• It functions as a receiver of phosphate groups that are transferred by way of protein kinases (so-called receptor tyrosine kinases). (humpath.com)
  • Foretinib (formerly XL880) was developed as a small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with a dual purpose: to target abnormal signaling of HGF through Met and simultaneously target several receptor tyrosine kinases involved in tumor angiogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Increased bone marrow angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are of adverse prognostic significance in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). VEGF, a soluble circulating angiogenic molecule, acts via receptor tyrosine kinases, including VEGF receptor 2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In particular, MEK inhibition broadly decreases shedding of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), including HER4, MET, and most prominently AXL, an ADAM10 and ADAM17 substrate, thus increasing surface RTK levels and mitogenic signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • l‐tyrosine + 2‐oxoglutarate = 4‐hydroxyphenylpyruvate + l‐glutamate. (oup.com)
  • L-tyrosine + 2-oxoglutarate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + L-glutamate In humans, the tyrosine aminotransferase protein is encoded by the TAT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a diiodotyrosine transaminase (EC 2.6.1.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine + 2-oxoglutarate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenylpyruvate + L-glutamate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine and 2-oxoglutarate, whereas its two products are 4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenylpyruvate and L-glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prephenate is oxidatively decarboxylated with retention of the hydroxyl group to give p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, which is transaminated using glutamate as the nitrogen source to give tyrosine and α-ketoglutarate. (humpath.com)
  • They are also called tyrphostins , the short name for " tyrosine phosphorylation inhibitor ", originally coined in a 1988 publication, which was the first description of compounds inhibiting the catalytic activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1988 study was the first demonstration of a systematic search and discovery of small-molecular-weight inhibitors of tyrosine phosphorylation, which do not inhibit protein kinases that phosphorylate serine or threonine residues and can discriminate between the kinase domains of the EGFR and that of the insulin receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation is considered to be one of the key steps in signal transduction and regulation of enzymatic activity. (humpath.com)
  • Our study confirms distinct prognostic relevance of STAT1 expression levels and STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation in breast cancer patients and identifies an association of high STAT1 levels with elevated expression of STAT1 target genes and markers for infiltrating immune cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glucokinase, serine dehydratase, and tyrosine α-ketoglutarate transaminase activities were also changed in yellow mice, but these alterations depended on the background genome. (genetics.org)
  • For a subset of patients, protein levels of total as well as serine and tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 were ascertained by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting and protein levels of CXCL10 by ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Through the use of RNAi and genetic mutants, we identify tatn-1, which is the worm ortholog of tyrosine aminotransferase and catalyzes the first step of the conserved tyrosine degradation pathway, as a novel regulator of the dauer decision and modulator of the daf-2 insulin/IGF-1-like (IGFR) signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. (elsevier.com)
  • Mutations affecting tatn-1 elevate tyrosine levels in the animal, and enhance the effects of mutations in genes that lie within the daf-2/insulin signaling pathway or are otherwise upstream of daf-16/FOXO on both dauer formation and worm longevity. (elsevier.com)
  • It was further shown that in spite of the conservation of the tyrosine-kinase domains one can design and synthesize tyrphostins that discriminate between even closely related protein tyrosine kinases such as EGFR and its close relative HER2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous TKIs aiming at various tyrosine kinases have been generated by the originators of these compounds and proven to be effective anti- tumor agents and anti- leukemic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently TKIs have been shown to deprive tyrosine kinases of access to the Cdc37 - Hsp90 molecular chaperone system on which they depend for their cellular stability, leading to their ubiquitylation and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the tyrosine residues can be tagged with a phosphate group (phosphorylated) by protein kinases. (humpath.com)
  • Tyrosine kinases. (artikel-agama.ga)
  • We also find that the controlled metabolism of tyrosine by tatn-1 may function normally in dauer formation because the expression of the TATN-1 protein is regulated both by daf-2/IGFR signaling and also by the same dietary and environmental cues which influence dauer formation. (elsevier.com)
  • HER receptors are transmembrane glycoproteins containing an extracellular ligand-binding domain and an intracellular receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) domain, bothe of which are important in tumor development via their effect on cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and anti-apoptosis ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Within dimers, the interactions between the intracellular domains of the receptors lead to autophosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase, allowing for subsequent signal transduction which is associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, there was no association between tumor levels of STAT1 mRNA and tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 and between CXCL10 serum levels and CXCL10 expression in the tumor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • para-hydroxyphenylalanine) begins with an α-ketoglutarate dependent transamination through the tyrosine transaminase to para-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. (humpath.com)