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  • Plakoglobin
  • The NH 2 -terminal third contains an oligomerization domain, followed by seven armadillo repeats (imperfect repeats also found in proteins like armadillo, β-catenin, plakoglobin, and importins). (rupress.org)
  • mutant
  • All mutant proteins lack the COOH-terminal half, suggesting that some growthsuppressing or growth-regulating activity is present in this part of the molecule ( 39 ). (rupress.org)
  • kidney
  • The cardinal feature of this hereditary cancer syndrome is the development of multiple vascular tumors called hemangioblastomas in the central nervous system and retina combined with clear cell carcinoma of the kidney and pheochromocytoma. (rupress.org)
  • amino
  • The middle part of the protein contains three successive 15-amino acid (aa) repeats, followed by seven related but distinct 20-aa repeats. (rupress.org)
  • membrane
  • Within host cells, L. pneumophila establishes a replicative haven by delivering numerous effector proteins into the host cytosol, many of which target membrane trafficking by manipulating the function of Rab GTPases. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The data suggest that Amer1 exerts its negative regulatory role in Wnt signaling by acting as a scaffold protein for the β-catenin destruction complex and promoting stabilization of Axin at the plasma membrane. (xenbase.org)
  • Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein and its binding partners are good candidates to link the cytoskeletal dynamics with membrane extension. (biologists.org)
  • functional
  • Merlin's ability to enter the nucleus is complemented by a full nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttle protein with a functional Rev-type nuclear export sequence (NES) within exon 15 that facilitates export via the CRM1/exportin pathway. (oup.com)
  • wild-type
  • Here, we show that detection of wild-type protein in the nucleus is a rare event. (oup.com)
  • A cellular function different to the wild-type protein is implied for naturally occurring splice variants lacking exon 2. (oup.com)
  • bind
  • Both types of repeats are able to bind independently to β-catenin, a cadherin-associated protein important for intercellular adhesion ( 42 , 43 , 51 ). (rupress.org)
  • activity
  • We assayed the activity of APC in the early Xenopus embryo, which has been established as a good model for the analysis of the signaling activity of the APC-associated protein β-catenin. (rupress.org)
  • domain
  • They are characterized by their chimeric protein domain architecture consisting of a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a GTPase-activating (GAP) domain, Ankyrin repeats as well as an intrinsic GTPase domain. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Nuclear entry of merlin is thus regulated by alternative splicing within the 4.1/JEF domain and analogous to band 4.1 protein. (oup.com)
  • LKB1
  • Here we show that phosphorylation of PAR-1 by the tumor suppressor protein LKB1 is required for PAR-1 activation, which in turn promotes tau phosphorylation in Drosophila . (jneurosci.org)
  • Diverse stress stimuli, such as high osmolarity and overexpression of the human β-amyloid precursor protein, can promote PAR-1 activation and tau phosphorylation in an LKB1-dependent manner. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results reveal a new function for the tumor suppressor protein LKB1 in a signaling cascade through which the phosphorylation and function of tau is regulated by diverse signals under physiological and pathological conditions. (jneurosci.org)
  • STRADα stabilizes LKB1 protein both in vivo and in vitro, and is capable of eliciting multiple axons in mouse embryonic cortical cultured neurons when overexpressed with LKB1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11) also known as liver kinase B1 (LKB1) or renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-19 is a protein kinase that in humans is encoded by the STK11 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in ER-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7, estradiol caused a dose-dependent decrease in LKB1 transcript and protein expression leading to a significant decrease in the phosphorylation of the LKB1 target AMPK. (wikipedia.org)
  • The STK11/LKB1 gene, which encodes a member of the serine/threonine kinase family, regulates cell polarity and functions as a tumour suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • LKB1 is a primary upstream kinase of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a necessary element in cell metabolism that is required for maintaining energy homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of AMPK-related kinases by LKB1 plays vital roles maintaining cell polarity thereby inhibiting inappropriate expansion of tumour cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A picture from current research is emerging that loss of LKB1 leads to disorganization of cell polarity and facilitates tumour growth under energetically unfavorable conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • LKB1 is activated allosterically by binding to the pseudokinase STRAD and the adaptor protein MO25. (wikipedia.org)
  • LKB1 has a structure typical of other protein kinases, with two (small and large) lobes on either side of the ligand ATP-binding pocket. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Tumor suppressor protein kinase Chk2 is a mediator of anoikis of intestinal epithelial cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In an effort to understand them we found that detachment of nonmalignant intestinal epithelial cells triggers upregulation of Chk2, a pro-apoptotic protein kinase that has never been implicated in anoikis and has been thought to kill cells mainly under the conditions compromising genome integrity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thus, oncogenic ras can prevent Chk2 from triggering anoikis even when levels of this protein kinase are elevated in cancer cells, and the use of therapeutic agents that kill cells in a Chk-2-independent, rather than Chk-2-dependent, manner could represent an efficient strategy for overcoming ras-induced anoikis resistance of these cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this report, we investigated the hypothesis that overexpression of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN, an inositol phosphatase specific for the products of PI 3-kinase, would inhibit the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) responses necessary for neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 Similarly, phosphorylation by mTOR activates the p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70 s6k ), resulting in phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 and translation of key components of the cell's translational apparatus. (ahajournals.org)
  • 13 These processes are regulated in turn by several intermediate signaling proteins, including the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and Akt, both of which are recruited to and associate with the plasma membrane-bound 3-phosphoinositides. (ahajournals.org)
  • A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein is a protein which inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene associates with STK11 (Serine/Threonine Kinase 11) and STRAD (STE20-Related ADaptor protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase LYK5, also known as LYK5 or STRADα, is a human protein and also denotes the gene encoding it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) APC protein normally builds a "destruction complex" with glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha and or beta (GSK-3α/β) and axin via interactions with the 20 AA and SAMP repeats[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTEN
  • But there are times when a cell needs to divide to replace dead cells, so scientists knew there had to be a naturally occurring mechanism for turning PTEN off, and they hypothesized that the phosphates on its tail were responsible, as they are in other proteins. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Armed with their engineered protein, the team analyzed its shape, where in cells it was located and its activity - tasks aided by miniature X-ray imagers and biochemical tests that shed light on how PTEN interacted with other entities, like PIP3, a fat-like molecule located just inside the outer envelope of cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Its tail curls back on the rest of the protein and prevents it from interacting with PIP3 in the outer envelope of the cell, so PTEN ends up inactive, in the fluid-filled middle of the cell. (technologynetworks.com)
  • When the phosphates are removed, PTEN relocates to the outer envelope, where it removes a phosphate tag from PIP3 to initiate the chain reaction that suppresses tumor formation. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Any drug that can prevent the tail from binding itself might also maintain the tumor-fighting activity of PTEN. (technologynetworks.com)
  • According to Cole, many cancer patients have an overabundance of CK2, the protein that adds phosphates to PTEN and turns it off. (technologynetworks.com)
  • mammalian
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • SIRT3 is member of the mammalian sirtuin family of proteins, which are homologs to the yeast Sir2 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-catenin was initially discovered in the early 1990s as a component of a mammalian cell adhesion complex: a protein responsible for cytoplasmatic anchoring of cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • But very soon, it was realized that the Drosophila protein armadillo - implicated in mediating the morphogenic effects of Wingless/Wnt - is homologous to the mammalian β-catenin, not just in structure but also in function. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The protein binds to specific sequences in the DNA and halts the cell cycle (the means by which cells replicate). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Chk2 can kill cells by stabilizing p53 tumor suppressor protein or via p53-independent mechanisms, and we established that Chk2-mediated anoikis of intestinal epithelial cells is p53-independent. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Assessment of RB1 protein loss in tumor cells. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor cell nuclei Are generally larger than those of non-neoplastic cells. (nih.gov)
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2 are unrelated proteins, but both are normally expressed in the cells of breast and other tissue, where they help repair damaged DNA, or destroy cells if DNA cannot be repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC protein helps control how often a cell divides, how it attaches to other cells within a tissue, how the cell polarizes and the morphogenesis of the 3D structures, or whether a cell moves within or away from a tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein also helps ensure that the chromosome number in cells produced through cell division is correct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though αE-catenin exhibits substantial expression in cardiac muscle, αE-catenin is most well known for role in metastasizing tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptides
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (abgent.com)
  • These mutually exclusive binding modes make these compounds valuable tools for probing critical biological interactions of basic amino acid side chains in peptides and proteins as well as of NAD(P)+ and similar cofactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The activity of one protein in particular, beta-catenin, is controlled by the APC protein (see: Wnt signaling pathway). (wikipedia.org)
  • Today we know that the beta-catenin protein (part of the Wnt signaling pathway) is implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis and its stability in the cell is regulated by APC. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin is a subunit of the cadherin protein complex and acts as an intracellular signal transducer in the Wnt signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development. (curehunter.com)
  • Protein p53 is an important checkpoint in the cell cycle, ensuring the integrity of DNA replication. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Using green fluorescent protein-tagged end-binding protein 1 to label microtubule plus ends, we found that pVHL does not affect the microtubule growth rate but is needed to orient the growth of microtubules toward the cell periphery, a prerequisite for the formation of cilia. (rupress.org)
  • The cardinal feature of this hereditary cancer syndrome is the development of multiple vascular tumors called hemangioblastomas in the central nervous system and retina combined with clear cell carcinoma of the kidney and pheochromocytoma. (rupress.org)
  • Cole explains that when a cell needs to divide, another protein, most often CK2, adds phosphates to PTEN's tail, causing a change in its shape and location. (technologynetworks.com)
  • We knew that the Fhit protein is an enzyme that binds and cleaves an unusual class of nucleotides in the cell, called ApppA," he explains. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. (biologists.org)
  • Programmed cell death protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDCD4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin is a small regulatory protein found in all tissues that direct proteins to compartments within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC protein is a negative regulator that controls beta-catenin concentrations and interacts with E-cadherin, which are involved in cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC protein accomplishes these tasks mainly through association with other proteins, especially those that are involved in cell attachment and signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another component of the DNA repair machinery in the cell is the protein MLH1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catenins (α,β,and γ (also known as plakoglobin)) were originally identified in complex with E-cadherin, an epithelial cell adhesion protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation
  • By IHC, 4 tumors (11.8%) had complete loss of RB protein expression, including 2 with homozygous deletion of RB1 by FISH and 1 with hemizygous deletion of RB1 by FISH combined with a novel nonsense mutation in RB1. (nih.gov)
  • Start-loss is a point mutation in a transcript's AUG start codon, resulting in the reduction or elimination of protein production. (wikipedia.org)
  • A missense mutation changes a codon so that a different protein is created, a non-synonymous change. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mutation results in the substitution of the amino acid lysine for isoleucine at position 1307 in the APC protein (also written as I1307K or Ile1307Lys). (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • In the 1980s, Vogelstein developed new experimental approaches to study human tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1989, Vogelstein and his students discovered that TP53 not only played a role in human tumorigenesis, but that it was a common denominator of human tumors, mutated in the majority of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were the first to perform "exomic sequencing", meaning determination of the sequence of every protein-encoding gene in the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies outlined the landscapes of human cancer genomes, later confirmed by massively parallel sequencing of many different tumor types by laboratories throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human homologue of this protein was later identified and is sometimes called Hdm2. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • This protein contains several conserved structural domains including an N-terminal p53 interaction domain, the structure of which has been solved using x-ray crystallography. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • Phosphorylation of the translation inhibitor 4EBP1 by mTOR releases it from the translation initiation factor eIF4E to initiate cap-dependent protein translation. (ahajournals.org)
  • migration
  • This difference is due to the high number of proline residues in the protein, which slow its migration on SDS-PAGE, thus making it appear heavier than it actually is. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • These types of evidence have led scientists to categorize Arl11 as a tumor-suppressor protein. (eurekalert.org)
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • complexes
  • The emergence of protein complexes: Quaternary structure, dynamics and allostery. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not known if this large predicted unstructured region from amino acid 800 to 2843 persists in vivo or would form stabilised complexes - possibly with yet unidentified interacting proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • In tumor samples from women with breast cancer, SIRT3 expression was decreased, as compared to normal breast tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • its protein, also called by the synonym breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein, is responsible for repairing DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This homolog (originally thought to be, and often spoken of as, a single protein) is crucial in multicellular organisms, where it prevents cancer formation, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • Formation of a tetrameric structure is to be critical for protein-protein interactions, DNA binding, and the post-translational modification of p53. (springer.com)
  • The molecular tweezers, but not the clips, efficiently inhibit the formation of toxic oligomers and aggregates by amyloidogenic proteins associated with different diseases. (wikipedia.org)