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  • subunit
  • The most exciting developments in this field to date come from studies on the β subunit of heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins (G proteins), the enzyme adenosine 5′-triphosphate-citrate lyase, and now the Ca 2+ -activated K + channel KCa3.1, all of which are targeted by nucleoside diphosphate kinase (which phosphorylates histidines) and protein histidine phosphatase (which dephosphorylates phosphorylated histidines). (sciencemag.org)
  • Together with IFT particle A (retrograde) and B (anterograde) subcomplexes, these motors facilitate the transport of multi-subunit protein complexes along the axoneme. (biologists.org)
  • degradation
  • Inhibition of c-Abl promotes the degradation of MST1 through C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP)-mediated ubiquitination, and thereby attenuates cell death. (jneurosci.org)
  • It appears that Lys(11)-, Lys(29) and Lys(48)-linked poly-ubiquitin chains target the protein to the proteasome for degradation, while mono-ubiquitinylated and Lys(6)- or Lys(63)-linked poly-ubiquitin chains signal reversible modifications in protein activity, location or trafficking [ PMID: 14998368 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway in cancer: therapeutic implications. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • subunits
  • We also show that expression of these subunits in this circuit is differentially regulated by the homeodomain protein UNC-42 and that UNC-42 is also required for axonal pathfinding of neurons in the circuit. (jneurosci.org)
  • In vertebrates, 18 subunits have been identified, allowing for combinatorial complexity and the formation of heteromeric receptors that have different functional properties ( Hollmann, 1999 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • modularity
  • We interpret the observed length scale of clustering as a statistical reflection of the functional locality (or modularity) of proteins: amino acids that are near each other on the protein backbone are more likely to contribute to, and collaborate toward, a common subfunction. (prolekare.cz)
  • eukaryotes
  • NPCs are common to all eukaryotes and are composed of a broadly conserved set of proteins termed nucleoporins (nups) ( 2 ) that have been fully cataloged for both yeast ( 3 ) and vertebrates ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 12504688 The attachment of the small protein ubiquitin to other proteins, a process known as ubiquitylation, is a widespread form of post-translational modification that regulates numerous cellular functions in eukaryotes. (jove.com)
  • lysine
  • The terminal glycine in the C-terminal 4-residue tail of ubiquitin can form an isopeptide bond with a lysine residue in the target protein, or with a lysine in another ubiquitin molecule to form a ubiquitin chain that attaches itself to a target protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ubiquitin has seven lysine residues, any one of which can be used to link ubiquitin molecules together, resulting in different structures that alter the target protein in different ways. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • polymerase
  • These studies provided insights into how NNS RNA viruses synthesize 5′-capped mRNAs using their RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L proteins equipped with an unconventional mRNA capping enzyme, namely GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase), domain. (frontiersin.org)
  • gene
  • The small number of predicted fold types in the NPC and their internal symmetries suggest that the bulk of the NPC structure has evolved through extensive motif and gene duplication from a simple precursor set of only a few proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Protein analysis and gene expression indicate differential vulnerability of Iberian fish species under a climate change scenario. (nih.gov)
  • The forkhead box D3 ( FOXD3 ) gene encodes a forkhead transcription factor that plays an important role in neural crest specification in vertebrates and therefore may be involved in human eye disease. (molvis.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is thought to play a role in the physiology of photoreceptors. (genecards.org)
  • TULP1 (Tubby Like Protein 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include actin filament binding and G-protein coupled photoreceptor activity . (genecards.org)
  • The PTPRG gene belongs to the receptor class 5 subfamily of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The PTPRG gene is conserved in vertebrates. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • PTPRG has been considered a potential tumor suppressor gene based on its function, antagonizing activity of protein tyrosine kinases that often function as oncoproteins. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Polycomb group proteins Ring1A/B link ubiquitylation of histone H2A to heritable gene silencing and X inactivation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The ANXA1 gene encodes a 38.71 kDa protein. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • neural
  • Emergent protein folding modeled with evolved neural cellular automata using the 3D HP model. (nih.gov)
  • PolySia is a unique glycopolymer of α2,8-linked sialic acid residues, originally identified on neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) of vertebrates. (bionity.com)
  • kinase
  • The protein kinase MST1 (mammalian Ste20-like kinase 1) plays a major role in oxidative stress-induced cell death in primary mammalian neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the present study, we demonstrate that the protein kinase c-Abl phosphorylates MST1 at Y433, which triggers the stabilization and activation of MST1. (jneurosci.org)
  • The plasmids used were as follows: pCMV-Myc-c-Abl WT (wild type) and KD (kinase dead) were a gift from Dr. Cheng Cao (Beijing Institute of Biotechnology), and pFlag-CMV10 CHIP (C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein) was acquired from Dr. Jianxin Sun (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ). (jneurosci.org)
  • For example, Lys(63)-linked poly-ubiquitinylation is known to be involved in DNA damage tolerance, inflammatory response, protein trafficking and signal transduction through kinase activation [ PMID: 15556404 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • phosphatase
  • The protein contains an extracellular carbonic anhydrase-like and fibronectin type III-like domain, a single transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic region with 2 tandem catalytic tyrosine phosphatase domains. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • phosphatases
  • Hundreds of protein kinases have been identified to date, with significantly fewer phosphatases found to counteract their action. (rupress.org)
  • evolution
  • Evolution and design of protein structure by folding nucleus symmetric expansion. (nih.gov)
  • Differential evolution for protein folding optimization based on a three-dimensional AB off-lattice model. (nih.gov)
  • Mapping the Geometric Evolution of Protein Folding Motor. (nih.gov)
  • Dissecting the role of low-complexity regions in the evolution of vertebrate proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, little is known about the global impact of LCRs on protein evolution. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There has been an ongoing debate over the past few decades about the processes underlying protein evolution - . (prolekare.cz)
  • The neutral theory posits that protein evolution is chiefly governed by the fraction of newly arising mutations that are not detrimental enough to be removed by natural selection. (prolekare.cz)
  • The dramatic shift in our view of the processes driving protein evolution in Drosophila highlights the deficiency in our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed protein divergence excess. (prolekare.cz)
  • The origin and evolution of the mechanism of meiosis and proteins involved in meiotic processes are a matter of discussion [ 1 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ubiquitin
  • Pubmed ID: 12005425 A new structure reveals how substrates are recognized for conjugation to the ubiquitin-like protein SUMO, a posttranslational modification that functions in activation of transcription factors, nuclear import, and cell division. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 15721250 E1 enzymes activate ubiquitin or related proteins and pass them to E2 enzymes. (jove.com)
  • There are many different E3 ligases, which are responsible for the type of ubiquitin chain formed, the specificity of the target protein, and the regulation of the ubiquitinylation process [ PMID: 12646216 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ubiquitin acts through its post-translational attachment (ubiquitinylation) to other proteins, where these modifications alter the function, location or trafficking of the protein, or targets it for destruction by the 26S proteasome [ PMID: 15454246 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In addition, the length of the ubiquitin chain alters the fate of the target protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • U-box proteins as a new family of ubiquitin ligases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • biological
  • Pubmed ID: 12101226 The C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) family of proteins has been linked to multiple biological processes through their association with numerous transcription factors. (jove.com)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • Effectively determining masses of proteins is critical to many biological studies ( e.g. for structural biology investigations). (jove.com)
  • Structural
  • These studies have led to the identification of candidate proteins that have been implicated, directly or indirectly, in transport mechanisms and structural components of the cilium, and in cilia-associated human disorders. (biologists.org)
  • preferential
  • The role of epistasis is directly supported by the tendency of nearby substitutions that arose on the same lineage to preserve the total charge of the residues within the correlation length and by the preferential cosegregation of neighboring derived alleles in our population sample. (prolekare.cz)
  • modulate
  • It has been shown that Polysialic acid (PolySia), large negatively charged sugar chains, has the ability to modulate protein pharmacokinetics, bio-distribution and bioavailability. (bionity.com)
  • correlation
  • No such clustering is observed for synonymous substitutions, supporting a "correlation length" associated with selection on proteins as the causative mechanism. (prolekare.cz)
  • A high correlation between buffering capacity, concentration of histidine-related compounds in muscle, and percentage of fast-twitch fibers in all vertebrates adapted for intense anaerobic performance clearly supports the idea that proton buffering is the main physiological function of histidine-related compounds. (nih.gov)
  • fungi
  • Also, candidate organizer/activator proteins in fungi and amoeba are identified and hypothetical activation models are suggested. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to the ultrastructural variation, low, if any, similarity was found between the specific proteins that build up SCs in plants, fungi, and animals [ 11 , 14 , 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • vivo
  • We generated mice harboring mutations in both Ctbp1 and Ctbp2 to address the in vivo function of CtBPs during vertebrate development. (jove.com)
  • Here we demonstrate the in vivo protein PolySia by intensive glyco-engineering of a plant-based expression platform. (bionity.com)
  • This approach revealed both novel and known PP1 binding proteins, quantitating their relative distribution between PP1α and -γ in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • among
  • PRNTase or PRNTase-like domains are evolutionally conserved among L proteins of all known NNS RNA viruses and their related viruses belonging to Jingchuvirales , a newly established order, in the class Monjiviricetes , suggesting that they may have evolved from a common ancestor that acquired the unique capping system to replicate in a primitive eukaryotic host. (frontiersin.org)
  • novel
  • Given their high abundance, and their capacity to expand in relatively short periods of time through replication slippage, they can greatly contribute to increase protein sequence space and generate novel protein functions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using stable isotope labeling and proteomics, we identified a novel PP1 binding protein, Repo-Man, which selectively recruits PP1γ onto mitotic chromatin at anaphase and into the following interphase. (rupress.org)
  • localization
  • Although the presence of cilia is restricted to specific cell types in invertebrates, their near ubiquitous localization on the apical surface of most vertebrate cell types suggests that this ancient organelle has evolved to facilitate a broad range of functions. (biologists.org)
  • PP1α and -γ are closely related isoforms with distinct localization patterns, shown here by time-lapse microscopy of stably expressed fluorescent protein fusions. (rupress.org)