Loading...
  • 1997
  • In 1997 his laboratory at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa successfully cloned mice using the Honolulu technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • On February 23, 1997, Doctor Ian Wilmut successfully cloned the world's first mammal, giving the world a harsh wake-up call to the state of its technology. (studymode.com)
  • In 1997, in order to encourage public discussion of emerging technologies along these lines, he applied for a U.S. patent on a human-nonhuman chimera, a composite organism (like the "geep") arising from a mixture of embryonic cells of two or more species. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • We present a sensitized loss-of-function screen used to identify new genes required in border cells for their migration. (genetics.org)
  • We identified new alleles of genes already known to be required for border cell migration, including aop/yan , DIAP1 , and taiman as well as a conserved Slbo-regulated enhancer downstream of shg / DE-cadherin . (genetics.org)
  • These studies allowed the discovery of additional genes regulated by Slbo and important for border cell migration, such as stathmin and kuzbanian . (genetics.org)
  • The name Serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase refers to the first cloning of a SGK family member from a cDNA library screen for genes upregulated by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone in a rat mammary epithelial tumor cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first human family member (human SGK1) was cloned in a screen of hepatocellular genes regulated in response to cellular hydration or swelling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mRNA transcription of Nkd genes is inducible by Wnt signaling in diverse animals, such that nkd expression is a readout of Wnt activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in the primordia of zebrafish fins, for example, express four genes from the homeobox msx family during development and regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the developmental process, genes are activated that serve to modify the properties of cell as they differentiate into different tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Scientists at the Frozen Zoo ( San Diego Zoo Global ), a conservation institution (video above) that handles frozen genetic material from different animals for conservation, traveled to Ecuador at the time of hearing about George's death and collected samples of the animal to preserve them in liquid nitrogen (-196 C). (digitaljournal.com)
  • NAME- LASTNAME: EMİNE MERİÇ SECTION NUMBER:157-12 CLONİNG Probably, one of the most important advancement technique is cloning in a field of medicine in new century .Firs of all, scientists and genetic bioengineering intend by helping save some animal species from extinction. (studymode.com)
  • Genetic disorders can be transferred passing down and any disorder in DNA can easily spread among the all animal species.In this condition, genetic diseases can be seen because of heredity. (studymode.com)
  • Scientist cannot help them but genetic engineers can protect endangered animals by cloning techniques. (studymode.com)
  • For example, if an old animal which lives in a zoo is endangered and even it is different from wild life ,then genetic engineers can be cloning it and they provide variety among the same. (studymode.com)
  • Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. (pnas.org)
  • and WO 03/020920, with respect to the culturing and genetic alteration of pPS cells, differentiation into cardiomyocyte lineage cells, and use of the differentiated cells. (google.com)
  • The genetic material, in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), continues to shorten with each cell division, and cells eventually stop dividing when they sense that their DNA is critically shortened. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet while promising us godlike powers to "create", to "recreate", or to design our own new humanity and immortality through such technologies as human cloning and human genetic engineering, they lay waste the human people and human culture around them. (lifeissues.net)
  • The offspring having all of the mother's genetic material are called full clones and those having only half are called half clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pattern formation in the morphogenesis of an animal is regulated by genetic induction factors that put cells to work after damage has occurred. (wikipedia.org)
  • This dream became reality when groups in the USA were able to introduce bacteriophage and yeast-derived site-specific recombination (SSR-) systems into mammalian cells as well as into the mouse Common genetic engineering strategies require a permanent modification of the target genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryo
  • A view of how an animal embryo is specified to develop and differentiate into a wide spectrum of cell types, and how the spatial patterns and axes of embyros are determined. (upenn.edu)
  • The simplest form of artificial cloning is embryo splitting-separating the blastomeres of an early embryo and forming two or more smaller embryos. (pnas.org)
  • Prior to the blastocyst stage, cells in the early embryo, called blastomeres, divide without increasing in mass between each division: thus the term cleavage divisions-each cell cleaves in half. (pnas.org)
  • In animals, parthenogenesis means development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cDNA library from the blastula stage of a frog embryo was cloned into RNA expression plasmids to generate synthetic mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early blastula stage of the embryo, Ectodermin mRNA and protein forms a gradient that goes from the animal pole (highest concentration) down to the marginal zone (lowest concentration) to prevent TGFβ and nodal signals that induce mesoderm originating from the vegetal pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • zebrafish
  • As zebrafish mature, atrial wall cardiomyocytes proliferate laterally to generate cohesive patches of diverse shapes and sizes, frequently with dominant clones that comprise 20-30% of the wall area. (biologists.org)
  • Gurdon
  • Anatomy and Development: images, fate maps, and videos Community Link --- jobs, labs which study Xenopus Protocol List- identify clones, antibodies, procedures Stock Centre- The National Xenopus Resource (maintains frog stocks, offers advanced research training) The Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka on October 8, 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Several studies of gene expression, epigenetic modification and differentiation revealed the insufficient reprogramming of iPS cells, thus suggesting the need for improvement of the reprogramming procedure not only in quantity but also in quality. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Animals which are endangered destroy due to not variety.I mean that species which can survive have common gene in their DNA. (studymode.com)
  • The first signaling process is triggered at around the second larval instar (48 hr after egg laying, AEL) by the selector gene apterous ( ap ), which is expressed exclusively in dorsal cells ( D iaz -B enjumea and C ohen 1995 ) ( Figure 1a ). (genetics.org)
  • Patterns imposed on the genome at defined developmental time points in precursor cells could be maintained by Dnmt1, and would lead to predetermined programs of gene expression during development in descendants of the precursor cells (5, 6). (sciencemag.org)
  • Genome browser BLAST Expression Search and Clone Search (search by gene symbol, gene name, or Affymetrix id) Gene nomenclature guidelines Literature search: Textpresso- uses an algorithm to match your search to specific criteria or section of a paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Nkd gene family was first cloned in the laboratory of Matthew P. Scott. (wikipedia.org)
  • Still, classical gene targeting proved to be limited in several ways as gene functions became irreversibly destroyed by the marker gene that had to be introduced for selecting recombinant ES cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Several non-integration methods have been reported to overcome the safety concern associated with the generation of iPS cells, such as transient expression of the reprogramming factors using adenovirus vectors or plasmids, and direct delivery of reprogramming proteins. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These four proteins act to inhibit self-renewal (the cell cycle) and promote differentiation (especially Prospero), which is why GMCs divide into their differentiated progeny instead of more GMCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unfertilized egg of most animals is asymmetrical: different regions of the cytoplasm contain different amounts of mRNA and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naked cuticle (Nkd) is a conserved family of intracellular proteins encoded in most animal genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebrate (and invertebrate) Nkd proteins have additional regions of homology that presumably mediate specific protein functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides, and cytokines that induce a cellular physiological response to regenerate from the damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • identical
  • In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. (pnas.org)
  • Identical twins are the obvious examples, but perhaps more intriguing are armadillos, in which the offspring in a litter are all clones derived from one zygote ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • A pair of identical twins is a clone because the twin cells are produced by the asexual fission of the fertilized ovum. (sf-encyclopedia.com)
  • Stories of this kind often exaggerate the probable psychological effects of growing up as one of a clone (after all, identical twins have been doing it for many centuries). (sf-encyclopedia.com)
  • Cloning - is the technique of making an identical copy of something. (studymode.com)
  • A clone is a group of identical cells that share a common ancestry, meaning they are derived from the same cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproduces
  • The sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima reproduces clones of itself through a process called longitudinal fission, in which the animal splits into two parts along its length. (wikipedia.org)
  • an animal example is the hydra, which reproduces by budding. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • The daughter cells of a neuroblast have two decidedly different neural fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suppressing Notch signaling allows the daughter cells to react to the same signal in different ways, allowing them to have different neural fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosomes
  • In this process, the egg-producing cells of the female undergo a modified form of meiosis involving total non-disjunction Of the chromosomes thus retaining the diploid number. (freeonlinenotes.net)
  • Normal egg cells form after meiosis and are haploid, with half as many chromosomes as their mother's body cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diploidy might be restored by the doubling of the chromosomes without cell division before meiosis begins or after meiosis is completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • The Yanagimachi laboratory and his former associates continue to make advances in cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004 the laboratory participated in the cloning of an infertile male mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • For these reasons, the other investigators feared that the final step would create cloned SV40 DNA that might escape into the environment and infect laboratory workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal human cells however die after about 50 cell divisions in laboratory culture (the Hayflick Limit, discovered by Leonard Hayflick in 1961). (wikipedia.org)
  • invertebrate
  • Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some plants, some invertebrate animal species (including nematodes, water fleas, some scorpions, aphids, some mites, some bees, some Phasmida and parasitic wasps) and a few vertebrates (such as some fish, amphibians, reptiles and very rarely birds). (wikipedia.org)
  • sheep
  • Reprogramming in vertebrates was also proven by the creation of cloned animals from sheep [ 2 ] and mice [ 3 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Now, scientists say there is a possibility to use frozen cells taken from Lonesome George shortly after his death at Pinta Island, Galapagos, and clone the reptile using procedures similar to those that allowed the replication of Dolly, the sheep, according to The Telegraph . (digitaljournal.com)
  • developmental
  • DEVELOPMENTAL boundaries are established through the juxtaposition of two different cell populations and fulfill two functions during animal development. (genetics.org)
  • Developmental constraints may underlie why few animals have relinquished sexual reproduction completely in their life-cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • This provided a means to explain how patterns of differentiation could be maintained by populations of cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Development and regeneration involves the coordination and organization of populations cells into a blastema, which is "a mound of stem cells from which regeneration begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • Mammalian eggs are somewhat symmetrical and after the first divisions of the fertilized egg, the produced cells are all totipotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • limb
  • The case of autotomy, for example, serves as a defensive function as the animal detaches a limb or tail to avoid capture. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the limb or tail has been autotomized, cells move into action and the tissues will regenerate. (wikipedia.org)
  • refers
  • The term refers especially to human beings, many animals, and fungi, whereas for example bacteria, perennial plants and some simple animals are potentially immortal. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • The scientists believe that now they know how to proceed in the process of cloning Lonesome George from the cells preserved in frozen storage, reports SMH.com.au . (digitaljournal.com)
  • They use cloning in a process called vegetative propagation. (studymode.com)
  • The process of cloning has remained one of the most controversial topics as debates continue about the pros and cons of Cloning. (studymode.com)
  • Cloning which is the process of duplicating DNA or living stem cells can be dated back to over 200 years ago. (studymode.com)
  • Therapeutic cloning is a process that specifies the use of cloning stem cells for the treatment of an illness or disability (Ham, 2007). (studymode.com)
  • This report will elaborate on the different views from the pro and con side of cloning and provide a realistic synthesis and a conclusive resolution for the practices surrounding the cloning process. (studymode.com)
  • The benefits of cloning have high potential in areas including, infertility, abortion and the organ transplant process (Ham, 2007). (studymode.com)
  • We are being led into "believing" that what are being manipulated and dissected in petri dishes in laboratories across the world during human cloning experiments are not really innocent living human beings who will be killed in the process . (lifeissues.net)
  • In flowering plants, cells of the gametophyte can undergo this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • It involves an unusual process in which two (endodyogeny) or more (endopolygeny) daughter cells are produced inside a mother cell, which is then consumed by the offspring prior to their separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dedifferentiation of cells means that they lose their tissue-specific characteristics as tissues remodel during the regeneration process. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • As larvae mature into juveniles, the ventricular wall grows as a single-cardiomyocyte-thick patchwork of muscle clones, built by continued lateral expansion of several dozen embryonic cardiomyocytes. (biologists.org)
  • fission
  • In a related context, some animals are able to reproduce asexually through fragmentation, budding, or fission. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, many species can be considered immortal: for example, bacteria fission to produce daughter cells, strawberry plants grow runners to produce clones of themselves, and animals in the genus Hydra have a regenerative ability by which they avoid dying of old age. (wikipedia.org)
  • amphibians
  • Studies in amphibians, rabbits, and mice suggested that the very early cleavage stages (two-cell to four-cell) were flexible and that each blastomere could yield a viable blastocyst. (pnas.org)
  • salamanders and newts), an order of tailed amphibians, is possibly the most adept vertebrate group at regeneration, given their capability of regenerating limbs, tails, jaws, eyes and a variety of internal structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • moral
  • Transhumanism: Hubris ("Playing God" argument) Transhumanism: Dehumanization ("Frankenstein" argument) Human-animal hybrid: Legal and moral discussions Chuong C-M (2009). (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Differentiated cells bear cell surface and morphologic markers characteristic of cardiomyocytes, and a proportion of them undergo spontaneous periodic contraction. (google.com)
  • Migration starts with 3-4 cells that undergo three rounds of cell division so that about 30 PGCs arrive at the gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exceptions are animals and some protists, who undergo meiosis immediately followed by fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • early embryos
  • Although there is no expression profile of FAM in early embryos in Xenopus, in the zebra fish, FAM homolog is expressed ubiquitously at a two-cell stage but as development proceeds then its only expressed in the cephalic central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • However, most human iPS cells are made by viral vectors, such as retrovirus and lentivirus, which integrate the reprogramming factors into the host genomes and may increase the risk of tumour formation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In addition to oocytes, human [ 4 ] and mouse embryonic stem (ES) [ 5 ] cells also can reprogramme somatic cells into an ES cell-like state after cell fusion. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • When cells would be needed for transplants it would be possible to use them by taking human skin cells or stem cells from people, letting them be changed into the specific cell type that people needed for the disease to be treated. (studymode.com)
  • David Rorvik 's account of a 1973 human cloning in In His Image: The Cloning of a Man ( 1978 ) is almost certainly a hoax. (sf-encyclopedia.com)
  • The United States government has suppressed support for human cloning practices (Bush, 2002). (studymode.com)
  • Indeed the same cloning and killing of human beings is happening right here, right now, in the honorable State of Missouri. (lifeissues.net)
  • But it is time to point out, in the spirit of "fraternal love", that many involved in the pursuit of human cloning pursue that goal deceptively. (lifeissues.net)
  • Josef Pieper, a contemporary Catholic philosopher and theologian, recently wrote an amazing small book concerning the advertising and communications industries, The Abuse of Language -- Abuse of Power 5 , that is astonishingly applicable to the rhetoric found in the human cloning and human embryonic stem cell research debates today. (lifeissues.net)
  • And all it will take is to present the simple objective scientific truth, the truth that a new unique innocent vulnerable living human being begins to exist immediately at both fertilization and at cloning . (lifeissues.net)
  • Human beings and members of other species, especially animals, necessarily experience ageing and mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • As illustrated below, basic research regarding the biological mechanisms of SCNT has led to scientific advances in the areas of reprogramming, cell fate determination, and epigenetic regulation during development. (pnas.org)
  • Reprogramming is likely to have a crucial role in establishing nuclear totipotency in normal development and in cloned animals, and in the erasure of acquired epigenetic information. (sciencemag.org)
  • symmetrical
  • Like other bilaterians, they have three main cell layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm), while the radially symmetrical cnidarians and ctenophores (comb jellies) have only two cell layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasitic
  • Unlike the other parasitic groups, the monogeneans are external parasites infesting aquatic animals, and their larvae metamorphose into the adult form after attaching to a suitable host. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • Epub 2007 Sep 15.PMID 17942091 Yan D, Wallingford JB, Sun TQ, Nelson AM, Sakanaka C, Reinhard C, Harland RM, Fantl WJ, Williams LT. Cell autonomous regulation of multiple Dishevelled-dependent pathways by mammalian Nkd. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • This classic biological idea has however been perturbed recently by the discovery that the bacterium E. coli may split into distinguishable daughter cells, which opens the theoretical possibility of "age classes" among bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • In lower vertebrates, the formation of ectoderm proceeds via a bipotent intermediate, definitive ectoderm, which differentiates to form the two major ectodermal lineages: surface ectoderm and neurectoderm ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • Studies using the AnAge database to study the evolution of longevity and ageing in vertebrate lineages. (ageing-map.org)
  • Amongst the early-branching animal lineages with sequenced genomes, two have been reported from the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica, two from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi four from the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens and 17 from the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The traditional central dogma of biology states that the DNA of a cell is transcribed to RNA, which is translated to proteins, which perform cellular processes and functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulatory proteins that bind to DNA, RNA, and/or proteins are key effectors in these processes and function by positively or negatively regulating specific protein level and function in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • While NEDD4 orthologues are present in all eukaryotes, NEDD4L proteins are limited to vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryos
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • Samuel Randall Detwiler was an embryologist who studied neural development in embryos and vertebrate retinas. (asu.edu)
  • Mouse cells were first transformed in 1979, followed by mouse embryos in 1980. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • The cloning of the human MYBPC3 cDNA and localization of the gene on human chromosome 11p11.2 has assisted the structure and function of cMyBP-C. MYBPC3 became therefore the "best" candidate gene for the CMH4 locus for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that was initially mapped by the group of Schwartz. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear receptors are specific to metazoans (animals) and are not found in protists, algae, fungi, or plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of its biological effects in animals are produced through activation of melatonin receptors, while others are due to its role as an antioxidant, with a particular role in the protection of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such functions are all carried out by the innate immune system, which employs evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition receptors to eliminate cells displaying "nonself markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adaptive or "specific" immune system in its fully qualified form (i.e. based on major histocompatibility complex (MHC), T-cell receptors (TCR), and antibodies) exists only in jawed vertebrates, but an independently evolved adaptive immune system has been identified in hagfish and lampreys (non-jawed vertebrates). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although regulation of fat stores is deemed to be the primary function of leptin, it also plays a role in other physiological processes, as evidenced by its multiple sites of synthesis other than fat cells, and the multiple cell types beside hypothalamic cells that have leptin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Their genome single-stranded (+) sense RNA is that functions as mRNA after entry into the cell and all viral mRNA synthesized is of genome polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field is analogous to genomics and proteomics, which are the study of the genome and proteome of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, they are completely different in their purposes, as gene therapy aims to cure a defect in cells, and transgenesis seeks to produce a genetically modified organism by incorporating the specific transgene into every cell and changing the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The germ plasm effectively turns off gene expression to render the genome of the cell inert. (wikipedia.org)
  • methylation
  • Sunlight exposure has been shown to alter DNA methylation patterns across several human cell-types, including T-lymphocytes. (jove.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sunlight exposure on CD4+ T-cell methylation patterns on an epigenome-wide scale in a North American population of European origin (n? (jove.com)
  • With the finding that DNA methylation and histone modifications are stable, heritable, and also reversible processes that influence gene expression without altering DNA primary structure, a mechanism for the observed variability in cell gene expression was provided. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • in adult striated muscle cells, gamma-actin is localized to Z-discs and costamere structures, which are responsible for force transduction and transmission in muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • We evaluated the development of four characteristic cell lines chosen from these two types by presenting the cells into the gentle tissues environment of the lung. (techtasys.com)
  • The two rigidity-independent cell lines (Computer-3 and mPanc96) grew well in gentle (lung) tissues, while the solidity reliant cell lines (A549 and MDA-MB-231) do not really develop well in the lung. (techtasys.com)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • The extracellular enzymes secreted by swarming bacteria, the slime of a biofilm, or the soma cells in a differentiated organism represent public goods which are vulnerable to exploitation by cheaters. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • common to both plants and animals, control endogenous gene expression in response to external stimuli and protect the host from invasive viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Research has shown that cells are capable of regulating gene expression at several stages: mRNA transcription, processing and transportation as well as in protein translation, post-translational processing and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane protein and chloride channel in vertebrates that is encoded by the CFTR gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CFTRs have an evolutionary design to transfer the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to the uphill movement of anions across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Merogony results in merozoites, which are multiple daughter cells, that originate within the same cell membrane, sporogony results in sporozoites, and gametogony results in microgametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Whatever the mechanism, this single parent (uniparental inheritance) pattern of mtDNA inheritance is found in most animals, most plants and in fungi as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multicellularity has arisen independently dozens of times in the history of life, in plants, animals, fungi, and prokaryotes, appearing first several billion years ago in cyanobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable haematological malignancy characterised by the clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some plants produce adventitious shoots and may form a clonal colony, where all the individuals are clones, and the clones may cover a large area. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Both animal and human studies have shown melatonin to protect against radiation-induced cellular damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • high affinity
  • Involved in FCER1 (high affinity immunoglobulin epsilon receptor)-mediated signaling in mast cells. (uniprot.org)
  • May also be involved in BCR (B-cell antigen receptor)-mediated signaling in B-cells and FCGR1 (high affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor I)-mediated signaling in myeloid cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
  • tumor
  • MDA-MB-231 breasts cancer tumor cells and A549 lung cancers cells), and rigidity-independent cells which grew similarly well across the range of examined matrix rigidity (elizabeth.g. (techtasys.com)
  • Personal computer-3 prostate tumor cells and mPanc96 pancreatic tumor cells) (Fig. 2). (techtasys.com)
  • vitro
  • Additionally, we investigated the effect of short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA)-mediated PTTG1 knockdown on the proliferation of the murine myeloma plasma cell line 5TGM1 in vitro and in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • adhesion
  • Actin, gamma 1, encoded by this gene, is found in non-muscle cells in the cytoplasm, and in muscle cells at costamere structures, or transverse points of cell-cell adhesion that run perpendicular to the long axis of myocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • The cell lines examined diverged into two groups centered on their expansion information: solidity reliant lines generally exhibited raising cell development as extracellular solidity improved, while rigidity indie lines grew well across the whole tested range of matrix rigidity equally. (techtasys.com)
  • The development dating profiles of the cell lines dropped into one of two types: rigidity-dependent cells, at least a 2-fold transformation in cell amount across the range of extracellular solidity examined (y.g. (techtasys.com)
  • dependent
  • Antagonizes MYC transcriptional activity by competing for MAX and suppresses MYC dependent cell transformation. (uniprot.org)
  • Along with VAMP7, involved in an non-conventional RAB1-dependent traffic route to the cell surface used by KCNIP1 and KCND2. (uniprot.org)
  • Outcomes Rigidity-dependent development of malignancy cell lines To measure the development of malignancy JTT-705 (Dalcetrapib) IC50 cell lines as a function of matrix solidity we modified a book 96-well assay program (soft-plate96) that uses collagen covalently combined to polyacrylamide gel as substrates in place of ECM-coated strict plastic material. (techtasys.com)
  • malignancy
  • Evaluation of human being malignancy cell lines is definitely generally performed using cells cultured on strict plastic material, or in Matrigel or smooth agar, the mechanised properties of which are badly described and/or hard to modulate. (techtasys.com)
  • mice
  • Additionally, KaLwRij mice exhibit an inherent ability to support the growth of exogenous malignant plasma cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cells expressing a mutant form of the CFTR protein are resistant to invasion by the Salmonella typhi bacterium, the agent of typhoid fever, and mice carrying a single copy of mutant CFTR are resistant to diarrhea caused by cholera toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • NEDD4-2 gene in mice is essential for animal survival and the polymorphisms in NEDD4L are associated with human hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolated fetal cortical neurons from NEDD4-2 knockout mice show defective regulation of voltage-gated sodium currents, and in animal models of neuropathic pain NEDD4-2 expression has been found to be downregulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • Significantly, cells which grew poorly on soft skin gels showed decreased scattering and migration under these circumstances also. (techtasys.com)
  • intermediate
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • Viral
  • although substantially less virulent than if contained within the viral particle, the RNA can have increased infectivity when transfected into cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • transformation
  • We driven the development profile of fourteen cancers cell lines by plating the cells on the soft-plate96 and calculating the flip transformation in cell amount after five times using a neon DNA-binding absorb dyes (Fig. 2). (techtasys.com)
  • structures
  • Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecule: amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids (often called fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • primitive streak
  • A node, or primitive knot, is an enlarged group of cells located in the anterior portion of the primitive streak in a developing gastrula. (asu.edu)