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  • replication
  • Structures of herpes simplex virus type 1 genes required for replication of virus DNA. (asm.org)
  • A C-terminal domain in the avian sarcoma-leukosis virus pol gene product is not essential for viral replication. (asm.org)
  • The recognition of the importance of Rous's discovery after such a long delay was largely owing to the cell transformation assay in monolayer culture of chick embryo fibroblasts reported by Temin & Rubin [ 7 ] in 1958 which enabled quantitative experimental studies of virus replication and cell transformation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • For small DNA tumour viruses, the full replication cycle occurs via non-integrated circular viral genomes, whereas viral integration into host DNA usually leads to abortive infection and sometimes to cell transformation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Reverse transcription-mediated recombination may involve endogenous virus-like elements, as seen in studies of various replication-defective retroviral mutants ( 6 , 7 , 9 , 31 , 32 , 34 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • To address this issue, primary and immortalized human cells were tested for their ability to be infected by MCF packaged defective vectors as well as replication competent MCF virus. (umassmed.edu)
  • The cellular tropism of MPAC-packaged retroviral vectors was the same as replication competent MCF viruses. (umassmed.edu)
  • In addition, I show that some human cells fully support MCF virus replication while others either partially or fully restrict MCF virus replication. (umassmed.edu)
  • In addition, the human cells that express a receptor for MCF viral entry did not show any further block to viral replication. (umassmed.edu)
  • A replication competent MCF virus containing a bacterial amber suppressor tRNA gene ( supF ) was used to investigate the changes in the enhancer region following injection of MCF containing one enhancer in the LTR. (umassmed.edu)
  • These ERVs affect retrovirus-induced disease in a number of ways, including manipulation of the immune response, inhibition or facilitation of entry or other steps of virus replication, or as participants in the generation of infectious pathogenic viruses. (springer.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exhibits a highly restricted host cell tropism and is only capable of efficient replication in primary or immortalized human T cells and macrophages. (asm.org)
  • The discovery of human gene products that are expressed in these cells and are essential for virus replication has raised the possibility that nonhuman organisms, particularly rodents, might be engineered to express these molecules, thereby rendering them able to support a productive HIV-1 replication cycle ( 8 , 20 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • In this review, we will focus on results from in vivo studies that provide insights into the relationship between retroviral RNA dimerization and packaging, and the biological relevance of these activities to viral replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • thymic
  • E710.2.3 is a murine thymic lymphoma cell line with an immature phenotype (CD4 − CD8 − ) that proliferates in response to thymocytes or PMA when cultured at low density and proliferates spontaneously when grown at high density. (jimmunol.org)
  • E710.2.3 is a cloned murine CD4 − CD8 − thymic T lymphoma cell line. (jimmunol.org)
  • RNAs
  • The late spliced 19S and 16S RNAs of simian virus 40 can be synthesized from a common pool of transcripts. (asm.org)
  • Copackaging of heterologous viral RNAs and a subsequent high rate of recombination during reverse transcription have been demonstrated in numerous studies ( 14-17 , 39 , 54 , 55 , 59 , 66 , 68 ). (asm.org)
  • genome
  • Khoury G., Carter B. J., Ferdinand F. Genome localization of simian virus 40 RNA species. (medkursor.ru)
  • The virus integrates into the cellular genome and inserts its DNA near or within genes, which leads to various outcomes: (i) The insertion site is too far away from a protooncogene and thus does not activate it. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The absolute conservation of this unique genome structure within the Retroviridae family is strong evidence that a dimerized genome is of critical importance to the viral life cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genes
  • Identification of herpes simplex virus type 1 genes required for origin-dependent DNA synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Functional mapping of Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus genes required for late gene expression. (asm.org)
  • Four viral genes independently contribute to attenuation of live influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) cold-adapted reassortant virus vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Virol
  • Pampeno, C. L. and Meruelo, D., Isolation of a retroviruslike sequence from the TL locus of the C57BL/10 murine major histocompatibility complex, J. Virol. (springer.com)
  • infectivity
  • Here, we show that rodent cells exhibit differential sensitivity to infection by vesicular stomatitis virus G-pseudotyped lentiviruses and that differences between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac) infectivity are sometimes, but not always, governed by determinants in capsid-p2. (asm.org)
  • gene
  • Vaccinia virus-encoded ribonucleotide reductase: sequence conservation of the gene for the small subunit and its amplification in hydroxyurea-resistant mutants. (asm.org)
  • Mapping and identification of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene. (asm.org)
  • Cloning of a new murine endogenous retrovirus, MuERV-L, with strong similarity to the human HERV-L element and with a gag coding sequence closely related to the Fv1 restriction gene. (springer.com)
  • One such activity is exhibited by the product of a murine gene, Fv1 , which can confer substantial resistance to infection by murine leukemia virus (MLV) ( 15 , 24 , 28 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Barbacid M., Stephenson J. R., Aaronson S. A. Gag Gene of mammalian type - С RNA tumour viruses. (medkursor.ru)
  • Our group first documented that viral infections and virus-induced transformations can significantly affect class I gene expression. (springer.com)
  • Lymphocytes
  • Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) were identified during the late 1960's (1,2) and are thought to be important effector cells in immunity to viruses (3) and in allograft rejection (4), Despite considerable effort during the past decade, little has been learned about the biochemical basis for the killing event. (springer.com)
  • simian
  • Integration of viral DNA into host DNA was first discerned for the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage lambda by Andre Lwoff in 1950 and for the simian DNA virus SV40 in cultured mammalian cells in 1968 [ 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Khoury G., May E. Regulation of early and late simian virus 40 transcription: overproduction of early viral RNA in the absence of a functional T-antigen. (medkursor.ru)
  • Photochemical addition of the cross-linking reagent 4,5', 8-trimethylpsoralen (trioxaslen) to intracellular and viral simian virus 40 DNA-histone complexes. (asm.org)
  • Measurements of the molecular size of the simian virus 40 large T antigen. (asm.org)
  • Beth E., Cikes M., Schloen L. Interspecies species- and type - specific determinants of human papovaviruses (JC and BK) and of simian virus 40. (medkursor.ru)
  • Lymphoid
  • Since HRX ‐associated leukemias often express markers of both lymphoid and myeloid lineages, it is possible that HRX translocations may occur at the level of a multipotent hematopoietic progenitor or hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), leading to the disruption of normal genetic programs for terminal differentiation. (embopress.org)
  • molecule
  • X. Identification of an IgD-like molecule on the surface of murine splenocytes. (naver.com)
  • In agreement with the essential role of the PBS in initiation and completion of reverse transcription ( 35 , 47 , 62 ), we previously observed a strong restriction in transduction of Akv murine leukemia virus (MLV) vectors with PBSs having only partial (PBS-XXX) or no [PBS-UMU and PBS-Met(i)int] homology with the 3′ end of any known murine tRNA molecule ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Murine cells expressing a HLA molecule are specifically lysed by HLA restricted antiviral human T cells. (histrecmed.fr)
  • synthesis
  • Hanafusa H. Synthesis and integration of viral DNA in chicken cells at different times after infection with various multiplicities of avian oncornavirus. (medkursor.ru)
  • By use of the same forced recombination system, we have now found recombinant proviruses of different structures, suggesting that PBS knockout vectors may be rescued through initial priming on endogenous virus RNA, read-through of the mutated PBS during minus-strand synthesis, and subsequent second-strand transfer mediated by the R-U5 complementarity of the plus strand and the extended minus-strand DNA acceptor template. (asm.org)
  • Effect of tunicamycin on the synthesis of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoproteins and their expression on the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • Adenovirus core protein synthesis in the absence of viral DNA synthesis late in infection. (asm.org)
  • infection
  • Identification of a cellular cofactor required for infection by feline leukemia virus. (springer.com)
  • Normal DBA/2 mouse cells synthesize a glycoprotein which interferes with MCF virus infection. (springer.com)
  • Retrovirus tropism can be restricted by cellular factors such as Fv1, Ref1, and Lv1 that inhibit infection by targeting the incoming viral capsid. (asm.org)
  • Fv1-mediated restriction of MLV infection can be overcome at high multiplicities of infection, and infection of restricting cells can give rise to multihit titration curves, implying that infection by one virus particle is facilitated by the presence of others ( 1 , 7 , 10 , 13 , 31 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Nonhuman primate cells are resistant to infection by HIV-1, and studies of viral DNA formation and those involving pseudotyped viruses indicate that the block is at an early postentry step ( 17 , 18 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • splenocytes
  • However, it was not detected on adult murine thymocytes, splenocytes, or bone marrow cells or on splenic LPS-activated B cells or Con A-activated T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Genetic
  • Genetic diversity of enzootic isolates of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey. (asm.org)
  • Kumar V., Eckner R. J., Bennett M. Mechanism of genetic resistance to immune suppression by friend leukemia virus: the role of marrow - dependent cells. (medkursor.ru)
  • Alizon M, Wain-Hobson S, Montagnier L, Sonigo P (1986) Genetic variability of the AIDS virus: nucleotide sequence analysis of two isolates from African patients. (springer.com)
  • Coffin JM (1986) Genetic variation in AIDS viruses. (springer.com)
  • Genetic evidence for vaccinia virus-encoded DNA polymerase: isolation of phosphonoacetate-resistant enzyme from the cytoplasm of cells infected with mutant virus. (asm.org)
  • loci
  • A subset of acute leukemias carries translocations of chromosome band 11q23 with reciprocal partners located at 30 or more cytogenetically diverse loci (for a review, see Waring and Cleary, 1997 ). (embopress.org)
  • restriction
  • Because of this and the fact that precisely the same saturation phenomenon that was described in the context of murine Fv1-mediated restriction is also observed in human cells ( 36 ), it is probable that humans also express an inhibitor, termed Ref1, that exhibits restriction specificity similar to that of Fv1 b . (asm.org)
  • polyoma virus
  • Charge microheterogeneity of the major capsid protein of polyoma virus. (asm.org)
  • Characterization of a DNA-protein complex and capsomere subunits derived from polyoma virus by treatment with ethyleneglycol-bis-N,N'-tetraacetic acid and dithiothreitol. (asm.org)
  • inbred strains
  • We will also describe some of the characteristics of the germfree AKR mouse which make it somewhat different from other germfree inbred strains. (springer.com)
  • infections
  • Klein G. The biology and serology of Epstein - Barr virus (EBV) infections. (medkursor.ru)
  • Depuis l'immunologie tumorale jusqu'à la rétrovirologie et les infections virales, il poursuit aujourd'hui ses recherches dans le domaine vaccinal, en suivant particulièrement le développement du vaccin contre le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH). (histrecmed.fr)
  • T-cell-mediated immuno-pathology in viral infections. (springer.com)
  • hemagglutinin
  • Uptake of reovirus serotype 1 by the lungs from the bloodstream is mediated by the viral hemagglutinin. (asm.org)
  • Removal of carbohydrate from influenza A virus and its hemagglutinin and the effect on biological activities. (asm.org)
  • tumour
  • Indeed, germ-line integration has not yet been described for DNA tumour viruses, although we now know that it occasionally occurs with human herpesvirus 6 [ 9 , 10 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)