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  • induces
  • Chronic high-fat diet (HFD) leads to hyperglycemia as a consequence of impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance ( 3 , 4 ), and in vitro exposure to saturated and, to a lesser extent, unsaturated FFAs induces β-cell dysfunction and death ( 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • stress
  • This stress-activated response also activates endonucleases to process specific mature cytosolic mRNAs into variants that encode transcription factors. (qiagen.com)
  • This study aimed at examining the effects of OLE and RUT against 6-OHDA-induced stress response in rat pheochromocytoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • When differentiated PC12 cells were exposed to oxidative stress composer 6-OHDA (100 μM, 8 h), a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was observed along with a significant loss of cell viability and apoptotic nuclear changes. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, various other mechanisms have been shown to play roles in initiating apoptotic signaling by ER stress, such as activation of caspase-8, caspase-2, and caspase-12 in murine systems and its counterpart caspase-4 in human cells ( 5 , 6 , 16 - 19 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Persistent presence of mutant, misfolded protein molecules in the ER leads to ER stress and evokes the unfolded protein response (UPR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Imediately following injury, the ER stress response is activated due to increased intracellular calcium from glutamate signaling. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The three types of UPR regulator identified to date are localized in the mammalian ER as transmembrane proteins which sense ER stress and transmit signals across the ER membrane. (asm.org)
  • ER stress-associated proapoptotic signals, including B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/lymphoma 2-associated × protein (BAX) expression, caspase-12 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, were activated in the UUO kidney. (springer.com)
  • This can cause the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen - the condition referred to "ER stress" [ 2 - 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Complex response mechanisms have evolved to deal with unfolded protein stress in different subcellular compartments and their moderate activation translates into positive effects on health. (biologists.org)
  • In this review, we focus on the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR mt ), a response to proteotoxic stress specifically in mitochondria, an organelle with a wide array of fundamental functions, most notably the harvesting of energy from food and the control of cell death. (biologists.org)
  • membrane
  • The preS1 domain adopts a dual topology at the ER membrane enabling the interaction of the L protein with both, the core protein in the cytoplasm and the viral receptors at the plasma membrane ( Lambert and Prange, 2001 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This study aims to characterize GEP protein partner at the cell membrane with the co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry approach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In eukaryotic cells, the ER is an organelle responsible for folding and assembly of membrane and secreted proteins, synthesis of lipids and sterols, and storage of free calcium [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • binds
  • Furthermore, a completely different model was presented recently based on the crystal structure, in which the luminal domain of yeast Ire1p binds directly to unfolded proteins to be oligomerized ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • correctly folded
  • This process keeps proteins in the ER until they are correctly folded before allowing them to proceed to their final destination. (qiagen.com)
  • The ER has evolved a high-fidelity quality control system to ensure that only correctly folded proteins are transported to the Golgi compartment and then delivered to the extracellular environment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • inflammatory
  • The UPR exacerbates diseases caused by the expression of mutant proteins that fold incorrectly, such as cystic fibrosis and neurodegenerative disorders, or the overexpression of protein in general, such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetic or chronic kidney disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (qiagen.com)
  • Dead hepatocytes are engulfed by macrophages, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory signals that activate stellate cells, ultimately inducing fibrosis (Fig. 1 a). (springer.com)
  • SCCA1 overexpression in neu + mammary tumors increased the unfolded protein response (UPR), IL6 expression, and inflammatory phenotypes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • translational
  • Therefore, the ER has to provide a proper environment that can be perturbed, for instance, when post-translational protein modification fails or Ca 2+ concentrations are altered ( Schroder and Kaufman, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
  • The translational attenuation can reduce the workload of the ER by preventing production of newly-synthesized proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • chaperone
  • The three UPR transducers are constitutively expressed in metazoan cells [ 10 ], and are maintained in an inactive state through interaction with the ER protein chaperone BiP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • lumen
  • Interestingly, when expressed alone, the L protein assembles into particles that are retained within the ER lumen. (frontiersin.org)