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  • gene
  • Schmitt, R. M., Bruyns, E., and Snodgrass, H. R. (1991) Hematopoietic development of embryonic stem cells in vitro: cytokine and receptor gene expression. (springer.com)
  • Gene expression analysis of differentiating hEBs revealed that initiation of hematopoiesis correlated with increased levels of SCL/TAL1, GATA1, GATA2, CD34, CD31, and the homeobox gene-regulating factor CDX4 These data indicate that hematopoietic differentiation of hESCs models the earliest events of embryonic and definitive hematopoiesis in a manner resembling human yolk sac development, thus providing a valuable tool for dissecting the earliest events in human HSPC genesis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Previously, we have shown that the 1.2-kb 5′ flanking region of the TIE2 promoter is capable of directing β-galactosidase reporter gene expression specifically into a subset of endothelial cells (ECs) of transgenic mouse embryos. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, combination of the TIE2 promoter with an intron fragment containing this enhancer allows it to target reporter gene expression specifically and uniformly to virtually all vascular ECs throughout embryogenesis and adulthood. (pnas.org)
  • This should, therefore, allow us to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the vascular-EC-specific expression of the TIE2 gene. (pnas.org)
  • The recent development of transgenic mouse technology has proven to be a powerful tool for the examination of a number of mammalian developmental processes, and sequences that are able to drive gene expression in ECs of transgenic mice have been described ( 4 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, we have embarked on the development of an in vivo expression system in which heterologous gene expression can be targeted specifically and uniformly to ECs throughout development and the adult animal. (pnas.org)
  • The TIE2 gene, coding for one of the receptors of the newly identified family of regulators of vascular remodeling, called the angiopoietins ( 8 , 9 ), appeared to be a promising candidate in the search for EC-specific transcriptional regulatory elements. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, identification of the EC-specific cis-acting sequences of the TIE2 gene should facilitate the development of an EC-specific expression vector for in vivo use. (pnas.org)
  • 1993 ). Loss of epithelial differentiation and gain of invasiveness correlates with tyrosine phosphorylation of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex in cells transformed with a temperature-sensitive v-SRC gene. (biologists.org)
  • Since the ETS and KLF protein families have independently been recognized as important regulators of endothelial gene expression, cooperation between the two families has broad implications for gene regulation during development, normal physiology and vascular disease. (biologists.org)
  • The Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family of transcription regulators is also involved in the regulation of vascular gene expression ( Atkins and Jain, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • Hemodynamic forces such as fluid shear stress increase the percentage of cells in the S and G2-M phases, and induce decondensation of chromatin for gene transcription. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Last, our evidence indicates that Rho kinases may repress cardiac cell differentiation as their inhibition resulted in precocious activation of the cardiac α-actin gene expression. (biologists.org)
  • Being able to generate large numbers of hematopoietic stem cells has significant implications for autologous transplantation for patients with a number of hematologic malignancies,' Dr. Kiem explained, adding that the discoveries apply also to gene therapy. (fredhutch.org)
  • Gene delivery to specific ocular cells types and/or anatomic locations can reduce effects of ocular pathologies. (google.com)
  • tissue
  • Lip biopsy showed lymphocyte and plasma cells in embryonic development, tissue differentiation, and function. (hemsleyandhemsley.com)
  • Blood vessels have been shown to be essential for early development of the liver and pancreas, and are fundamental to normal and pathological tissue growth. (biologists.org)
  • In recent years, additional roles of vascular endothelial cells in organ development and tissue homeostasis have been discovered. (biologists.org)
  • Notably, the net effect of blood vessels on tissue development in all these cases is seemingly a positive one. (biologists.org)
  • Endothelial cells provide important cues for early organ formation, maintain stem cell potential and help carrying the limiting nutrients needed for tissue growth beyond the minimal size afforded by passive diffusion. (biologists.org)
  • Endometriosis is characterized by development of the endometrial tissue outside the uterus like ovary, pelvic peritoneum, pelvic organs, and affects 6-10% of reproductive-aged women. (endometriosi.it)
  • Common applications of tissue engineering involve ischemic tissue (such as in myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular disease), or trauma resulting in loss of vascularization. (mdpi.com)
  • Objective(s): Use of biological scaffolds and automating the cells directing process with materials such as growth factors and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in a certain path may have beneficial effects in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in future. (ac.ir)
  • The evolution of this vascular tissue allowed for an early dominance of these plants on land (first appearing 430 million years ago, during the Silurian period), giving them the ability to transport water and dissolved minerals through specialized strands of elongated cells that run from the plant root to the tips of the leaves . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Much like bryophytes , they reproduce with spores, but the sporophytes of these phyla are far more complex than those of the bryophyts, in that they have vascular tissue and well-differentiated leaves , roots , and stems. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The most recent addition to characteristics in development of intimal thickening is the presence and, in some cases, proven increase of apoptosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11 14 Whether apoptosis solely reflects cell removal or may also provide signals by, for example, local modulating factors remains to be investigated. (ahajournals.org)
  • Notch 1 and 3 receptor signaling modulates vascular smooth muscle cell growth, apoptosis, and migration via a CBF-1/RBP-Jk dependent pathway," The FASEB Journal , vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1421-1423, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • cardiac
  • 17 24 25 26 27 All these markers have in common that in early development they are not specific for SMC, as they are expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle as well. (ahajournals.org)
  • Combining stem cell biology and mouse genetics, Dr Bruneau's research is also aimed at understanding the patterning cues that guide cardiac development, and developing strategies for regenerative medicine and disease modelling. (biologists.org)
  • Epicardium contribution to the developing coronary vasculature and to cardiac interstitial cells has been established. (ahajournals.org)
  • Studies over the past several years have suggested that epicardium-derived cells can adopt cardiomyocyte and vascular smooth muscle fates and can contribute to cardiac repair when activated by injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • These cells, which do not arise from the bone marrow, neural crest, or myocardium, resemble mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and may participate in cardiac development, homeostasis, and repair. (ahajournals.org)
  • During early cardiac development, cells derived from the proepicardial organ (a cluster of cells located dorsal and adjacent to the looped heart tube) migrate over the myocardium to form the epicardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 Cardiac interstitial cells arise from epicardium, and recent studies have suggested that reactivation of the epicardium after injury could contribute to scarring or myocardial repair after injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • The detailed characterization of this resident cardiac MSC-like population will pave the way for future analysis of the contribution of this cell type to cardiac homeostasis and response to injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11 However, the relationship between Sca1 + /CD31 − cardiac cells and the cCFU-Fs described by Chong et al 3 is not yet clear. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, Y27632 induced precocious expression of cardiac α-actin, an early marker of cardiomyocyte differentiation, coincident with the upregulated expression of serum response factor and GATA4. (biologists.org)
  • hematopoiesis
  • Expression profiling confirmed the role of several genes involved in hematopoiesis, and identified several putative genes involved in endothelial differentiation. (harvard.edu)
  • A first wave of hematopoiesis follows MHE colony emergence and is predominated by primitive erythropoiesis characterized by a brilliant red hemoglobinization, CD71/CD325a (glycophorin A) expression, and exclusively embryonic/fetal hemoglobin expression. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These stages of hematopoiesis proceed spontaneously from hEB-derived cells without requirement for supplemental growth factors during hEB differentiation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In light of fundamental differences between rodent and human developmental hematopoiesis, including anatomically more complex primary and secondary yolk sacs, a relatively shortened yolk sac phase, 25 and a much earlier onset of medullary hematopoiesis 26 in humans, direct extrapolation of murine development to humans may be inappropriate. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The data also establish an essential role of the hepatic microvasculature in embryonic hematopoiesis. (jci.org)
  • embryo
  • Backgroun: Endothelial differentiation occurs during normal vascular development in the developing embryo. (harvard.edu)
  • Furthermore, although studies with scarce human embryo tissues have provided limited insight into the emergence of HSPCs within the 3- to 5-week human embryo, 23 - 24 it remains impossible to study the initial commitment of mesoderm to angiohematopoiesis because human yolk sac blood islands develop as early as 16 to 17 days of development. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Most of these mutants exhibit a similar phenotype characterized by the absence of angiogenic vascular remodeling in the extraembryonic yolk sac, placenta and embryo proper ( Fig. 2 ). (biologists.org)
  • The vascular system in the embryo recruits its first essential building blocks, namely, endothelial cells, from the splanchnic mesoderm. (ahajournals.org)
  • LSECs represent the only intersection of GATA4 and STAB2 expression during development of the embryo. (jci.org)
  • It has been well established that the vascular niche is the initial site of blood development in the embryo. (fredhutch.org)
  • genes
  • This should be a valuable tool to address the function of genes during physiological and pathological processes of vascular ECs in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • Vectors such as viruses are used to contain genes that are being newly introduced into a cell or cell nucleus. (google.com)
  • The genes may be unmodified but, once introduced into a cell or cell nucleus, they may achieve an effect. (google.com)
  • neural
  • His group uses the mouse forebrain as a model to address how the development of neural lineages is controlled by intrinsic genetic programmes and extracellular signals. (biologists.org)
  • An essential role for Notch in neural crest during cardiovascular development and smooth muscle differentiation," Journal of Clinical Investigation , vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 353-363, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • bone marrow
  • Findings indicate that endothelial cells (EC) are key players for development and maintenance of HSPCs, by forming specialized microenvironments within the bone marrow and other organs, referred to as 'vascular niches' - units with both anatomic and functional dimensions that determine the various interactions that influence blood stem cell formation. (fredhutch.org)
  • physiological
  • Establishment of the circulation is critical for the development of all organ systems of the human body, and endothelial cells (ECs), which line the lumina of all blood vessels, play an essential role in the formation and physiological functions of the circulatory system (for reviews, see refs. (pnas.org)
  • thus
  • Thus, GATA4 acts as master regulator of hepatic microvascular specification and acquisition of organ-specific vascular competence, which are indispensable for liver development. (jci.org)
  • Thus, our study reveals new biological functions for Rho kinases in regulating major morphogenetic events during early chick and mouse development. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the embryonic vascular system can be approximated as a linear system from 0 to 6 Hz, the range in which the majority (96.0±0.18%) of hydraulic energy is dissipated. (ahajournals.org)
  • molecular
  • Albelda, S. M., Muller, W. A., Buck, C. A., and Newman, P. J. (1991) Molecular and cellular properties of PECAM-1 (endoCAM/CD31): a novel vascular cell-cell adhesion molecule. (springer.com)
  • 17. Molecular cell biology, 2007. (hemsleyandhemsley.com)
  • She is interested in understanding the molecular laws that govern the birth, differentiation, and assembly into working circuitry of clinically relevant neuron types in the cerebral cortex. (biologists.org)
  • While the molecular basis for these developmental interactions are being uncovered, it is evident that innervation, pigmentation and vascular! (dur.ac.uk)
  • sation of the follicle, together with its role as a stem cell repository, make interpretations of molecular function within the follicle, complex. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Notch
  • Notch signaling is an ancient intercellular signaling mechanism that plays myriad roles during vascular development and physiology in vertebrates. (biologists.org)
  • The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved, intercellular signaling mechanism essential for proper embryonic development in all metazoan organisms in the Animal kingdom. (biologists.org)
  • Notch signaling frequently plays a crucial role in precursor cells making binary cell fate decisions. (biologists.org)
  • In this review, I will highlight the multiple roles that the Notch signaling pathway plays during vascular development and physiology in vertebrates. (biologists.org)
  • Each Notch family receptor exists at the cell surface as a proteolytically cleaved heterodimer comprising a large ectodomain and a membrane-tethered intracellular domain. (biologists.org)
  • Notch receptors interact with single-pass type I transmembrane ligands expressed on neighboring cells. (biologists.org)
  • These findings inspired Drs. Jennifer Gori and Hans-Peter Kiem from the Clinical Research Division to hypothesize that EC-induced Notch ligands may stimulate blood stem cell specification, and that an artificial ex vivo vascular niche could increase the production of long-term blood MPPs from PSC precursors. (fredhutch.org)
  • To shed further light on the vascular niche functionality the investigators also studied differentiation and engraftment of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) with and without EC-mediated activation of the Notch pathway. (fredhutch.org)
  • The comprehensive evidence indicated a key role for the EC-associated Notch ligands JAG1 and DLL4 in the differentiation of PSCs, and that PSC-MPPs generated in the context of a vascular niche were significantly more active, both ex vivo and in vivo . (fredhutch.org)
  • growth
  • 1991 ). Interaction of vasculotropin/vascular endothelial cell growth factor with human umbilical vein endothelial cells: binding, internalization, degradation, and biological effects. (biologists.org)
  • These molecules include the aquaporins, matrix metalloproteinases and growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factors A and B and the angiopoietins. (springer.com)
  • Microvascular ECs instruct neighboring cells in their organ-specific vascular niches through angiocrine factors, which include secreted growth factors (angiokines), extracellular matrix molecules, and transmembrane proteins. (jci.org)
  • The cCFU-Fs do not express the pan-hemopoietic marker CD45 or the endothelial markers CD31 and Flk1, but they do express some stem cell markers (Oct4, cMyc, and a low level of Klf4 and Nanog) and hematopoietic stem cell markers (Sca1 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α). (ahajournals.org)
  • Chong et al 3 used a tamoxifen-inducible Wt1-Cre mouse to label embryonic epicardial derivatives and showed that many of these cells express platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α. (ahajournals.org)
  • Early vascular plants only developed by primary growth , in which the plants grew through cell division of the plant body. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Secondary growth developed early (the Devonian period, 380 million years ago) in the evolution of vascular plants, which allowed for cell division to take place in the active regions of the plant's periphery. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • Published in Journal of Clinical Investigation , the results showed a clear benefit of EC-induced PSC-MPPs over cytokine-induced control cells for initial engraftment and retainment over time. (fredhutch.org)
  • receptor
  • Receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) are one of the most important groups of cell surface receptors. (hindawi.com)
  • receptors
  • Plants and animals respond to changes in their environment via cell surface receptors, which allow them to sense both external and internal signals and adapt accordingly. (hindawi.com)
  • circulation
  • namely to improve local circulation and encourage vascular ingrowth from the recipient to the graft, or to establish new local circulation through stem cell therapy. (mdpi.com)
  • However, this assumption has not been proven for the embryonic circulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Experimental impedance spectra tended to have a fluctuation and a phase-zero crossover, indicating significant wave reflection in the embryonic circulation. (ahajournals.org)