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  • immunity
  • Early clinical trials demonstrate that adoptive transfer of donor-derived virus-specific T cells to restore virus-specific immunity is an effective strategy to control CMV and EBV infection after HSCT, conferring protection in 70%-90% of patients. (jci.org)
  • If, however, innate and adaptive immunity successfully suppress viral replication, specific life-long immunity may result. (mdpi.com)
  • proteins
  • Based on in-vitro experiments, it is known that RLR proteins bind to certain characteristic patterns in viral RNAs, but it had not been possible to isolate the precise RNA sequences bound by these proteins in living, virus-infected cells," says Professor Karl-Peter Hopfner of LMU's Genzentrum. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers found that the RLR proteins RIG-I and MDA5 indeed recognize defined elements within viral RNAs in living cells that have been infected by measles virus. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, this molecule must then be transcribed by its associated viral RNA polymerase to generate the mRNAs required for synthesis of viral proteins and propagation of the infection. (innovations-report.com)
  • Hopfner and his team now plan to investigate the interaction of RLRs with other viral nucleic acids, in order to obtain a clearer picture of the molecular mechanisms that enable these proteins to detect foreign RNAs. (innovations-report.com)
  • These are special proteins which are quickly released in response to a viral infection and which can trigger a relevant immune response against the cells under attack. (eurekalert.org)
  • vitro
  • The field has evolved rapidly to develop solutions to some of the manufacturing challenges identified in early clinical studies, such as prolonged in vitro culture, optimization of the purity of the virus-specific T cell product, the potential limitations of targeting a single viral antigen, and how to manage the patient with a virus-naive donor. (jci.org)
  • Moreover, high susceptibilities of MSCs to viral infections in vitro could reflect the destructive outcomes that might impair the clinical efficacy of MSCs infusion. (hindawi.com)
  • And while RIG-I preferentially binds to certain sequence patterns found at the exposed ends of different viral RNAs both in vitro and in vivo, MDA5 rather surprisingly recognizes not the viral genome itself, but apparently certain regions located within viral mRNAs," Hopfner explains. (innovations-report.com)
  • antigen
  • 2004) Toxoplasma gondii antigen-pulsed-dendritic cell-derived exosomes induce a protective immune response against T. gondii infection. (springer.com)
  • Colino J, Snapper CM (2007) Dendritic cell-derived exosomes express a Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide type 14 cross-reactive antigen that induces protective immunoglobulin responses against pneumococcal infection in mice. (springer.com)
  • rotavirus
  • Central to this is the discovery that two different but related elements of the immune system can act together in concert to fight, for example, rotavirus infections. (eurekalert.org)
  • Infection with rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhea in children around the world. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers were able to use the example of the rotavirus to demonstrate how such an infection could be very effectively battled. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause of diarrhea in children and is responsible for more than 500,000 deaths around the world each year. (eurekalert.org)
  • We were able to show that interferon-lambda (IFN-λ), although a required factor, is not capable by itself to control rotavirus infection but that the presence of interleukin-22 (IL-22) is also necessary to effectively combat rotavirus," explained Professor Andreas Diefenbach of the Department of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene of the Mainz University Medical Center. (eurekalert.org)
  • bronchitis
  • my husband came down with a viral bronchitis.does that mean that his viral load went high ,and his body is not strong enough to fight infections,what can happen as a result of being hiv possitive and having a viral bronchitis.can it become pcp, how can we prevent from him getting a pcp. (thebody.com)
  • A viral bronchitis is not PCP. (thebody.com)
  • persistent
  • Persistent infections may involve successive stages of silent and productive infection without rapidly killing or even producing excessive damage to the host cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causative agent for cervical cancer, and establishes persistent infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • Persistent viral infections, particularly those caused by HCV, HIV, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), an experimental model of persistent viral infections lead to a number of dysfunction to the humoral response such as an excessive production of non-specific antibodies (hypergammaglobulinemia) and a dysregulation of B cell subpopulations. (eurekalert.org)
  • While it is unclear if sustained IFN-I production is a cause or consequence of persistent viral infection, it clearly plays an important role in humoral response disruption offering a promising therapeutic target against chronic viral infections. (eurekalert.org)
  • persistence
  • There are encouraging preliminary results with a live CMV vaccine, but the questions of viral persistence and oncogenicity require further evaluation. (springer.com)
  • The course will focus specifically on remarkable examples of viral persistence e.g. (pasteur.fr)
  • disease
  • They found that seasonal variations and clustering of appendicitis cases support the theory that appendicitis may be a viral disease, like the flu, Dr. Livingston said. (innovations-report.com)
  • Reovirus is an infection that is generally asymptomatic in humans, so its role in the development of celiac disease is especially interesting. (healthcentral.com)
  • Future research will be needed to see which, if any, additional viral infections (and the specific strain) may play a role in celiac disease. (healthcentral.com)
  • The mechanisms in which the viral infections effect the immune system, boosting the immune systems of susceptible persons, and vaccinating against these specific viral infections in those with a genetic risk of developing celiac disease could be the keys to preventing the disease in the future. (healthcentral.com)
  • allogeneic
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. (jci.org)
  • endogenous
  • Moreover, these regions differ in their base composition from sequences found in other viral RNAs, suggesting that MDA5 relies on these structural differences to discriminate between viral and endogenous RNAs. (innovations-report.com)
  • AIDS
  • In recent times, viral infections have been responsible for two major pandemics: the 1918-1919 "Spanish flu " epidemic that killed 20-40 million people, and the ongoing HIV /AIDS epidemic that killed an estimated 1.5 million people worldwide in 2013 alone. (webmd.com)
  • cellular
  • Although beneficial for the viral life cycle, virus-mediated alterations in normal cell cycle control mechanisms could have detrimental effects on cellular physiology and may ultimately contribute to pathologies associated with the viral infection, including cell transformation and cancer progression and maintenance. (springer.com)
  • clinical
  • The clinical manifestations of neonatal infections vary depending on the viral agent and gestational age at exposure. (medscape.com)
  • In this Research Topic entitled "Animal model studies on viral infections", we accept manuscript submissions on a wide variety of basic and clinical studies as either Review, Mini-review, Perspective, Opinion, Original Research, Methods, or General Commentary article, etc. (frontiersin.org)