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  • Infection
  • The multiplicity of infection (MOI) was optimized, and a MOI of 0.5 was best, with a 99.25% reduction in viral plaque formation compared to the wild type vaccinia virus. (oregonstate.edu)
  • vaccinia
  • A growth curve over 12 hours was done and the vvtetO:I7L/G1L in the "on" state closely followed the growth kinetics of the wild type vaccinia virus and the vvtetO:I7L/G1L in the "off" state had significantly lower viral titers throughout the last 6 hours of the cycle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • capsid assembly
  • Assembly Pharmaceuticals was formed in 2012 to develop drugs based on the breakthrough science of co-founder and Indiana University professor Adam Zlotnick, PhD. Dr. Zlotnick is a pioneer in the biophysics of viral capsid assembly. (biocrossroads.com)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid assembly is a critical step in the propagation of the virus and is mediated by the core protein. (asm.org)
  • pgRNA
  • This core protein mRNA, which is also termed the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), is packaged by the core protein to form the viral core particle. (asm.org)
  • Cytoplasmic HBV pgRNA appeared to be reduced by siRNA treatment specific for the NXF1-p15 complex by quantitative RT-qPCR and Northern blot analyses.This result suggests that the pgRNA was also exported via the NXF1-p15 machinery.Taken together, it suggests that while both pgRNA and HBc protein exports are dependent on NXF1-p15, they are using the same export machinery in a manner independent of each other. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, HBc ARD can mediate nuclear export of a chimeric protein containing HBc ARD in a pgRNA-independent manner. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, it suggests that while both pgRNA and HBc protein exports are dependent on NXF1-p15, they are using the same export machinery in a manner independent of each other. (nih.gov)
  • Profiling of HBV RNA from both culture supernatants and patient serum showed that extracellular viral RNA consisted of pgRNA and spliced pgRNA variants with an internal deletion(s) but still retained the sequences at both the 5′ and 3′ ends. (asm.org)
  • The HBV core protein is encoded by the pgRNA and serves multiple functions within the viral life cycle ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • capsids
  • Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. (mdpi.com)
  • induces
  • Since expression of full-length and DII-core induces LD migration towards the perinuclear region, a molecular motor imbalance should drive a greater frequency of travel runs in the retrograde direction. (nih.gov)
  • A single point mutation of Ala-25 to Asp in the 14,000-Mr envelope protein of vaccinia virus induces a size change that leads to the small plaque size phenotype of the virus. (asm.org)
  • mRNAs
  • After the infection of hepatocytes, this DNA is repaired to form a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) molecule, which then directs the transcription of viral mRNAs. (asm.org)
  • mRNA
  • We entertain the hypothesis that HBc protein can be exported as an RNP cargo via the mRNA export pathway by hijacking the TREX and NXF1-p15 complex. (nih.gov)
  • pathways
  • Regulation of cell signaling pathways by the HBV HBx protein is thought to influence the development of HBV-associated liver cancer. (asm.org)
  • We reported that hepatitis C virus (HCV) core and nonstructural 3 (NS3) proteins activate inflammatory pathways in monocytes. (umassmed.edu)
  • antiviral
  • The guided localization of LDs by HCV core protein not only is essential to the viral life cycle but also poses an interesting target for the development of antiviral strategies against HCV. (nih.gov)
  • Antiviral profiling in primary human hepatocytes revealed that CAMs prevented formation of covalently closed circular DNA in a dose-dependent fashion when the compound was added together with the viral inoculum, whereas nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) did not. (asm.org)
  • TLR2
  • METHODS: Human monocytes, human embryonic kidney cells transfected with TLR2, and peritoneal macrophages from TLR2, MyD88 knockout, and wild-type mice were studied to determine intracellular signaling and proinflammatory cytokine induction by HCV proteins. (umassmed.edu)
  • RESULTS: HCV core and NS3 proteins triggered inflammatory cell activation via the pattern recognition receptor TLR2 and failed to activate macrophages from TLR2 or MyD88-deficient mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • TLR2-mediated cell activation was dependent on the conformation of core and NS3 proteins and required sequences in the regions of aa 2-122 in core and aa 1450-1643 in NS3. (umassmed.edu)
  • HCV core protein and TLR2 showed intracellular colocalization. (umassmed.edu)
  • Further, TLR2 recognition of HCV core and NS3 was not augmented by co-expression of the TLR co-receptor, CD14. (umassmed.edu)
  • genes
  • Viral core protein processing in the "on" and "off" states, and in rescue experiments with transfected plasmids containing the I7L or G1L genes, was examined by immunoblot assay. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Antigen
  • A recombinant hepatitis B core antigen polypeptide with the protamine-like domain deleted self-assembles into capsid particles but fails to bind nucleic acids. (asm.org)
  • expression
  • Oral administration of the SPP inhibitor to transgenic mice expressing HCV core protein (CoreTg) reduces the expression of core protein and ameliorates insulin resistance and liver steatosis. (ozgene.com)
  • This inhibition of autophagy slightly reduced HBV gene expression and affected nuclear localization of the HBV core protein. (asm.org)
  • Expression vectors pCMV-BAT1, pCMV-DDX39 (lane 3, left panel), and pCMV-ALY (lane 3, right panel), were shown to produce their respective protein products by Western blot analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of core protein's lipid binding domain II (DII-core) induced slower LD speeds, but did not affect directionality of movement on microtubules. (nih.gov)
  • tumor
  • Physiological functions of Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein and its role in tumourigenesis. (nih.gov)
  • nuclear
  • Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB by core and NS3 was associated with increased IkappaBalpha phosphorylation. (umassmed.edu)
  • life cycle
  • His research has led to the discovery of multiple families of small molecules known as Core Protein Allosteric Modulators (CpAMs), which target the HBV core protein, a unique viral protein with no human analogue that is involved in multiple stages of the HBV life cycle. (biocrossroads.com)
  • Host cell lipid droplets (LD) are essential in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle and are targeted by the viral capsid core protein. (nih.gov)
  • Our data show that CAMs have a dual mechanism of action, inhibiting early and late steps of the viral life cycle. (asm.org)
  • sequences
  • Transforming activity of a 16-amino-acid segment of the bovine papillomavirus E5 protein linked to random sequences of hydrophobic amino acids. (asm.org)
  • immature
  • The immature core protein produced in SPP-knockout cells or by treatment with an SPP inhibitor is quickly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (ozgene.com)
  • TRC8, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is required for the degradation of the immature core protein. (ozgene.com)
  • microbial
  • The autophagosomal lumen may contain protein aggregates, damaged organelles, such as mitochondria, and microbial pathogens. (asm.org)
  • nucleus
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) can shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • Accumulation of HBc protein in the nucleus can be induced by the interference with TREX and NXF1-p15 mediated RNA export machinery. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, directionality of LD travel was assessed against cytoplasmic location, relative to the nucleus, since DII-core coated LDs were also observed to be scattered throughout the cell (Figure S4). (nih.gov)
  • formation
  • ClpV recycles VipA/VipB tubules and prevents non-productive tubule formation to ensure efficient type VI protein secretion. (nih.gov)
  • viruses
  • Proteins associated with the late endosome (LE) appear to play a central role in the envelopment of a number of taxonomically diverse viruses. (springer.com)