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  • genomes
  • Although all of the DI genomes studied to date are shorter than the standard viral genome and are deletion mutants, it is possible some DI genome may contain an altered nucleic acid sequence(s) rather than a deletion(s) and become defective as well as interfering. (springer.com)
  • In addition, this methodology has allowed genetic manipulation of viral genomes in order to generate new viruses, which can be used as live, attenuated vaccines or vectors to express heterologous proteins ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • The order Mononegavirales comprises highly diversified eukaryotic viruses with a monopartite negative strand RNA genome (rarely bipartite genomes), which includes important human pathogens [e.g., rabies virus (RABV), measles virus (MeV), Nipah virus (NiV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), Ebola virus (EBOV)] ( Lamb, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Since gene products as well as RNA genomes of these non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses share structural and functional similarities, they are believed to have evolved from a common ancestor. (frontiersin.org)
  • replicate
  • When a normal influenza strain infects one of these protected' cells, it produces proteins which are required for the protecting virus to replicate. (jyi.org)
  • Elucidation of their unique strategies to replicate in eukaryotic cells is crucial to aid in developing anti-NNS RNA viral agents. (frontiersin.org)
  • PRNTase or PRNTase-like domains are evolutionally conserved among L proteins of all known NNS RNA viruses and their related viruses belonging to Jingchuvirales , a newly established order, in the class Monjiviricetes , suggesting that they may have evolved from a common ancestor that acquired the unique capping system to replicate in a primitive eukaryotic host. (frontiersin.org)
  • Retroviruses are enveloped positive-strand RNA viruses that replicate through a DNA intermediate inserted in the host cell genome ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • mutants
  • DIPs are deletion mutants of a wild-type (WT) virus that lack genes necessary to complete their reproduction cycle. (siam.org)
  • Interestingly, only 3 of the 21 samples that were positive for mumps RNA were positive with both sets of primers, indicating that the persistence of mumps virus in the myocardium may be related to the selection of defective virus mutants. (ahajournals.org)
  • intracellularly
  • More recently, alternative methods for introducing influenza virus RNPs into cells have been developed, based on intracellular reconstitution of RNPs from in vivo-transcribed RNA and intracellularly expressed viral proteins ( 23 , 24 , 28 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • double-stranded
  • In many of the viruses that contain double-stranded DNA, the DNA gets packaged so tightly that it bends upon itself, resulting in repulsive forces that exert a tremendous amount of pressure on the virus's outer shell, indicating a great amount of stored energy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • vesicular stoma
  • Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus [hereafter simply called vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)] is an arthropod-borne animal virus belonging to the Vesiculovirus genus in the Rhabdoviridae family. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ebola
  • Non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses belonging to the order Mononegavirales are highly diversified eukaryotic viruses including significant human pathogens, such as rabies, measles, Nipah, and Ebola. (frontiersin.org)
  • novel
  • Several novel anti-influenza compounds are in various phases of clinical development. (asm.org)
  • Our findings reveal novel functions for NP in selective control of IAV gene packaging and balancing glycoprotein expression and suggest a role for incomplete gene packaging during host adaptation and transmission. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, our results suggest a novel mechanism for the influenza virus to antagonize the innate immune response by NS2. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vaccinia, cowpox, and camelpox viruses encode soluble gamma interferon receptors with novel broad species specificity. (asm.org)
  • bacteriophages
  • In this study, we looked at viruses that infect bacteria, called bacteriophages, as an experimental model system, but ITC can also be applied to other types of viruses. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Many viruses have striking geometrically regular shapes, with helical structure as in tobacco mosaic virus, polyhedral (often icosahedral) symmetry as in herpes virus, or more complex mixtures of arrangements as in large viruses, such as the pox viruses and the larger bacterial viruses, or bacteriophages bacteriophage , virus that infects bacteria and sometimes destroys them by lysis, or dissolution of the cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • mutations
  • Sequence analysis showed enrichment of G→A and C→T transversion mutations, increased mutation frequency, and a shift of the nucleotide profiles of individual NP gene clones under drug selection pressure. (asm.org)
  • virology
  • The discovery of IFN was driven by the new field of virology ( 1 ) and studies of influenza A virus (IAV) in the 1950s through which the interferon was defined by Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann. (jimmunol.org)
  • Current models of retroviral biology adhere to basic principles of virology ( 2 ), explain most empirical data on retroviruses, and assume a complete reliance on retroviral Env proteins for the binding and fusion of retroviral particles with host cells ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • H5N1
  • Orally administered T-705 at a dose of ≥30 mg/kg of body weight/day prevented death, inhibited lung consolidation, and reduced lung virus titers in BALB/c mice lethally challenged with H5N1- and H3N2-subtype viruses ( 12 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • molecules
  • Intracellular detection of virus infections is a critical component of innate immunity carried out by molecules known as pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). (pnas.org)
  • In this work we use next-generation RNA sequencing to show that RIG-I preferentially associates with shorter, 5′ppp containing viral RNA molecules in infected cells. (pnas.org)
  • He also discovered that the ordering of water molecules around DNA strands inside the virus (called hydration entropy) has a tremendous influence on the build up of energy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, these models do not provide a mechanistic explanation for many important properties of retroviruses, including the array of host cell molecules in retroviral particles ( 3 - 5 ), the observation of receptor-independent and Env-independent retroviral infections ( 6 - 8 ), and the ability of retroviruses to thrive in the presence of otherwise healthy adaptive immune systems ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • sequences
  • Bishop, D. H. L., Jones, K. L., Huddleston, J. A., Brownlee, G. G.: Influenza A vims evolution: Complete sequences of influenza A/NT/60/68 RNA segment 3 and its predicted acidic P polypeptide compared with those of influenza A/PR/8/34. (springer.com)
  • therapeutic
  • Influenza is one of the most significant acute upper respiratory tract infections for which therapeutic options are limited. (asm.org)
  • cells
  • IFN-γ is the sole type 2 IFN and is encoded by a single gene expressed by activated immune cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • It had just been realized that viruses were different from bacteria in that they replicated through a means beyond binary fission within animal cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • It does this by infecting potential host cells and lying in wait for a harmful virus to come along. (jyi.org)
  • We have rescued influenza A virus by transfection of 12 plasmids into Vero cells. (asm.org)
  • This constitutes an essential envelope of protection for the viral genome to survive outside of the cells and be able to enter and infect new cells. (siam.org)
  • A single mutation within the V3 envelope neutralization domain of feline immunodeficiency virus determines its tropism for CRFK cells. (asm.org)
  • Herpes Simplex Vi
  • Long-term expression in sensory neurons in tissue culture from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) promoters in an HSV-1-derived vector. (asm.org)