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  • Metabolism
  • Bile acids are the major product of cholesterol metabolism in the liver and aid lipid absorption in the intestine ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In cells and mouse models, EphA2 activated Rho-ROCK signaling that mediated the nuclear accumulation of the transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ, where they induced the expression of genes encoding an amino acid transporter that promoted glutamine uptake and an enzyme that promoted glutamine metabolism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Silencing YAP or TAZ substantially reduced the amount of intracellular glutamate through decreased expression of SLC1A5 and GLS , respectively, genes that encode proteins that promote glutamine uptake and metabolism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our results show a direct corelation between the increase in amino acid uptake and an increase in the trans- and deamination of amino acids during catabolite derepression accompanied by oxidative cell metabolism and increase in the TCA cycle turn-over during catabolite derepression. (hindawi.com)
  • fetal growth
  • As a result, fAd inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport, which may have important implications for placental nutrient transport and fetal growth in pregnancy complications associated with altered maternal adiponectin levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Decreased placental mTOR activity causes down-regulation of placental system A activity by shifting SNAT-2 trafficking towards proteasomal degradation, thereby contributing to decreased fetal amino acid availability and restricted fetal growth in IUGR. (antibodies-online.com)
  • protein
  • Because System A also catalyzes Na + -dependent amino acid transport sensitive to low pH, we considered that the protein(s) responsible might belong to the same family as VGAT and, in particular, SN1. (pnas.org)
  • Choi S, DiSilvio B, Fernstrom MH, Fernstrom JD (2009) Meal ingestion, amino acids and brain neurotransmitters: effects of dietary protein source on serotonin and catecholamine synthesis rates. (springer.com)
  • We have also shown in the remnant model and a podocyte injury induced model (puromycin aminonucleoside, PAN) that the protein abundance of the transporter involved in L-Arg secretion is reduced in addition to impaired uptake by endothelial cells. (ufl.edu)
  • Furthermore, this increase in the TCA cycle turn-over is accompanied by an increase in the activity and protein expression of key TCA cycle and amino acid metabolizing enzymes. (hindawi.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the light subunit of a cationic amino acid transporter. (mybiosource.com)
  • We recently showed that maternal amino acid infusion into pregnant sheep resulted in competitive inhibition of amino acid transport across the placenta and did not increase fetal protein accretion rates. (physiology.org)
  • regulates
  • We hypothesized that adiponectin regulates placental amino acid transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulates bile acid homeostasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • FXR is, however, not limited to the regulation of bile acids, as it also regulates lipid ( 14 ) and carbohydrate ( 15 ) homeostasis, and has roles in amino acid transport ( 16 ), liver regeneration ( 17 ), and gastrointestinal defense ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Catabolite repression (CCR) regulates amino acid permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a TOR-kinase mediated mechanism. (hindawi.com)
  • yeast
  • Here we have assessed the contribution and metabolic significance of this surfeit of amino acid in yeast undergoing catabolite derepression (CDR). (hindawi.com)
  • In summary, CDR upregulation of amino acid uptake is accompanied by increased utilization of amino acids for yeast growth. (hindawi.com)
  • Based upon these observations we put forward a prima facie model [ 5 ] suggesting that the surfeit of amino acids during catabolite derepression in yeast may serve as reductive substrates for the TCA cycle providing an electron source for mitochondrial energy transduction. (hindawi.com)
  • Little information exists on the utilization of the increased amino acids under conditions of stress such as catabolite derepression in yeast. (hindawi.com)
  • We used the WT yeast and strains with genetic alterations grown under CCR and catabolite derepressed conditions to investigate whether the increase in amino acid uptake during catabolite derepression is accompanied by (i) increase in the oxidation of amino acids and (ii) increase in the activity and expression of TCA cycle enzymes. (hindawi.com)
  • We demonstrate that the TOR mediated increase in amino acid uptake serves as a fuel for energy provision, thus providing a mechanism of yeast metabolic adaptation during conditions of stress. (hindawi.com)
  • placenta
  • It is not known whether these observations are specific to the mode of delivery of supplemental amino acids to the fetus (via the mother and placenta vs. a direct fetal infusion) or to the excess amino acids themselves. (physiology.org)
  • permeases
  • Under CDR, leucine oxidation was (i) proportional to uptake, as demonstrated by decreased uptake and oxidation of leucine in strains deleted of major leucine permeases and (ii) entirely dependent upon the TCA cycle, as cytochrome c1 (Cyt1) deleted strains could not grow in galactose. (hindawi.com)
  • SLC7A5
  • In response to activation, T cells increased their expression of Slc7a5 and their uptake of LNAAs in a Slc7a5-dependent manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • lysine
  • In vitro studies with U87 cells revealed a non-specific uptake of the hydrophobic Fmoc-protected lysine-conjugated mTCPP precursors, but not d - or l -lysine mTCPP. (mdpi.com)
  • metabolic
  • That is, the metabolic demands of T cell increase upon activation and as a result, T cells need to take up more amino acids. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this paper we have tested our proposed model [ 5 ] by addressing the following question regarding the metabolic fate of increased uptake of amino acids under catabolite derepression: are the accumulated amino acids surplus to the altered metabolic requirement during catabolite derepression or do they serve as a fuel in biochemical pathways related to the observed increase in oxygen consumption? (hindawi.com)
  • Similarly, supplementation of pregnant sheep with intravenous amino acids for several days at the end of gestation demonstrated adverse fetal effects, including hypoxia and respiratory and metabolic acidosis ( 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • concentration
  • De plus, après mesure dans le liquide céphalo-rachidien (LCR), la VAP circulante induit une diminution de la concentration du liquide extracellulaire cérébral (LEC) en amino-acides. (springer.com)
  • toxic
  • In 2013, a study published in Folia Neuropathology found that aspartame is metabolized into three toxic molecules - phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol. (sourcewatch.org)