• The tumor suppressor protein p16INK4a (inhibitor of CDK4) is one of the most direct links between cell-cycle control and cancer. (nih.gov)
  • p16INK4a is part of a cell-cycle regulatory pathway that converges in the tumor suppressor protein Rb. (nih.gov)
  • Association of p53 protein expression with tumor cell proliferation rate and clinical outcome in node-negative breast cancer. (labcorp.com)
  • Nuclear overexpression of p53 protein in transitional cell bladder carcinoma: A marker for disease progression. (labcorp.com)
  • As their name suggests, these proteins normally act to stop abnormal cell growth. (cancer.gov)
  • As a result, proteins that are normally kept in check by PTEN (a signaling pathway ) can become overly active and can drive uncontrolled cell growth, she said. (cancer.gov)
  • Low, undetectable expression or aberrant transcripts of WWOX were reported in several tumor cell lines of different origins ( 2 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Overexpression of ZMYND11 in an osteosarcoma cell line and a triple-negative breast cancer cell line inhibited tumor growth. (eurekalert.org)
  • A protein known as WWP2 appears to play a key role in tumor survival, a research team headed by a scientist at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reports in an advance online publication of Nature Cell Biology. (innovations-report.com)
  • Ras signalling is required for inactivation of the tumour suppressor pRb cell-cycle control protein. (nih.gov)
  • The inhibition of normal Ras proteins by microinjection of neutralizing antibody or expression of dominant-negative mutants has shown that Ras signalling is required for growth factors to stimulate DNA synthesis , but the link between Ras and the cell-cycle machinery is not clear. (nih.gov)
  • DNA synthesis in some tumour cell lines was completely resistant to the anti-Ras injection, indicating that p21Ras is required for pRb inactivation but also has other functions in cell-cycle progression. (nih.gov)
  • Alternative reading frames of the INK4a tumor suppressor gene encode two unrelated proteins capable of inducing cell cycle arrest. (nih.gov)
  • Many breast cancers are marked by a lack of HOXA5 protein, a gene product known to control cell differentiation and death, and lower levels of the protein correspond to poorer outcomes for patients. (innovations-report.com)
  • Now, results of a new study by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists suggests a powerful role for the protein in normal breast cells, acting as a tumor suppressor that halts abnormal cell growth. (innovations-report.com)
  • A human breast cell lacking HOXA5 (right) shows protruding structures similar to tumor cells, compared with a normal human breast cell (left). (innovations-report.com)
  • When Sukumar and the others depleted the HOXA5 protein in other breast cell lines in the lab, the cells became more immature, or "stem like," as well as more mobile. (innovations-report.com)
  • Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development. (curehunter.com)
  • These results suggest an important link between tumor initiation and cell adhesion. (sciencemag.org)
  • Protein p53 is an important checkpoint in the cell cycle, ensuring the integrity of DNA replication. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Tumor cell nuclei Are generally larger than those of non-neoplastic cells. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we found that reintroduction of a PTEN cDNA into cells lacking a wild-type PTEN protein led to a cell-cycle block in G 1 . (pnas.org)
  • Conversely, transfection of nm23 into some tumor cell lines is associated with reduced metastatic potential ( 18 ) and cell motility ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • The Drosophila discs large tumor suppressor protein, dlg, has been shown to regulate the growth of imaginal discs during embryogenesis [Woods, D. F. & Bryant, P. J. (1991) Cell 66, 451- (pnas.org)
  • Several hdlg RNA transcripts are widely distributed in human and murine tissues, and the protein is localized to regions of cell-cell contact. (pnas.org)
  • Finally, LARP4B depletion in p53 and Nf1-deficient mouse primary astrocytes promoted cell proliferation and led to increased tumor size and invasiveness in xenograft and orthotopic models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, scientists showed that loss of the Tsc1 protein predisposed affected T cells to premature activation, resulting in programmed cell death via the cell's suicide pathway. (healthcanal.com)
  • this protein therefore resembles the DlgA protein in being located in a specialized cell junction that functions in information transfer between cells. (biologists.org)
  • Using green fluorescent protein-tagged end-binding protein 1 to label microtubule plus ends, we found that pVHL does not affect the microtubule growth rate but is needed to orient the growth of microtubules toward the cell periphery, a prerequisite for the formation of cilia. (rupress.org)
  • The cardinal feature of this hereditary cancer syndrome is the development of multiple vascular tumors called hemangioblastomas in the central nervous system and retina combined with clear cell carcinoma of the kidney and pheochromocytoma. (rupress.org)
  • We performed high-throughput sequencing of tumor DNA and identified sgRNAs increased at least 8-fold compared to the initial cell pool. (mit.edu)
  • The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75 NTR ) is a proximate cell membrane receptor glycoprotein that has been identified as a tumor and metastasis suppressor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We observed that NSAID treatment of cell lines from bladder and other organs induced expression of the p75 NTR protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This rank order NSAID induction of the p75 NTR protein correlated with the ability of these NSAIDs to reduce cancer cell survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The p16 INK4A tumor suppressor protein (p16) inhibits the hyperphosphorylation of retinoblastoma-related pocket proteins that is required for cell cycle progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) has been described as a tumor suppressor, with high expression correlating with better outcomes in a number of cancer types. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Birt-Hogg-Dube (BHD) is a tumor suppressor gene syndrome associated with fibrofolliculomas, cystic lung disease, and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. (harvard.edu)
  • These data indicate that the FLCN-p0071 protein complex is a negative regulator of cell-cell adhesion. (harvard.edu)
  • Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. (biologists.org)
  • But there are times when a cell needs to divide to replace dead cells, so scientists knew there had to be a naturally occurring mechanism for turning PTEN off, and they hypothesized that the phosphates on its tail were responsible, as they are in other proteins. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The loss of the phosphate alters PIP3's activity and causes a chain reaction of effects on other important regulatory proteins that ultimately suppresses cell division and migration, both deadly aspects of tumor progression. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Cole explains that when a cell needs to divide, another protein, most often CK2, adds phosphates to PTEN's tail, causing a change in its shape and location. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Its tail curls back on the rest of the protein and prevents it from interacting with PIP3 in the outer envelope of the cell, so PTEN ends up inactive, in the fluid-filled middle of the cell. (technologynetworks.com)
  • This is supported by studies in knockout mice showing development of soft-tissue sarcomas, ovarian stromal cell tumors and a high sensitivity to carcinogenic treatments. (biomol.com)
  • We found a strong correlation between nuclear maspin and loss of Ki-67 protein in breast cancer cell lines, while there was no effect in normal epithelial cells from breast. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein localizes to plasma membrane sites involved in active cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • We show that APC protein localizes mainly to clusters of puncta near the ends of microtubules that extend into actively migrating regions of epithelial cell membranes. (rupress.org)
  • APC protein-containing membranes are actively involved in cell migration in response to wounding epithelial monolayers, addition of the motorgen hepatocyte growth factor, and during the formation of cell-cell contacts. (rupress.org)
  • Together, these data indicate that APC protein has a role in directed cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a crucial role in influencing cell survival in response to cellular stress and while the p53 pathway is considered a key determinant of anti-tumor responses in many tumors, its role in cell survival in MB is much less well defined. (aging-us.com)
  • The ability to control the transition from an undifferentiated stem cell to a specific cell fate is one of the key techniques that are required for the application of interventional technologies to regenerative medicine and the treatment of tumors and metastases and of neurodegenerative diseases. (springer.com)
  • Functionally, short hairpin RNA knockdown of YAP in breast cell lines suppressed anoikis, increased migration and invasiveness, inhibited the response to taxol and enhanced tumor growth in nude mice. (icr.ac.uk)
  • In most transformed and tumor cells the concentration of p53 is increased 51000 fold over the minute concentrations (1000 molecules cell) in normal cells, principally due to the increased half-life (4 h) compared to that of the wild-type (20 min). (abeomics.com)
  • Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to assess thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) expression in thyroid cancer cell lines and primary tumor specimens. (elsevier.com)
  • DTC cell lines and patient tumors have high TXNIP expression in contrast to low or absent expression in ATC cell lines and tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • By keeping E2F-DP inactivated, RB1 maintains the cell in the G1 phase, preventing progression through the cell cycle and acting as a growth suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cancer cells, these processes are deregulated because the proteins that control them are altered, leading to increased growth and cell division within the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cancer, these tumour suppressor proteins are altered so that they don't effectively prevent cell division, even when the cell has severe abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is also involved in research on tumor suppressor proteins, tumor cell metabolism and tumorigenesis, especially the impact of regulatory networks and metabolic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin is a small regulatory protein found in all tissues that direct proteins to compartments within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Programmed cell death protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDCD4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of AMPK-related kinases by LKB1 plays vital roles maintaining cell polarity thereby inhibiting inappropriate expansion of tumour cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A picture from current research is emerging that loss of LKB1 leads to disorganization of cell polarity and facilitates tumour growth under energetically unfavorable conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein may play a role in negatively regulating cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein made by the APC gene plays a critical role in several cellular processes that determine whether a cell may develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC protein helps control how often a cell divides, how it attaches to other cells within a tissue, how the cell polarizes and the morphogenesis of the 3D structures, or whether a cell moves within or away from a tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC protein accomplishes these tasks mainly through association with other proteins, especially those that are involved in cell attachment and signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today we know that the beta-catenin protein (part of the Wnt signaling pathway) is implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis and its stability in the cell is regulated by APC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another component of the DNA repair machinery in the cell is the protein MLH1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-catenin was initially discovered in the early 1990s as a component of a mammalian cell adhesion complex: a protein responsible for cytoplasmatic anchoring of cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • αE-catenin also plays a role in tumor metastasis and skin cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catenins (α,β,and γ (also known as plakoglobin)) were originally identified in complex with E-cadherin, an epithelial cell adhesion protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Merlin is a membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolding protein, i.e. linking actin filaments to cell membrane or membrane glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This binding remains after destabilizing actin with cytochalasin B. Like other surface-associated proteins that can bind plasminogen and its derivatives, angiomotin does not appear to have a signal sequence, thus its association with the cell surface may be via protein-protein interaction usually referred to as non-classic secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumorspheres derived from ependymomas display a radial-glial like phenotype, expressing neuronal stem cell markers CD133 and nestin, as well as radial glial specific markers RC2 and brain lipid binding protein (BLBP/FABP7). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumorspheres with radial glial characteristics form tumors in orthotopic mouse xenografts, suggesting radial glial as cell of origin for ependymomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • ERBB2, ERBB4, and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene expression promote tumor cell proliferation, contributing to aggressive tumor behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell adhesion molecule 1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CADM1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division cycle 73, Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex component, homolog (S. cerevisiae), also known as CDC73 and parafibromin, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CDC73 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, ways to inhibit RHEB to control the mTOR pathway are studied as possible treatments for uncontrollable tumor cell growth in several diseases, especially in tuberous sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is a lipid-anchored, cell-membrane protein with five repeats of the RAS-related GTP-binding region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its activity is strongly regulated within the cell by tumor-suppressant proteins that form the TSC complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This could lead to the disregulation of many signalling proteins and effectors within the cell, including RHEB. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers expressed the complementary DNA (cDNA) of the murine MyoD protein in a different cell lines (fibroblast and adipoblast) and found MyoD converted them to myogenic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MyoD has also been shown to function cooperatively with the tumor suppressor gene, Retinoblastoma (pRb) to cause cell cycle arrest in the terminally differentiated myoblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • These four proteins act to inhibit self-renewal (the cell cycle) and promote differentiation (especially Prospero), which is why GMCs divide into their differentiated progeny instead of more GMCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over time, sporadic mutation in the second copy of the VHL protein can lead to carcinomas, in particular hemangioblastomas affecting the liver and kidneys, renal (and vaginal) clear cell adenocarcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the normal cell with active VHL protein, HIF alpha is regulated by hydroxylation in the presence of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • TRIM22 appears to prevent the movement of the HIV Gag protein to the plasma membrane and hence TRIM22 can block HIV replication in cell cultures by preventing the assembly of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of early 2016, there are three families belonging to the MACPF superfamily: 1.C.12 - The Thiol-activated Cholesterol-dependent Cytolysin (CDC) Family 1.C.39 - The Membrane Attack Complex/Perforin (MACPF) Family 1.C.97 - The Pleurotolysin Pore-forming (Pleurotolysin) Family Proteins containing MACPF domains play key roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MACPF domain is structurally similar to pore-forming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins from gram-positive bacteria, suggesting that MACPF proteins create pores and disrupt cell membranes similar to cytolysin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc14, a protein tyrosine phosphatase involved in the exit of cell mitosis and initiation of DNA replication, which suggests the role in cell cycle control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aberrant splice variants expressed in tumor cell lines have also been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins act as tumor growth suppressors, agents that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spectrin is an actin crosslinking and molecular scaffold protein that links the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton, and functions in the determination of cell shape, arrangement of transmembrane proteins, and organization of organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subunit Med28 of the Mediator may function as a scaffolding protein within Mediator by maintaining the stability of a submodule within the head module, and components of this submodule act together in a gene-regulatory programme to suppress smooth muscle cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 also known as Grb2 is an adaptor protein involved in signal transduction/cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance throughout the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D1 is a protein required for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the INK4a and ARF proteins are structurally and functionally different, they are both involved in cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a subsequent study using viral transduction as a method of gene transfer (rather than single cell cloning) was not able to reproduce the original findings and found no role for maspin in tumour biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, to date no detailed molecular mechanism for maspin function in cell proliferation or tumour biology has been comprehensively described. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein may be involved in signal transduction at cell-cell junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large G proteins, for example, are involved in transduction of signaling from the G protein-coupled receptor for a variety of signaling processes like hormonal signaling, and small G proteins are involved in processes like cellular trafficking and cell cycling. (wikipedia.org)
  • A certain GAP and a certain G protein happen to be expressed in the same time and place, and that is how the cell ensures specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolysis of GTP by Ran is thought to provide the energy needed to transport nuclear proteins into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large number of alternative spliced transcripts are transcribed from the PML gene, resulting in a variety of PML proteins ranging in molecular weight. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ras proteins act as molecular switches, responding to signals by entering the active GTP-bound, rather than the inactive GDP-bound, state. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular model of the tumour suppressor protein p53 (left and right) bound to a molecule of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, green and pink) at the p53 response element. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In an effort to develop a molecular model for merlin relevant to its tumor suppressor function, we further characterized merlin intramolecular folding. (biomedsearch.com)
  • those based on the two human CtBP proteins, CtBP1 and CtBP2, were derived from gifts from G. Chinnadurai (Institute for Molecular Virology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO). (aacrjournals.org)
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (abgent.com)
  • The molecular tweezers, but not the clips, efficiently inhibit the formation of toxic oligomers and aggregates by amyloidogenic proteins associated with different diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, the molecular tweezers have been found to be effective and safe not only in the test tube but also in animal models of different diseases, suggesting that they may be developed as drugs against diseases caused by abnormal protein aggregation, all of which currently have no cure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The full-length human protein comprises 2,843 amino acids with a (predicted) molecular mass of 311646 Da. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular biology of hair cells has seen considerable progress in recent years, with the identification of the motor protein (prestin) that underlies somatic electromotility in the outer hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like CDC's MACPF proteins are thus β-pore forming toxins that act like a molecular hole punch. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology the 5.8S ribosomal RNA (5.8S rRNA) is a non-coding RNA component of the large subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome and so plays an important role in protein translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metallothionein (MT) is a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight (MW ranging from 500 to 14000 Da) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The p16INK4a gene is frequently inactivated in human tumors, and inheritance of mutant alleles results in susceptibility to several types of cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding the upstream signaling pathway that turns on the expression of p16 is required both for knowing the tumorigenic stresses from which this pathway provides protection and for appreciating the selective pressure that leads to the loss of this pathway in most human tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the 1980s, Vogelstein developed new experimental approaches to study human tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1989, Vogelstein and his students discovered that TP53 not only played a role in human tumorigenesis, but that it was a common denominator of human tumors, mutated in the majority of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • STRADα stabilizes LKB1 protein both in vivo and in vitro, and is capable of eliciting multiple axons in mouse embryonic cortical cultured neurons when overexpressed with LKB1. (wikipedia.org)
  • LKB1 is activated allosterically by binding to the pseudokinase STRAD and the adaptor protein MO25. (wikipedia.org)
  • LKB1 has a structure typical of other protein kinases, with two (small and large) lobes on either side of the ligand ATP-binding pocket. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that mice lacking WWP1 had far fewer and smaller prostate tumors than mice with the gene. (cancer.gov)
  • In one experiment, mice with normal WWP2 developed prostate cancer tumors after nine weeks that were more than three times the size of tumors in mice with WWP2 silenced. (innovations-report.com)
  • We performed a genome-wide screen to identify suppressors of liver tumor formation in mice, using CRISPR-mediated genome editing. (mit.edu)
  • Within 1 month, all the mice that received the sgRNA library developed subcutaneous tumors. (mit.edu)
  • their expression was knocked down using small hairpin RNAs, and tumor growth was examined in nude mice. (mit.edu)
  • Mice genetically altered to delete Sirt3 develop estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) positive breast mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wwox protein contains two WW domains that are generally known to mediate protein-protein interaction. (pnas.org)
  • Like the SH3 domain, the WW domain is characterized by interaction with proline-containing ligands and mediates protein-protein interaction ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Interferon-inducible protein 16: insight into the interaction with tumor suppressor p53. (nih.gov)
  • PML exerts this pleiotropic role through its functionally interaction and with a large number of key proteins involved in these physiological process. (frontiersin.org)
  • In seeking to elucidate the pathogenesis of BHD, we discovered a physical interaction between folliculin (FLCN), the protein product of the BHD gene, and p0071, an armadillo repeat containing protein that localizes to the cytoplasm and to adherens junctions. (harvard.edu)
  • We show that the interaction of both proteins is mediated by the N-terminal domain of Pdcd4 and the central part of Daxx, and that binding to Pdcd4 stimulates the degradation of Daxx, presumably by disrupting the interaction of Daxx with the de-ubiquitinylating enzyme Hausp. (le.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest an intriguing possibility that interaction between the E6 protein and hDLG or other PDZ domain-containing proteins could be an underlying mechanism in the development of HPV-associated cancers. (elsevier.com)
  • 9aaTADs mediate p53 interaction with general coactivators - TAF9, CBP/p300 (all four domains KIX, TAZ1, TAZ2 and IBiD), GCN5 and PC4, regulatory protein MDM2 and replication protein A (RPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein contains several conserved structural domains including an N-terminal p53 interaction domain, the structure of which has been solved using x-ray crystallography. (wikipedia.org)
  • The critical concept of the histone code hypothesis is that the histone modifications serve to recruit other proteins by specific recognition of the modified histone via protein domains specialized for such purposes, rather than through simply stabilizing or destabilizing the interaction between histone and the underlying DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another example of cruciform structure significance is seen in the interaction between p53, a tumor suppressor, and cruciform forming sequences. (wikipedia.org)