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  • Intracellular
  • Though the impact was marginal at later time-points, the collective data suggest that viral replication can be reduced by crosslinking intracellular NP using relatively small amounts of dimeric sdAb to restrict NP packaging. (frontiersin.org)
  • The idea of turning the humoral immune system inside out ( 1 ) as a means of intracellular immunization ( 2 ) was first demonstrated by Antman and Livingston in 1980 ( 3 ) where IgG specific for SV40 T antigens were capable of inhibiting viral DNA synthesis following microinjection into cells permissive for replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • thereby
  • We hypothesized that RNC would be ideal targets for crosslinkers engineered to promote aberrant protein-protein interactions, thereby blocking their orderly transport and packaging. (frontiersin.org)
  • replication
  • However, SIVcpz replication in HLT was significantly improved after introduction of a previously identified human-specific adaptation at position 30 in the viral Gag matrix protein. (jci.org)
  • An Arg or Lys at this position significantly increased SIVcpz replication in HLT, while the same mutation reduced viral replication in chimpanzee-derived CD4+ T cells. (jci.org)
  • However, efficient replication requires the acquisition of a host-specific adaptation in the viral matrix protein. (jci.org)
  • These results identify Gag matrix as a major determinant of SIVcpz replication fitness in humans and suggest a critical role in the emergence of HIV/AIDS. (jci.org)
  • The replication component consists of viral genomic RNA encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) and a RNA polymerase complex (Large subunit L and phosphoprotein P). These two components are linked together by the matrix protein (M) that is believed to play a crucial role in the assembly and maturation of the virion particle by bringing the two major viral components together at the budding site in the host cell. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • The observation that the nucleocapsid protein interacts with both soluble and membrane-bound form suggests that the matrix protein can possibly interact itself to facilitate the assembly of replication component at the site of budding where the transport component is already assembled. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • Viral proteins of many RNA viruses interact with detergent-resistant host components that facilitate their transport inside the cell to the sits of assembly or replication. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • Nuclear import and export of viral nucleic acids is crucial for the replication cycle of many viruses, and elucidation of the mechanism of these steps may provide a paradigm for understanding general biological processes. (embopress.org)
  • MicroRNA hsa-miR-324-5p Suppresses H5N1 Virus Replication by Targeting the Viral PB1 and Host CUEDC2. (amedeo.com)
  • As a result, after more than a decade of intense research, there is still no consensus on which HIV-1 and cellular proteins control this critical step in HIV-1 replication. (springer.com)
  • As a clearer picture of the pattern of HIV-1 replication evolves, it becomes apparent that HIV-1 biology is distinct from that of the prototypic simple retroviruses in several key aspects, particularly with regard to host cell range and determinants of viral permissiveness. (springer.com)
  • Though the impact was marginal at later time-points, the collective data suggest that viral replication can be reduced by crosslinking intracellular NP using relatively small amounts of dimeric sdAb to restrict NP packaging. (frontiersin.org)
  • By retuning sdAb specificity, the approach of crosslinking highly conserved regions of assembly critical proteins may well be applicable to inhibiting replication processes of a broad spectrum of viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The idea of turning the humoral immune system inside out ( 1 ) as a means of intracellular immunization ( 2 ) was first demonstrated by Antman and Livingston in 1980 ( 3 ) where IgG specific for SV40 T antigens were capable of inhibiting viral DNA synthesis following microinjection into cells permissive for replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • We investigated whether the glycoproteins of HRSV were involved in the late stages of viral replication by utilizing recombinant viruses where each individual glycoprotein gene was deleted and replaced with a reporter gene to maintain wild-type levels of gene expression. (hindawi.com)
  • image of bird flu viruses and human flu viruses entering the same cell and pandemic influenza emerging, diagram of replication of viruses showing reassortment of viral RNA genome segments (genetic mixing or recombination) creating a new viral strain (reassortant) with the potential to create a catastrophic new flu pandemic against which no flu vaccine will protect. (rkm.com.au)
  • The dual action of these viral proteins may contribute to an efficient initial virus replication and dissemination in the host. (mdpi.com)
  • recombinant protein
  • CD19+ B cells isolated from normal volunteers (n = 3) were cultured with various formulations of CD40L, including CD40L expressed on transfected cells (irradiated NIH3T3/tCD40L), a recombinant homotrimer with a short linker (shrtCD40L, gray symbols), and the test recombinant protein with a long flexible linker (CD40L-Tri, black symbols). (nih.gov)
  • Influenza Vaccines: From whole virus preparations to recombinant protein technology, 31-42. (usd.edu)
  • cellular
  • To perform this function, M protein should be able to interact with the host cellular membrane, especially the plasma membrane in the case of Rinderpest virus, should be able to interact with itself to form multimers as well as with the nucleocapsid core. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • The interaction and function between c-Jun protein and Jun B protein increase the repertoire of possible regulatory complexes by LMP1 that could play an important role in the regulation of transcription of specific cellular genes in the process of genesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A functional domain on the NS2 with characteristics of a nuclear export signal was mapped: it interacts with cellular nucleoporins, can functionally replace the effector domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1) Rev protein and mediates rapid nuclear export when cross‐linked to a reporter protein. (embopress.org)
  • Viral L domains are thought to serve as docking sites for interactions with specific cellular proteins, and the resultant virus-host interactions are believed to facilitate efficient virus budding (for a review, see reference 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Many cellular proteins that interact peripherally with the cytoplasmic leaflet of membranes have basic amino acid-rich domains ( 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Further, the action of VP35 is synergized by the inhibition of cellular responses to IFN-α/β by the minor matrix viral protein VP24. (mdpi.com)
  • ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. (cancer-genetics.org)
  • antigen
  • Toward enhance the effectiveness of gene delivery through the beginning of molecules directly into cells.Virosomes has been developed in combining various agents like antigen, drug and DNA amongfusiongenic viral cover proteins. (pharmatutor.org)
  • transfected cells
  • In transiently transfected cells, M protein existed in two isoforms namely the soluble cytosolic form and membrane-bound form. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • The presence of GFPM in filamentous structures in transfected cells, as visualized by confocal microscopy could also be due to self-assembly of M protein. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • Bacterial
  • Here we report the optimized expression of a synthetic gene of Z protein, using three expression systems (two bacterial and a baculoviral one). (hindawi.com)
  • Creation of a swine reverse genetics influenza virus system for evaluation of viral bacterial pathogenesis, SSOM Research Committee. (usd.edu)
  • infectious
  • To increase the number of the infectious disease specialist with the proper knowledge of viral hemorrhagic fever including EVD is a common problem for infectious disease physicians working in Japan, the academic society, and the government. (bireme.br)
  • This conversion to an infectious particle is brought about by the cleavage of viral proteins by the virus-encoded protease (PR). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • membranes
  • The membrane-bound M protein associated stably with the membranes, most likely by a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which is inhibited at high salt or high pH, but not completely. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • terminus
  • The ability of VP40 to bud as a VLP is due, in part, to the presence of L domains present at the N terminus of the protein ( 12 , 14 , 17 ). (asm.org)
  • disease
  • Anti-viral therapy in Alzheimer's disease will investigate the efficacy of treating patients with mild Alzheimer's disease with the U.S.A marketed generic anti-viral drug Valtrex (valacycl. (bioportfolio.com)
  • crucial
  • Membrane binding of Gag, a crucial step in HIV-1 assembly, is facilitated by bipartite signals within the matrix (MA) domain: N-terminal myristoyl moiety and the highly basic region (HBR). (pnas.org)
  • structures
  • The purified M protein when visualized by Electron microscopy showed the presence of globular structures, which may be due to self association of M protein, which may be due to self-aggregation of M protein. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • nucleus
  • therefore, a switch in the direction of viral RNA transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm must occur for the virus replicative cycle to be completed. (embopress.org)
  • Protein export requires a specific nuclear export signal (NES), which functions independently of surrounding peptide sequences and can confer the ability to be transported out of the nucleus on another protein to which it is fused. (embopress.org)
  • Role
  • These findings provide a more complete understanding of the role of VP40 and additional Ebola virus proteins during budding. (asm.org)
  • In vitro and in vivo experimental infections with recombinant Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV), the best characterized filovirus, demonstrated that the viral protein VP35 plays a key role in inhibiting the production of IFN-α/β. (mdpi.com)
  • soluble
  • This is in agreement with the previous observation from the laboratory that the purified matrix protein remained soluble in the presence of detergent and 1M NaCl. (iisc.ernet.in)