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  • genes
  • Publications] KATSUHIRO UZAWA,HIROSHI SUZUKI,HIDETAKA YOKOE,HIDEKI TANZAWA,KENICHI SATO: 'Mutational state of p16/CDKN2 and VHL genes in squamous-cell-carcinoma of the oral cavity' Int.J Oncol.7. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mutational state of p16 ICDKN2 and PHL genes in squamous-cell-carcinoma of the oral cavity' International. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] KATSUHIRO UZAWA: 'Mutational state of p16/CDKN2 and VHL genes in squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity' International Jounnal of Oncology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • COPS3 encodes the third subunit of the COP9 signalosome and its aberrant expression is associated with many RITE ("Region of Increased Tumor Expression") genes in lung cancer tissues. (jcancer.org)
  • He proposed the existence of cell cycle check points, tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initiating dsRNA can also be endogenous (originating in the cell), as in pre-microRNAs expressed from RNA-coding genes in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • It regulates genes involved in the EGFR/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and is required for cell proliferation, cell migration, and cytoskeleton organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mechanism involving both the SMARCB1 and NF2 genes may be responsible for the development of the disease because tumor analysis of schwannomas indicates the presence of inactivating mutations in both the SMARCB1 and NF2 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • In human tumors, we identified somatic mutations catalytically inactivating HDAC1. (uva.nl)
  • These inactive HDAC1 mutants had a dominant-negative effect on regulating histone acetylation, suggesting a tumor-driving capacity of heterozygous inactivating HDAC1 mutations. (uva.nl)
  • Furthermore, screening for lower HDAC-expression levels and inactivating mutations may serve as diagnostic tools for HDACi sensitivity, since lowered HDAC-activity increased HDACi-mediated tumor cell eradication. (uva.nl)
  • The finding that genetic alterations in MRTs are usually limited to hSNF5 mutations and deletions implicates the loss of hSNF5 function as the primary cause of these tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fifty seven percents cell lines contained non-sense mutations or mis-sense mutations. (nii.ac.jp)
  • He suggested that mutations of the chromosomes could generate a cell with unlimited growth potential which could be passed on to its descendants. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, molecular analysis of the NF2 gene in schwannomatosis patients has shown the presence of inactivating mutations in the tumor cells, but no evidence of the germline mutations that are found in NF2 patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, many patients exhibit somatic mosaicism for mutations in the NF2 or SMARCB1 gene, which means that some somatic cells have the mutation and some do not in the same patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • It seems that heterozygotes for mutations in the SMARCB1 gene have an increased risk to develop a malignant kidney tumor in early childhood but if they survive to adulthood, they may be predisposed to the development of schwannomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Global gene deregulations in FASN silenced retinoblastoma cancer cells: molecular and clinico-pathological correlations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In order to elucidate whether abnormalities of this gene could contribute tot the tumor genesis of oral SCC,genomic DNAs from primary lesions and SCC cell lines were examined by PCR-SSCP analysis, direct DNA sequencing, and deletion analysis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In human cancer cell lines derived from various tumor types, a high frequency of genetic and epigenetic alterations (e.g., promoter hyper-methylation, homozygous deletion or mutation) in the CDKN2A gene has been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • ERK is then able to enter the cell nucleus and control gene expression by phosphorylating various transcription factors, such as Elk-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is from there that the specific gene transcription occurs to initiate the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAi may be used for large-scale screens that systematically shut down each gene in the cell, which can help to identify the components necessary for a particular cellular process or an event such as cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • An inactivating germline mutation in exon 1 of the tumor suppressor gene SMARCB1 has been reported in patients with schwannomatosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutant 1716 lacks both copies of the ICP34.5 gene, and as a result is no longer able to replicate in terminally differentiated and non-dividing cells but will infect and cause lysis very efficiently in cancer cells, and this has proved to be an effective tumour-targeting strategy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, our novel metric provides new insights into the KI-MI relationship in tumors, exposes previously unrecognized differences in cycling kinetics among early stage AA and EA breast tumors, and proffers additional metastatic risk predictive information currently unavailable in the clinic. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus rigosertib performs potential antineoplastic activity in multiple tumor types. (wikipedia.org)
  • squamous
  • We found that COPS3 was overexpressed in most of the lung cancer samples examined, particularly in small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. (jcancer.org)
  • Specifically, zalutumumab is designed for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), a type of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other safety trials have used HSV1716 to treat patients with melanoma and squamous-cell carcinoma of head and neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • pediatric
  • MRT was initially described as an unfavorable histologic type of pediatric renal tumor, a variant of Wilms' tumor ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Despite significant advances in the treatment and outcome of other pediatric tumors, for MRTs diagnosed before the age of 6 months, patient survival at 4 years drops to ∼8.8% ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • cancer
  • In many types of cancer, an excess of cyclins allows cells to grow too fast and form tumors. (medindia.net)
  • In this paper, a model for the radiation treatment of cancer which includes the effects of the cell cycle is derived from first principles. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of present study was to investigate influence of MI1 on the cell cycle of cancer cells and its cytotoxity. (oalib.com)
  • cervix cancer HeLa) obtained with MTT-test and cell counts were performed using a tripan blue dye. (oalib.com)
  • Conclusions: DPS selectively radioprotected normal intestinal CECs and sensitized prostate cancer cells in a clinically relevant model. (osti.gov)
  • Lung cancer exhibits the following two predominant pathological types: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). (jcancer.org)
  • Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for approximately 85% of all lung cancer cases, and adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of lung cancer. (jcancer.org)
  • Through the centuries it was discovered that cancer could occur anywhere in the body, but Hippocrates' humor-theory based treatment remained popular until the 19th century with the discovery of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 19th century, asepsis improved surgical hygiene and as the survival statistics went up, surgical removal of the tumor became the primary treatment for cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of William Coley who in the late 19th century felt that the rate of cure after surgery had been higher before asepsis (and who injected bacteria into tumors with mixed results), cancer treatment became dependent on the individual art of the surgeon at removing a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway is a known route altered in cancer cells, when there is an aberrant overexpression of CDK6 and CDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early studies identified that SWI/SNF subunits were frequently absent in cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its geometrical isomer (Z)-ON 01910·Na has less cytotoxicity on cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the infected cancer cells are destroyed by oncolysis, they release new infectious virus particles or virions to help destroy the remaining tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was one of the first viruses to be adapted to attack cancer cells selectively, because it was well understood, easy to manipulate and relatively harmless in its natural state (merely causing cold sores) so likely to pose fewer risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a wide range of in vivo cancer models, the HSV1716 virus has induced tumour regression and increased survival times. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • Further, the expression of cell survival regulatory molecules and hemodynamic characteristics of the tumor milieu were analysed to decipher mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of 3-BP. (ovid.com)
  • Hence, enhancing understanding of cell cycle kinetics within breast tumors may illuminate hitherto overlooked and fundamental tumor biological characteristics of breast tumors underpinning racial differences in metastatic propensities. (aacrjournals.org)
  • chromosomal
  • The relationship between tumorigenicity and enhanced chromosomal radiosensitivity during the G 2 cell cycle phase was examined through the use of nontumorigenic human cell hybrids and their nontumorigenic and tumorigenic segregants. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The hybrids and their nontumorigenic subclones had cytological features which are predominantly found with a benign clinical course and had the G 2 chromosomal radiosensitivity more characteristic of the normal parental cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Like tumorigenic cells, fetal cells exhibited enhanced G 2 chromosomal radiosensitivity which could be suppressed in fetal × tumor cell hybrids. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The enhanced G 2 chromosomal radiosensitivity of a tumor cell, which appears to result from deficient DNA repair, is suppressed by fusion with a normal cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although preferentially cytosolic, SIRT2 transiently shuttles to the nucleus during the G2/M transition of the cell cycle, where it has a strong preference for histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16Ac), thereby regulating chromosomal condensation during mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal
  • Others were modified to develop a type of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) that is driven by an abnormal pathway known as Notch1. (medindia.net)
  • survival
  • Further, 3-BP administration altered the expression of key regulatory molecules involved in glucose uptake, intracellular pH and tumor cell survival. (ovid.com)
  • epithelial
  • In the present study we demonstrate a detectable cytostatic effect of the maleimide derivative MI1 on the epithelial cell lines Colo-205, MCF-7 and HeLa. (oalib.com)
  • Surprisingly, it was also found that DPS protects normal intestinal crypt epithelial cells (CECs) from clonogenic death after ionizing radiation (IR). (osti.gov)
  • CDK4
  • While doing this, the CDK6 in conjunction with CDK4, act as a switch signal that first appears in G1, directing the cell towards S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • Moreover, 3-BP reconstituted the external milieu, in concurrence with deregulated glucose and pH homeostasis and increased tumor infiltration by NK cells, macrophages, and T lymphocytes. (ovid.com)
  • Regardless of when normal macrophages were added, they had little effect on the target cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, target cells in the M or G 1 phase at the time of challenge with activated macrophages failed to undergo DNA synthesis (S phase), and their subsequent mitosis was inhibited. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When activated macrophages were added to EMT-6 cells synchronized in the late S or G 2 phase, many of the target cells failed to undergo the impending phase of mitosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that the inhibition of target cell DNA synthesis by activated macrophages is not a prerequisite for the ability of these effector cells to block target cell multiplication. (aacrjournals.org)
  • outcomes
  • The outcomes of this study will help in optimizing the therapeutic application of 3-BP by targeting crucial tumor growth regulatory components of tumor milieu. (ovid.com)
  • lung
  • In a previous cell study, we have demonstrated that COPS3 is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines [ 11 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • lymphomas
  • Systematic combination of Hdac1 and Hdac2 cKO alleles in murine thymi resulted in dosage-dependent tumor development of monoclonal lymphoblastic lymphomas, characterized by Myc-oncogene overexpression and a novel p53-suppressing mechanism. (uva.nl)
  • We investigated the effects of mTOR inhibitors on EBV-associated T and NK cell lymphomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • suppressor
  • While the pathway is very detailed and not completely understood, in general, when Wnt is not present, GSK-3B (a member of the pathway) is able to phosphorylate β-catenin as a result of a complex formation that includes β-catenin, AXIN1, AXIN2, APC (a tumor suppressor gene product), CSNK1A1, and GSK3B. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In addition to the Warburg effect, glioblastoma tumor cells also utilize the tricarboxylic acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation in a different capacity than normal tissue. (pitt.edu)
  • This study will also look at specific substances called biomarkers in your blood, and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to your response to treatment or development of side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition, given the risks of using animal serum for tissue engineering, autologous blood may gain favor as a source of growth factors and serum supplements needed for stimulating cells to engineer intervertebral disc tissues. (blogspot.com)
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gilmour continued her research at The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, first as postdoctoral fellow (1984 to 1987) and then as research associate (1988 to 1990 While at Wistar, she began her work in characterizing the regulation and expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in both normal and tumor tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not detectable in non-proliferating normal tissue but is detectable in many human tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • LRH-1 expression patterns in breast cancer tissues are associated with tumour aggressiveness. (nih.gov)
  • By doing so at the site of cancerous tissues in the body, L-DOS47 is believed to modify the microenvironmental conditions of lung cancer cells in a manner that leads to their death. (drugs.com)
  • In addition, the local production of ammonia at the site of cancerous tissues is thought to readily diffuse into the cancer cells to exert a potent cytotoxic effect by interfering with their critical metabolic functions. (drugs.com)
  • This deterioration is due to the death of the muscle cells and muscle tissues and leads to ongoing muscle wasting and muscle weakness. (blogspot.com)
  • Pasireotide works by binding to a protein called somatostatin receptor, which is expressed in many tissues throughout the body including thyroid cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumors cause fibrosis of tissues and impede digestion or organ function, and if left untreated, the tumors and mucin they produce will fill the abdominal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • Tumors of mice treated with PBT showed reductions in myeloid cells that suppress immune attack on tumor cells and significant increases in tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a peptidase enhanced cytotoxic (PEnC) that exerts a targeted delivery of melphalan in cells with high expression of aminopeptidases, such as aminopeptidase N, which has been described as over-expressed in human malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melflufen is a peptidase enhanced cytotoxic (PEnC) with a targeted delivery within tumor cells of melphalan, a widely used classical chemotherapeutic belonging to a group of alkylating agents developed more than 50 years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • adenocarcinoma
  • Dr. Chao will highlight previously announced laboratory and animal data that demonstrates the potential for L-DOS47 to bind to and debilitate and destroy human lung adenocarcinoma cells. (drugs.com)
  • Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a clinical condition caused by cancerous cells (mucinous adenocarcinoma) that produce abundant mucin or gelatinous ascites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cases of PMCA were characterized by peritoneal lesions composed of more abundant mucinous epithelium with the architectural and cytologic features of carcinoma (irregular cells, evidence that cells were rapidly dividing, and other criteria), with or without an associated primary mucinous adenocarcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Odze and Goldblum, Surgical Pathology of the GI Tract, Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas, 2nd ed.) also use the term mucinous adenocarcinoma when referring to low-grade, well-differentiated tumors lacking high-grade features. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • The Ti plasmid contains regions for origin of replication, the new DNA (with T-DNA transfer functions), T-DNA that encodes for tumor growth, and nopaline utilization. (macalester.edu)
  • When this plasmid is inserted into a plant, the T-DNA tumor production region causes uncontrolled tumor growth normally at its base (crown) in a process known as Crown Gall Disease (Figure 3). (macalester.edu)
  • The tumor growth allows the Ti plasmid to proliferate in the host plant. (macalester.edu)
  • G1 phase together with the S phase and G2 phase comprise the long growth period of the cell cycle called interphase that takes place before cell division in mitosis (M phase). (wikipedia.org)
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological temperatures are optimal for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another branch of Gilmour's research involves the role of the blood-clotting enzyme thrombin in tumor growth and metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminopeptidase N is frequently overexpressed in tumors and has been associated with the growth of different human cancers suggesting it as a suitable target for anti-cancerous therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Scientific discoveries: Gilmour's study of polyamines has broadened the scope of medical knowledge about tumor function at the cellular and molecular levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • syndrome
  • Cardiac arrest Cytokine release syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure Infections Hepatitis B reactivation Other viral infections Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% to 80% of lymphoma patients Pulmonary toxicity Bowel obstruction and perforation Two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus died of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after being treated with rituximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • 3. The lab uses the genomic and metabolic information to build better representative brain tumor pre-clinical models for testing of novel therapies. (pitt.edu)
  • Once stratified, appropriate therapies can be applied allowing for personalized brain tumor therapy. (pitt.edu)
  • eukaryotic
  • The g1 phase, or Gap 1 phase, is the first of four phases of the cell cycle that takes place in eukaryotic cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Between the beginning of the G1 phase (which is also after mitosis has occurred) and R, the cell is known as being in the G1-pm subphase, or the post-mitotic phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this classification system, cases of DPAM were characterized by peritoneal lesions composed of abundant extracellular mucin containing scant simple to focally proliferative mucinous epithelium with little cytologic atypia or mitotic activity (in other words, most cells looked fairly normal and there was no evidence of mitosis which would indicate that cells were rapidly dividing), with or without an associated appendiceal mucinous adenoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The Brain Tumor Biology and Therapy Laboratory, under the direction of Sameer Agnihotri, PhD , studies pediatric and adult high-grade gliomas (HGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG). (pitt.edu)
  • The Agnihotri Laboratory investigates the metabolic dependencies of brain tumors and if they can provide therapeutic vulnerabilities. (pitt.edu)
  • Receptors
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormones bind to ACTH receptors on the cells within the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex, causing a signal cascade within the adrenomedullary cell, ultimately releasing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • In culture, fibroblasts can reach a maximum of 50 cell divisions before becoming senescent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dock11 is expressed at lower levels in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, C2C12 myoblasts and Neuro-2A neuroblastoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citric
  • In humans, IDH exists in three isoforms: IDH3 catalyzes the third step of the citric acid cycle while converting NAD+ to NADH in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The isoforms IDH1 and IDH2 catalyze the same reaction outside the context of the citric acid cycle and use NADP+ as a cofactor instead of NAD+. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IDH step of the citric acid cycle, due to its large negative free energy change, is one of the irreversible reactions in the citric acid cycle, and, therefore, must be carefully regulated to avoid unnecessary depletion of isocitrate (and therefore an accumulation of alpha-ketoglutarate). (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction is stimulated by the simple mechanisms of substrate availability (isocitrate, NAD+ or NADP+, Mg2+ / Mn2+ ), product inhibition (by NADH (or NADPH outside the citric acid cycle) and alpha-ketoglutarate), and competitive feedback inhibition (by ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the citric acid cycle, isocitrate, produced from the isomerization of citrate, undergoes both oxidation and decarboxylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Junctions
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-catenin participates in the formation and stabilization of adherens junctions by binding to β-catenin-cadherin complexes in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • triggers
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomere length
  • May play also an essential role in telomere length maintenance and telomere capping in mammalian cells. (abcam.cn)
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • invasion
  • Bradley states that an adenoma, by definition, is a tumor confined to the appendiceal mucosa with absolutely no evidence of invasion beyond the muscularis mucosae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes
  • When inappropriately activated causes hair follicle derived tumors, the most clinically significant being the BCC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rituximab
  • Treatment of Children with Persistent and Chronic Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: 4 Infusions of Rituximab and Three 4-Day Cycles of Dexamethasone. (nih.gov)
  • phase
  • Analyses of cell cycle distribution, and morphological microtubules organization showed that compound 3m induced G2/M phase arrest and, dramatically disrupted the microtubule network. (deepdyve.com)
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • G0 is a resting phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped dividing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle starts with this phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which are considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase, a cell has three options. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • activity
  • Melflufen was synthesized, partly due to previous experience of an alkylating peptide cocktail named Peptichemio and its anti-tumor activity is being investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Development
  • However, loss of Gli3 leads to abnormal patterning and loss of Gli2 affects the development of ventral cell types, most significantly in the floor plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • However, more severe disorders of the sympathoadrenal system such as phaeochromocytoma (a tumor on the adrenal medulla) can affect the body's ability to maintain a homeostatic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • although
  • mucinous tumors of the ovary have also been implicated, although in most cases ovarian involvement is favored to be a metastasis from an appendiceal or other gastrointestinal source. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Complexes of cyclin that are active during other phases of the cell cycle are kept inactivated to prevent any cell-cycle events from occurring out of order. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The modified plasmid of this bacterium used is known as Ti plasmid, or tumor inducing (Figure 2). (macalester.edu)
  • Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing and coordination of the phases to ensure a correct order of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy
  • Hematologic toxicity was common, but manageable with cycle prolongations, dose modifications and supportive therapy, and non-hematologic treatment-related adverse events were infrequent. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • Gilmour provided the first evidence that elevated epidermal levels of polyamines alone can positively affect the recruitment of bulge stem cells in the skin. (wikipedia.org)