ribosylation Factor-related Protein 1 Interacts with NS5A and Regulates Hepatitis C Virus Propagation. (nih.gov)
  • interact
  • Additionally, the R112A mutation appears to affect the ability of domain I to interact with the poly-U/UC region of the viral 3´-UTR alluding to the possible mechanism of translation modulation. (usask.ca)
  • Accordingly, we sought host factors that interact with the influenza viral nonstructural protein 2 by using coimmunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • residues
  • Furthermore, we have identified a number of positively charged residues within this region involved in the modulation of viral translation, in particular arginine 112 (R112). (usask.ca)
  • mutations
  • We found that mutations R112A and E148A individually negate the ability of domain I to modulate viral translation and these mutations impede the formation of domain I dimers. (usask.ca)
  • genes
  • However, certain viral and cellular mRNAs, notably encoding proto-oncogenes and regulatory genes, contain long 5' noncoding regions with multiple AUG codons. (stanford.edu)
  • C ) The titers of influenza virus (WSN) and VSV in HEK 293 cells treated with GFP siRNA (control), F1α siRNA, F1β siRNA, or siRNA of viral genes (NP for WSN, L for VSV). (nih.gov)
  • internal ribosome
  • These developments have provided a solid foundation for studying the regulation of translation initiation by mechanisms that include the modulation of initiation factor activity, internal ribosome initiation and through sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • In a second line of investigation, we are studying the unusual mechanism of translation initiation by internal ribosome entry in certain viral (i.e. (stanford.edu)
  • Specifically, we are addressing the following questions: Which cellular and viral mRNAs can be translated by internal ribosome binding? (stanford.edu)
  • regulate
  • These lines of investigations will lead to new insights how these small noncoding RNAs regulate expression of cellular and viral mRNAs and may point to new venues for antiviral therapeutics against HCV. (stanford.edu)
  • DENV
  • Consistent with this, culture media derived from DENV-infected siUbc9 cells also showed a lower viral titer than that from the control siRNA-transfected cells (Fig. 1B). (nih.gov)
  • transmission
  • From the fifth cycle onwards, the virus was finally detected in the mosquitoes' saliva, indicating that viral transmission was possible. (eurekalert.org)