• The DNA microarray technology enables the identification of the large number of genes involved in the complex deregulation of cell homeostasis taking place in cancer. (nih.gov)
  • The pathway mediated by NF-E2-related nuclear factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) is of central importance in regulating expression of detoxifying and antioxidant genes and protecting against carcinogenesis and xenobiotic toxicity ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Modifications of critical thiol groups in Keap1 result in dissociation of the Keap1-Nrf2 complex and translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus, where it functions as a strong transcriptional activator of antioxidant response element (ARE)-responsive genes, such as heme oxygenase 1 ( HO-1 ), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 ( NQO1 ), glutamate cysteine ligase ( GCL ), and GST ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is required for the recruitment of XAB2, HMGN1 and TCEA1/TFIIS to a transcription-coupled repair complex which removes RNA polymerase II-blocking lesions from the transcribed strand of active genes. (genecards.org)
  • This combination of high-throughput sequencing and protein identification technologies allows detection of genes and proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We show that this approach can also be used to highlight genes and proteins undergoing dynamic changes in post-transcriptional protein stability. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cellular iron homeostasis is maintained by the coordinate posttranscriptional regulation of genes responsible for iron uptake, release, use, and storage through the actions of the iron regulatory proteins IRP1 and IRP2. (sciencemag.org)
  • Component of the Mediator complex, a coactivator involved in the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. (genecards.org)
  • In Keap1-deficient cells in which the Nrf2 protein is highly accumulated, expression of Nrf2 target genes is strongly activated ( 13 , 14 ), indicating that Keap1 targets Nrf2 for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (asm.org)
  • This complex functions through chromatin remodeling as an essential epigenetic repressor of multiple regulatory genes involved in embryonic development and self-renewal in somatic stem cells. (genecards.org)
  • Component of a Polycomb group (PcG) multiprotein PRC1-like complex, a complex class required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of many genes, including Hox genes, throughout development. (genecards.org)
  • The Polycomb-group proteins (PcGs) are a family of proteins that use epigenetic mechanisms to maintain or repress expression of their target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical purification and functional genetic studies have assigned the various PcG genes into two distinct subsets, namely Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) and Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). (wikipedia.org)
  • PRC2 The PRC2 core complex initiates repression by tagging genes with methyl groups (a process known as histone methylation). (wikipedia.org)
  • One hypothesis is that the Jumonji/ARID domain-containing protein JARID2, and the members of the Polycomb-like family Pcl proteins, are responsible for PRC2 recruitment to target genes in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests that the Pcl family of proteins facilitates PcG-mediated silencing of previously active genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the fact that Jarid2 and the Pcl proteins are thought not to be present in the same complexes means that, in mammalian cells, distinct PRC2 complexes target different genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polycomb group proteins control nucleosome interactions and were first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, where PcG genes maintain repression of the homeobox (Hox) genes that establish and preserve the anterior-posterior axis of the insect body plan during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCDC130 is a highly conserved protein, it has orthologous genes in some yeasts and plants that were found using nucleotide and protein versions of the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bird orthologs have not been found in nucleotide or protein BLASTs There have been homologous genes documented in yeasts and other fungi, as well as plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the presence of JA or its bioactive derivatives, JAZ proteins are degraded, freeing transcription factors for expression of genes needed in stress responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNF2 is part of a polycomb group of proteins that are important for transcription repression of various genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • SUZ12 is also a polycomb group protein and part of a complex that methylates lysines of histones and also is involved with repression of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several thousand protein-coding genes appear to have HBx-binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to binding to protein coding genes, HBx bound to the promoters controlling 15 microRNAs and 16 Long non-coding RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome contains eight cullin genes CUL1, part of SCF complex CUL2, part of ECS complex (Elongin C - CUL2 - SOCS-box) CUL3, part of CUL3-BTB complex CUL4A CUL4B CUL5 CUL7 CUL9, also known as PARC There is also a more distant member called ANAPC2 (or APC2), part of the Anaphase-promoting complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This heterodimer of HIF is a transcription factor that activates genes that encode for proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin, proteins that are both involved in angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to that, they suggested that IL-1F6, IL-1F8 and IL-1F9 should get new names IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ, even though they are encoded by distinct genes, they use the same receptor complex IL-1Rrp2 and coreceptor IL-1RAcP and deliver almost identical signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1997 it was described how ARF's bind to auxin-response gene elements in promoters of auxin regulated genes, generally activating transcription of that gene when an Aux/IAA protein is not bound. (wikipedia.org)
  • A small family of proteins named Gene for Apoptosis and Differentiation (JADE) includes three members encoded by individual genes: Plant Homeo-domain-17 (PHF17, JADE1), PHF16 (JADE3), and PHF15 (JADE2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins form the multiprotein complexes that are important for the transcription repression of various genes involved in development and cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once SMAD3 is phosphorylated at the C-terminus, it dissociates from SARA and forms a heterodimeric complex with SMAD4, which is required for the transcriptional regulation of many target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • If glucose is absent Snf3 is quiescent and transcription of the HXT genes is inhibited by a repressing complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • T-Cell Immunopeptidomes Reveal Cell Subtype Surface Markers Derived From Intracellular Proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The Keap1-Cul3 complex is a critical regulator of the cellular Nrf2 level, and yet quantitative information regarding their endogenous intracellular concentrations in homeostatic conditions and during stress responses is unknown. (asm.org)
  • The ligand binding causes conformational changes to the intracellular domain which allows for the recruitment of scaffolding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knock-out studies of Dot/Icm translocated effectors indicate that they are vital for the intracellular survival of the bacterium, but many individual effector proteins are thought to function redundantly, in that single-effector knock-outs rarely impede intracellular survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene that encodes the cereblon protein is found on the human chromosome 3, on the short arm at position p26.3 from base pair 3,190,676 to base pair 3,221,394. (wikipedia.org)
  • FBXL3 is a gene in humans and mice that encodes the F-box/LRR-repeat protein 3 (FBXL3). (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is ubiquitously expressed and encodes a full-length protein which has an N-terminal BTB domain followed by a BACK domain and six kelch-like repeats in the C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • L. pneumophila encodes for over 330 "effector" proteins, which are secreted by the Dot/Icm translocation system to interfere with host cell processes to aid bacterial survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • To allow plants acclimating to stress, ABA further induces desiccation tolerance mechanisms, e.g., by inducing intrinsic proteins such as late embryogenesis abundant and heat shock proteins with chaperone activity, RNA chaperones, and the redox machinery or by reprograming metabolism for an enhanced synthesis of compatible solutes ( Ma and Bohnert, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The OCA-S transcriptional coactivator complex contains GAPDH and lactate dehydrogenase, two proteins previously only thought to be involved in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • This principle is clearly evident in the organization of the cell division cycle, where initiation of DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and exit from mitosis are triggered by the destruction of key regulatory proteins ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Generation of stable cell lines is a widely used technique for continuous recombinant protein production. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Protein degradation plays a role in many cellular processes, such as cell cycle regulation, antigen presentation, and the disposal of denatured, unfolded, or oxidized proteins ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • SmgGDS is a transient nucleolar protein that protects cells from nucleolar stress and promotes the cell cycle by regulating DREAM complex gene expression. (mcw.edu)
  • Oncoviruses have been important not only in epidemiology, but also in investigations of cell cycle control mechanisms such as the Retinoblastoma protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two mechanisms differ in their biology and epidemiology: direct tumor viruses must have at least one virus copy in every tumor cell expressing at least one protein or RNA that is causing the cell to become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multitasking protein that has dual roles in promoting cell proliferation and preventing apoptosis. (uniprot.org)
  • These observations suggest that SCF Skp2 is the principal ubiquitin ligase responsible for determination of the abundance of cell cycle regulatory proteins during progression of cells from G 1 to S phase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled was added as new class to the Cell Surface Receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Ubiquitin serves as a signal to specialized cell structures known as proteasomes, which attach (bind) to the tagged proteins and degrade them. (nih.gov)
  • To cope, cells have evolved an elaborate network of sensor, transducer, and effector proteins that coordinate cell cycle progression with the repair of the initiating DNA lesion ( 4 , 31 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Acts mainly as an oncoprotein by stimulating the destruction of many host cell key regulatory proteins. (uniprot.org)
  • The CKS2 mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects specialized role for the encoded protein. (nih.gov)
  • We analyzed the absolute amounts of the Nrf2, Keap1, and Cul3 proteins in five murine cell lines by comparison with serial dilutions of purified recombinant protein standards in combination with quantitative immunoblot analyses. (asm.org)
  • The role of this complex is to tag damaged and excess proteins in the cell with ubiquitin. (wikipedia.org)
  • During unperturbed cell cycle progression, ubiquitination and downregulation of these proteins by CRL4ACdt2 occurs at the onset of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cbl (named after Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma) is a mammalian gene encoding the protein CBL which is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in cell signalling and protein ubiquitination. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has important roles in the ubiquitination of proteins involved in the cell cycle and also marks various other cellular proteins for destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two ubiquitin ligases are crucial in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of the cell cycle by SCF-type ubiquitin ligases", Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 16 (323). (wikipedia.org)
  • From a pathological perspective, in a neuronal cell model, dominant-negative MARCH5 prevents mitochondrial fragmentation during neurodegenerative stress induced by the neuron-specific reactive oxygen generator 6-hydroxydopamine, the complex I inhibitor rotenone or Alzheimer's-related amyloid beta peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathways have clear cancer relevance due to their integral involvement in protein quality control, regulation of immune responses, signal transduction, and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • All three proteins are stable throughout the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for the cell cycle to proceed, several inhibitory proteins, as well as cyclins, have to be eliminated at given time points. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbxs class, and its C-terminal region is highly similar to that of rat NFB42 (neural F Box 42 kDa) which may be involved in the control of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, it has additional shared features of cyclins, such as pEST region, protein quantity, localization, cell cycle-regulated mRNA, and ability to influence cell cycle and progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • βTrCP has also emerged as an important player in protein translation, cell growth and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to mitogens, PDCD4, an inhibitor of the translation initiation factor eIF4A, is rapidly degraded in a βTrCP- and S6K1-dependent manner, allowing efficient protein translation and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • But it's hard to precisely decide which organism organ in cell does the F-box protein locate because the number of F-box protein is so much. (wikipedia.org)
  • Function F-box proteins have also been associated with cellular functions such as signal transduction and regulation of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-2 contains both a Vpr protein and a related (by sequence homology) Vpx protein (Viral Protein X). Two functions of Vpr in HIV-1 are split between Vpr and Vpx in HIV-2, with the HIV-2 Vpr protein inducing cell cycle arrest and the Vpx protein required for nuclear import. (wikipedia.org)
  • BST-2, which is an interferon (IFN)-inducible cell surface protein, appears to "tether" HIV to the cell in the absence of Vpu. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007 it was found that IRAK4 activity was necessary for activating signal pathways which lead to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), or Toll-like receptor-mediated immune responses (TLR), but was not essential to T-cell Receptor (TCR) signalling as was originally proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, how loss of function of the parkin protein leads to dopaminergic cell death in this disease is unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study demonstrated that GAPDH is S-nitrosylated by NO in response to cell stress, which causes it to bind to the protein SIAH1, a ubiquitin ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many processes such as cell division, immune responses and embryonic development are also regulated by post-translational modification by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can lead to impaired degradation of microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B), resulting in the build-up of MAP1B protein, which may enhance neuronal cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because the X protein promotes cell cycle progression while binding to and inhibiting tumor suppressor protein p53 from performing their role. (wikipedia.org)
  • The identification and characterization of the ORC, Cdc6, Cdt1, and the MCM complex proteins as the licensing factor gives credence to this model and suggests a means by which the oscillatory nature of CDKs in the cell cycle can regulate rereplication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc-finger proteins bind nucleic acids and play important roles in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle protein 20 is an essential regulator of cell division that is encoded by the CDC20 gene in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • A closely related protein, Cdc20homologue-1 (Cdh1) plays a complementary role in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC20 appears to act as a regulatory protein interacting with many other proteins at multiple points in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, when cdk activity is high in mitosis, and the cell must prepare to enter anaphase and exit mitosis, the APC/CCdc20 complex is activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein contains a RING-finger domain and is also thought to have a role in control of cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over time, sporadic mutation in the second copy of the VHL protein can lead to carcinomas, in particular hemangioblastomas affecting the liver and kidneys, renal (and vaginal) clear cell adenocarcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the normal cell with active VHL protein, HIF alpha is regulated by hydroxylation in the presence of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 RIPs consist of an A chain that is functionally equivalent to a type 1 RIP, covalently connected by a single disulfide bond to a B chain that is catalytically inactive, but serves to mediate transport of the A-B protein complex from the cell surface, via vesicle carriers, to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, plants that contain only protein chain A, such as barley, are not toxic because without the link to protein chain B, protein chain A cannot enter the cell and do damage to ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC, which is activated by Fizzy-Cdc20 family proteins, is a cell cycle ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) that degrades mitotic cyclins, chromosomal proteins that maintain cohesion of sister chromatids, and anaphase inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular localization plays an essential role in the function of SMO, which anchors to the cell membrane as a 7-pass transmembrane protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a mitochondrial protein, it is involved in maintaining membrane potential and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity, as well as cellular processes such as cell movement, growth, and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, it is unclear whether these two proteins sense the glucose concentration on the outside or inside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • p53 is a known precursor of apoptosis that facilitates the synthesis of proteins necessary for cell death so its degradation results in apoptosis inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further application of biochemical assays similar to those described here can now be used to identify regulators/components of hCUL1-based SCF complexes, to determine whether the hCUL2-hCUL5 proteins also are components of ubiquitin ligase complexes in human cells, and to screen for chemical compounds that modulate the activities of the hSKP1 and hCUL1 proteins. (pnas.org)
  • EBV latent membrane protein 2A orchestrates p27 kip1 degradation via Cks1 to accelerate MYC-driven lymphoma in mice. (nih.gov)
  • In the basal state, the amount of Nrf2 was maintained at lower levels than those of Keap1 and Cul3 proteins, whereas the electrophilic agent diethylmaleate dramatically increased Nrf2 to a level greater than that of Keap1 and Cul3, resulting in the accumulation of Nrf2 in the nucleus. (asm.org)