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  • cerebellum
  • The brain and spinal cord are comprised of hundreds of distinct cell groups that constitute layers of laminated structures, such as the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and nuclei of nonlaminated structures, such as the diencephalon and hindbrain. (jneurosci.org)
  • The most common site for cerebellar lesions that lead to intention tremors has been reported to be the superior cerebellar peduncle, through which all fibers carrying information to the midbrain pass, and the dentate nucleus, which is also responsible for linking the cerebellum to the rest of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, there is a part of cerebellum that communicates exclusively with the dentate nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It receives afferent supply from the anterior (toward the front) lobe of the cerebellum and sends output to the contralateral red nucleus through the superior cerebellar peduncle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons
  • Spike trains from thalamic relay neurons showed highly transient, weak choice-related activity. (nih.gov)
  • Intracellular recordings in cortex revealed a prolonged choice-related depolarization in most neurons that was not accounted for by feed-forward thalamic input. (nih.gov)
  • Further, some thalamic neurons have been shown to respond to stimuli presented from across sensory modalities. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, some thalamic neurons receiving vestibular information appear to selectively fire when the organism's head is orientated in a specific direction within the environment, much like a compass (for comprehensive review, see Wiener and Taube, 2005 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although VIP+ neurons have been reported to receive synaptic inputs from PV+ and SOM+ inhibitory neurons as well as from cortical and thalamic excitatory neurons, the somatodendritic localization of these synaptic inputs has yet to be elucidated at subcellular spatial resolution. (frontiersin.org)
  • As part of the subcortical visual system, neurons within the pretectal nuclei respond to varying intensities of illuminance and are primarily involved in mediating non-conscious behavioral responses to acute changes in light. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dopaminergic neurons of the mesolimbic pathway project onto the GABAergic medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus accumbens is an aggregate of neurons which is described as having an outer shell and an inner core. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopaminergic inputs from the VTA modulate the activity of GABAergic neurons within the nucleus accumbens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slight depolarizations of cells in the nucleus accumbens correlates with positivity of the neurons of the hippocampus, making them more excitable. (wikipedia.org)
  • The correlated cells of these excited states of the medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens are shared equally between the subiculum and CA1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell types: Neurons in the nucleus accumbens are mostly medium spiny neurons (MSNs) containing mainly D1-type (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shell neurons project to the subcommissural part of the ventral pallidum as well as the ventral tegmental area and to extensive areas in the hypothalamus and extended amygdala. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dentate nucleus is a cluster of neurons, or nerve cells, in the central nervous system that has a dentate - tooth-like or serrated - edge. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this time, the neurons of the dentate nucleus are similar in shape and form, being mainly bipolar cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons in the cerebellar nuclei generate spontaneous action potentials despite ongoing inhibition from Purkinje cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These neurons send long axons to the contralateral motor nuclei of the cranial nerves and to the lower motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibers that do not cross over in the brainstem travel down the separate ventral corticospinal tract, and most of them cross over to the contralateral side in the spinal cord, shortly before reaching the lower motor neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The circuitous connection with corticothalamic neurons participates in the elaboration of thalamic rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
  • brainstem
  • By comparing neuronal pathways activated by systemic versus salivary PYY, we identified a metabolic circuit associated with Y 2 R-positive cells in the oral cavity and extending through brainstem nuclei into hypothalamic satiety centers. (jneurosci.org)
  • They continue down into the brainstem, where some of them, after crossing over to the contralateral side, distribute to the cranial nerve motor nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • relay nuclei
  • The classical separation into relay nuclei, receiving "specific" subcortical afferences or association nuclei, which would not, cannot be retained as absolute. (wikipedia.org)
  • several nuclei
  • Several nuclei have been identified within the pretectum, although their borders can be difficult to define and there has been debate over which regions should be included and their precise names. (wikipedia.org)
  • One region may be made up of one or several nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • subcortical
  • The pretectal area, or pretectum, is a midbrain structure composed of seven nuclei and comprises part of the subcortical visual system. (wikipedia.org)
  • One subcortical afference comes from the perithalamus (reticulate nucleus). (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • There is debate over the presence of distinct sectors within the nucleus that each correspond to a different sensory or cognitive modality. (wikipedia.org)
  • geniculate
  • The region separated by the superior lamella is the Anterior region (A). The region separated medially by the medial lamina is the Lateral region (L). Almost separated from the thalamic mass are the Geniculate bodies (G). The remaining isothalamus is made up of the medial region (M, medial to the medial lamina) and posteriorly, with no complete separation in man, of the posterior regio or pulvinar (Pu). (wikipedia.org)
  • accumbens
  • The nucleus accumbens and the olfactory tubercle collectively form the ventral striatum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each cerebral hemisphere has its own nucleus accumbens, which can be divided into two structures: the nucleus accumbens core and the nucleus accumbens shell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another major source of input comes from the CA1 and ventral subiculum of the hippocampus to the dorsomedial area of the nucleus accumbens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus accumbens shell (NAcc shell) is a substructure of the nucleus accumbens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shell and core together form the entire nucleus accumbens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Location: The shell is the outer region of the nucleus accumbens, and - unlike the core - is considered to be part of the extended amygdala, located at its rostral pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Function: The shell of the nucleus accumbens is involved in the cognitive processing of reward, including subjective "liking" reactions to certain pleasurable stimuli, motivational salience, and positive reinforcement. (wikipedia.org)
  • dentate nucleus
  • The dentate nucleus is responsible for the planning, initiation and control of voluntary movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dorsal (towards the back of the body) region of the dentate nucleus contains output channels involved in motor function, which is the movement of skeletal muscle, while the ventral (towards the belly or front of the body) region contains output channels involved in nonmotor function, such as conscious thought and visuospatial function. (wikipedia.org)
  • During 22-28 weeks of gestation, which is the critical period in fetal development of the dentate nucleus, gyral formation occurs extensively over the entire surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dentate nucleus is highly convoluted and can be divided into dorsal (motor) and ventral (nonmotor) domains. (wikipedia.org)