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  • pathogenic bacteria
  • IMPORTANCE Mycoplasmas are pathogenic bacteria that cause serious chronic infections in production animals, resulting in considerable losses worldwide, as well as causing disease in humans. (asm.org)
  • Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Sialic acids are a group of monosaccharides with a nine-carbon backbone, commonly found in mammalian cells and pathogenic bacteria, and frequently described to protect EPS molecules and cells from attack by. (tudelft.nl)
  • They exhibit important technological properties, e.g. thermostability and retaining of activity at a wide pH range, which along with the bactericidal action against Gram-positive food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, make them an important class of biopreservatives. (biomedcentral.com)
  • glucose uptake
  • The analyses elucidated distinct differences, including a clear difference in glucose utilization, with a marked decrease in glucose uptake and glycolysis in M. bovis compared to M. gallisepticum , which may reflect differing host nutrient availabilities. (asm.org)
  • In sodium arsenite-treated E. coli , glucose uptake, intracellular ROS, LPO and DNA damage increased along with decrease in the specific activities of hexokinase, SOD and catalase, intracellular ATP and free glutathione contents and cell membrane potential and growth, and there were increases in expression levels of arsB gene and ptsG gene. (jcimjournal.com)
  • Khuda-Bukhsh AR, De A, Das D, Dutta S, Boujedaini N. Analysis of the capability of ultra-highly diluted glucose to increase glucose uptake in arsenite-stressed bacteria Escherichia coli. (jcimjournal.com)
  • A non-phosphotransferase system (PTS) glucose uptake route was activated via deletion of the glucose transporter gene ptsG and introduction of the galactose permease gene galP . (biomedcentral.com)
  • fungi
  • The human microbiota includes bacteria , fungi , archaea and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, heterotrophs, which include animals, fungi, and most bacteria, are unable to synthesize organic compounds from inorganic sources, and must rely on the (direct or indirect) consumption of plants and other autotrophs to obtain the organic substrates necessary for growth and development. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Most process concepts for bioethanol from lignocellulose start with a thermo-chemical hydrolysis of the hemicellulose part (pretreatment), followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose part and a yeast-based fermentation of the resulting sugars. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and sugar transporters in various yeast, protozoa and higher plants. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • enzymes
  • The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). (genome.jp)
  • The free hexoses, initially present in the slurry, were in these experiments fermented before adding the enzymes, thereby lowering the glucose concentration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results demonstrate that the corn stover-adapted microbial consortium EMSD5 harbors a variety of lignocellulolytic anaerobic bacteria and degradative enzymes, especially those implicated in hemicellulose decomposition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel bifunctional enzyme, L-rhamnulose-phosphate aldolase (RhaE) fused to L-lactaldehyde dehydrogenase (RhaW), which is not homologous to previously characterized L-Rha catabolic enzymes, was identified in diverse bacteria including Chloroflexi, Bacilli, and Alphaproteobacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • pathways
  • We reveal that host glycogen stores shift to the vacuole through two pathways: bulk uptake from the cytoplasmic pool, and de novo synthesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • By using both pathways, C. trachomatis is able to trap most of the glycogen stores of the infected cell within the inclusion so that they are inaccessible to the host but ready for the bacteria to use. (elifesciences.org)
  • L-Rha catabolic pathways were previously characterized in various bacteria including Escherichia coli . (frontiersin.org)
  • Oxygenic phototrophic bacteria, known as cyanobacteria, share similar electron transport pathways with other oxygenic phototrophs (e.g., plants and algae). (frontiersin.org)
  • fermentation
  • Bioethanol produced by fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass (second generation bioethanol), from agricultural by-products, forest residues or energy crops, shows many potential advantages in comparison to sugar or starch-derived bioethanol (first generation bioethanol), from both energetic and environmental points of view. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The vast majority of antibiotics in our repertoire were discovered in the following three decades by systematic empiric screening of fermentation products or chemicals for growth inhibitors of bacteria ( Silver, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This work demonstrated an effective approach of improved butanol fermentation and its probable mechanisms of this positive effect, i.e. the adsorption of ABE solvent and the adhesion of bacteria on porous substrate accounted for the production improvement and the proportional variation of solvent constituents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • starch
  • Traditionally, ethanol has been produced from starch or sugar based agricultural products, but today the focus is on different agricultural and forestry residues or side streams from forest industries. (google.com)
  • Among the barriers are the high costs of the lignocellulose conversion technologies, the low concentration and yield of ethanol, as well as the low production rates, which all increase the costs of ethanol produced from lignocellulosics, as compared to ethanol produced from starch or sugar based raw materials. (google.com)
  • It can be used as an immediate food nutrient, or combined and rearranged to form monosaccharide sugars, such as glucose , which can be transported to other cells or packaged for storage as an insoluble polysaccharide such as starch . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Foods rich in starch, without the addition of sugars, play a small role in coronal dental caries. (dentalindia.com)
  • Amino
  • Four growth phases were clearly identified during the batch cultivation of O. oeni PSU-1 strain, according to the temporal consumption of malic and citric acids, sugar and amino acids uptake, and biosynthesis rates of metabolic products - biomass, erythritol, mannitol and acetic acid, among others. (frontiersin.org)
  • IAA has been shown to form conjugates with sugars, amino acids, and small peptides. (plantphysiol.org)
  • carbon
  • They constitute a large fraction of the reduced carbon reservoir in the ocean and enhance the survival of marine bacteria influencing the physicochemical environment in proximity of the bacterial cell. (mdpi.com)
  • Continued dependence on a sugar, and the importance of the chitin monomer N- acetyl- d- glucosamine as a carbon and energy source, suggests adaptation to host-derived molecules. (asm.org)
  • moiety
  • Oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA), OxIAA conjugated to a hexose moiety via the carboxyl group, and the conjugates indole-3-acetyl aspartic acid (IAAsp) and indole-3-acetyl glutamate (IAGlu) were identified by mass spectrometry as primary products of IAA fed to the plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • biomass
  • Plant biomass is considered as an abundant renewable resource that can be transformed into fermentable sugars for biofuel production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. (biomedcentral.com)
  • symbiotic
  • The aim of this paper is to give an overview of current knowledge on EPSs produced by marine bacteria including symbiotic marine EPS-producing bacteria isolated from some marine annelid worms that live in extreme niches. (mdpi.com)
  • This work highlights the use of metabolic modeling to design defined growth media for symbiotic bacteria and may provide novel inhibitory targets to block trypanosome transmission. (asm.org)
  • Included in this are a vast array of symbiotic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • archaea
  • Type IV pili (Tfp), which are key virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens, define a large group of multipurpose filamentous nanomachines widespread in Bacteria and Archaea. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • oxygenic
  • Taken together, these observations led to the hypothesis that, although sulfolipid presumably has no specific role in anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis in bacteria, it acts as a surrogate to replace the anionic phosphatidylglycerol under conditions of reduced phosphate availability ( 2 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • lignocellulose
  • In addition, analysis of the coordinate expression patterns indicated that transport proteins and hypothetical proteins may play a role in bacteria processing lignocellulose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • metabolic
  • These bacteria have extremely reduced genomes and are thought to have limited metabolic flexibility, even though they are highly successful persistent parasites in a diverse number of species. (asm.org)
  • The metabolic contributions of the fungus in return for those sugars are more diverse. (springer.com)
  • consumption
  • Changes in end product formation in strains of Bifidobacterium could be related to the specific rate of sugar consumption. (asm.org)
  • Both the frequency of consumption and total amount of sugars is important in the aetiology of caries. (dentalindia.com)
  • mammalian
  • The ability to transport glucose across the plasma membrane is a feature common to nearly all cells, from simple bacteria through to highly specialised mammalian neurones. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure and function of mammalian facilitative sugar transporters. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • subset
  • E. coli were treated with 1 or 2 mmol/L sodium arsenite alone (control), or Ars Alb 30C was added to the medium of a subset of sodium arsenite-treated bacteria (drug-treated), or homeopathically agitated alcohol was added to the medium containing a subset of sodium arsenite-treated bacteria (placebo-treated). (jcimjournal.com)
  • concentrations
  • However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L) initial sugar concentrations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Metabolites
  • The generated model of mycorrhizal metabolome predicts that the specific compounds glycine, glutamate, and allantoin are synthesized by L. bicolor and that these compounds or their metabolites may be used for the benefit of aspen in exchange for the photosynthetically-derived sugars fructose and glucose. (springer.com)
  • glycogen
  • Our data bring strong support to the following scenario: bacteria co-opt the host transporter SLC35D2 to import UDP-glucose into the vacuole, where it serves as substrate for de novo glycogen synthesis, through a remarkable adaptation of the bacterial glycogen synthase. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the bacteria also make new glycogen in the inclusion from a building block molecule called UDP-glucose. (elifesciences.org)
  • The C. trachomatis glycogen synthase is unusual because most other bacteria can only make glycogen from another type of glucose. (elifesciences.org)
  • Previous work has shown that C. trachomatis is much better at accumulating glycogen than other Chlamydia bacteria are. (elifesciences.org)
  • compartments
  • Inside these cells, the bacteria are found inside compartments known as inclusions, which protect them from the host's defense responses and enable them to create a comfortable environment for themselves. (elifesciences.org)
  • carbohydrates
  • The PTS catalyzes the uptake of carbohydrates and their conversion into their respective phosphoesters during transport. (genome.jp)
  • lipid
  • In bacteria, an environmental factor that drastically affects thylakoid lipid composition appears to be the availability of phosphate. (pnas.org)
  • genome
  • ComP binds DNA better when it contains the DNA-uptake sequence (DUS) motif abundant in this species genome, playing a role in its trademark ability to selectively take up its own DNA. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • experiments
  • In experiments with the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides , we observed a decrease in the relative amounts of all phospholipids and an increase in the amounts of nonphosphorous lipids in response to phosphate limitation ( 2 ). (pnas.org)