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  • actinide series
  • To gain insight into the underlying electronic structure of Th and develop trends across the actinide series, it is useful to study Th(III) and Th(II) systems with valence electrons that may engage in non-electrostatic metal-ligand interactions, although only a handful of such systems are known. (phys.org)
  • conduction
  • Band gap: Refers to the difference in energy of an electron in the valence band and the conduction band, which indicates the conductivity of a material. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The strange behavior of graphene includes high conductivity with conduction electrons behaving like massless particles with light velocity replaced with v 0 /c=1/300. (blogspot.com)
  • molecule
  • With the same principle, one can use strong laser fields to bind same-sign charges and create a "molecule without electrons" ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • ionic
  • These results challenge previously held views that heavy elements such as californium, plutonium, and americium are only able to possess purely ionic interactions. (phys.org)
  • wavelength
  • The new material has an unusually small band gap of around 2.4 electron volts (eV), meaning that it can absorb visible light with a wavelength of around 500 nanometers (nm). (fluoridealert.org)
  • Understand the concepts of electron wavelength and density of states. (wikibooks.org)
  • Fluorine
  • Scandium is generally a byproduct of mining minerals for other elements such as fluorine and tantalum. (ducksters.com)
  • Known collectively by a term derived from a Greek word meaning "salt-producing," the halogen family consists of five elements: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Fluorine and chlorine are gases, iodine is a solid, and bromine is one of only two elements that exists at room temperature as a liquid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • periodic law
  • PERIODIC LAW: When the elements are arranged according to Z, their physical and chemical properties vary periodically, regularly and predictably. (slideserve.com)
  • Ligand
  • To determine the chemical differences between californium and lanthanides, researchers "wrapped up" californium in an incredibly electron-rich environment using the ligand polyborate, which is both highly polarizable and can substantially rearrange upon complexation. (phys.org)
  • cloud
  • Do we know the exact location of electrons in the electron cloud? (studystack.com)
  • Why is it not simply an average of the three naturally occurring isotopes 1H, starting with a simple billiard ball model at Key Stage 2 and ending with the electron cloud model at A Level. (song4u.info)