• Hyperforin and adhyperforin are wide-spectrum inhibitors of the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and choline, and they exert these effects by binding to and activating the transient receptor potential cation channel TRPC6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles by an inorganic phosphate transporter. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The encoded protein is responsible for the uptake of iodine in tissues such as the thyroid and lactating breast tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Synaptic vesicles contain two classes of obligatory components: transport proteins involved in neurotransmitter uptake, and trafficking proteins that participate in synaptic vesicle exocytosis, endocytosis, and recycling. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly expressed by astrocytes and couples the uptake of one molecule of cystine with the release of one molecule of glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inhibition of uptake of extracellular glutamate leads to oxidative glutamate toxicity or ferroptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MFS family was originally believed to function primarily in the uptake of sugars but subsequent studies revealed that drugs, metabolites, oligosaccharides, amino acids and oxyanions were all transported by MFS family members. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria have three important functions at the synaptic terminal: allowing the synapse to meet metabolic needs (especially for removal of calcium after depolarization), buffering the calcium by allowing uptake of calcium into the mitochondria, and providing energy for glutamate synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It follows that the bulk of mitochondrial proteins is not encoded in mitochondrial DNA, but must be imported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher magnifications of the approximate area framed by the white square are shown to the right, together with either gad1b/2 (C,F) or vglut2 (D,G) staining. (nih.gov)
  • Subtypes EAAT1-2 are found in membranes of glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • These protein energetically drive transport utilizing the electrochemical gradient of the target substrate (uniporter), or act as a cotransporter where transport is coupled to the movement of a second substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • VMAT transport relies upon the pH and electrochemical gradient generated by a vesicular H+-ATPase for this energy source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary active transport involves the use of an electrochemical gradient, and does not use energy produced in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RTX family is defined by two common features: characteristic repeats in the toxin protein sequences, and extracellular secretion by the type I secretion systems (T1SS). (wikipedia.org)
  • These consensus regions function as sites for Ca2+ binding, which facilitate folding of the RTX protein following export via an ATP-mediated type 1 secretion system (T1SS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some substances such as nitric oxide and glutamate are in fact essential for proper function of the body and only exert neurotoxic effects at excessive concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the process uses chemical energy, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), it is called primary active transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • EAAT2 is responsible for over 90% of glutamate reuptake within the central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, a channel can be open to both environments at the same time, allowing the solutes it transports to diffuse without interruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first structures were of the glycerol 3-phosphate/phosphate exchanger GlpT and the lactose-proton symporter LacY, which served to elucidate the overall structure of the protein family and provided initial models for understanding the MFS transport mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies indicate that the amino acid residue His419, located on the domain between TMD X and XI of rat VMAT1, plays a role in energy coupling to the amine transport by assisting the first proton-dependent conformational change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperphosphorylation of the serine-repeat motif of COL4A3BP/CERT leads to its inactivation by dissociation from the Golgi complex, thus down-regulating ER-to-Golgi transport of ceramide and sphingomyelin synthesis. (abcam.com)
  • duplex RNA is not an intermediate in RNA synthesis, but an isolation artifact (2). (wikipedia.org)