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  • vivo
  • Moreover, these cells promote and mediate tumor metastasis in vivo ( 8 - 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genetic lineage marking demonstrated that rare luminal cells that express NKX3-1 in the absence of testicular androgens are bipotential and can self-renew in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, mice experiments by Halachmi and Witz showed that for the same cancer cell line, greater tumorigenicity was evident in vivo than the same strain inoculated in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that this induces greater cell migration in vivo and in vitro, possibly by promoting degradation of the ECM. (wikipedia.org)
  • germline
  • Unlike the first generation of iPSCs, these second generation iPSCs produced viable chimeric mice and contributed to the mouse germline, thereby achieving the 'gold standard' for pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • It is also believed to be a survival factor for cancer stem cells to drive tumor growth. (hindawi.com)
  • The most malignant form, glioblastoma (GBM), is resistant to current standard treatment, and the current 5-year overall survival of grade IV GBM patients using radiotherapy with concomitant TMZ treatment is only 9.8% ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In addition, administration of the antibody prolonged survival of SCID mice implanted with JOK-1 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • signalling pathway
  • Turcots's syndrome can give rise to MB as well, resulting from a mutated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene (a member of the wingless (WNT signalling pathway). (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinomas
  • Furthermore, this case of a nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma indicates that HBOC-associated carcinomas of the pancreas might be characterized by a broader morphological spectrum than was previously thought. (hindawi.com)
  • genetic
  • The cell continuously counteracts these processes and has developed a complex network to repair genetic alterations. (mdpi.com)
  • The genetic elements required to transform some primary human cells to a tumorigenic state were described in several recent studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These subtypes should be distinguished and adequately diagnosed, not only to guide therapeutic decision and genetic counseling, but also to enable future studies to shed light on whether these are different ends of a spectrum caused by a single gene, or that they represent true different diseases. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Multiple types of heterogeneity have been observed between tumour cells, stemming from both genetic and non-genetic variability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic heterogeneity is a common feature of tumour genomes, and can arise from multiple sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1979 Beatrice Mintz shows that a fatal genetic anemia of mice can be prevented in utero by injecting normal blood-forming stem cells into the fetus through a placental blood vessel. (wikipedia.org)
  • A multi-locus genetic risk score study based on a combination of 27 loci, including the MRAS gene, identified individuals at increased risk for both incidence and recurrent coronary artery disease events, as well as an enhanced clinical benefit from statin therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor suppressor genes are often disabled by cancer-promoting genetic changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Small-molecule inhibitors that target cell signaling pathways aberrantly activated in medulloblastoma could be very useful in the future management of this disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression levels of several targets of the Wnt signaling pathways are increased in tumor tissue compared with normal, and the expression of SFRP1 is lost in patient tumor samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Cloning and Expression Analysis of the Chick DAN Gene, an Antagonist of the BMP Family of Growth Factors Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. (jove.com)
  • These experiments also revealed that many clones apparent in secondary hosts were not detected in the primary hosts, indicating their origin from cells with very delayed growth activity. (ubc.ca)
  • In contrast, we found that it did not affect growth of medulloblastoma cell lines because the Shh pathway is down-regulated when tumor cells are placed in culture ( 9 , 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of TSP-1 is downregulated in cancer cells, and its ectopic expression has been shown to restrain tumor growth. (mdpi.com)
  • One can therefore speculate that the gene(s) causing the different enchondromatosis subtypes are involved in hedgehog/PTH1R growth plate signaling. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • His discovery of erbB2 as a v-erbB-related gene amplified in a human breast carcinoma and the demonstration of its transforming properties paved the way for targeted therapies directed against its product, and his successful isolation of KGF (FGF7), a growth factor present in the epithelialization-phase of wound healing, led to Amgen's successful phase III clinical trial and FDA approval of KGF for treatment of mucositis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When proposed, this model allowed for the understanding of tumour growth, treatment failure, and tumour aggression that occurs during the natural process of tumour formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth in culture and anchorage-independent growth were inhibited in SFRP1-expressing UMRC3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterogeneity
  • This phenomenon occurs both between tumours (inter-tumour heterogeneity) and within tumours (intra-tumour heterogeneity). (wikipedia.org)
  • The heterogeneity of cancer cells introduces significant challenges in designing effective treatment strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two models used to explain the heterogeneity of tumour cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The models are not mutually exclusive, and it is believed that they both contribute to heterogeneity in varying amounts across different tumour types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CSC model posits that the heterogeneity observed between tumour cells is the result of differences in the stem cells from which they originated. (wikipedia.org)
  • This heterogeneity may give rise to subclones that possess an evolutionary advantage over the others within the tumour environment, and these subclones may become dominant in the tumour over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method is more associated with tumour heterogeneity than linear expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The use of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a promising approach in the clinical applications of regenerative medicine and cancer research. (springer.com)
  • It is an open question why an elephant, with 100× more cells than a human, or a whale with 1000× more cells than a human, has approximately the same (or lower) cancer risk as a human [ 1 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Blue/green dots for mouse, human and whale indicate the estimated risk of colon cancer occurring within 90 years of life given the approximate number of cells in a human colon, 1000 times fewer cells to represent the mouse, and 1000 times more cells to represent the whale. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Application of this strategy to normal mouse and human mammary cells identified expected bi-lineage clones but an unanticipated predominance of lineage-restricted clones produced in primary transplants. (ubc.ca)
  • Application of the barcoding strategy to normal human BCs and LPs transduced with lentiviruses encoding KRASG¹²D ± PI3KCAH¹⁰⁴⁷R ± TP53R²⁷³C showed tumour formation in subsequently transplanted immunodeficient mice was rapid (within 8 weeks) and efficient from both cell types (8-12/18 donors, 1/200-1/4,000 transduced cells). (ubc.ca)
  • Taken together, these findings underscore the diverse regenerative activity of normal mammary cells and provide definitive evidence that the cell of origin can affect the properties of human breast tumours generated using identical oncogenes. (ubc.ca)
  • The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway provides a unique opportunity for intervention because it is activated in ∼30% of human medulloblastoma, based on gene expression signatures ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1991 Timothy Yen discovers that a molecular motor controls the way human cells sort their chromosomes when cells divide during mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of telomeres and telomerase in cell aging and cancer was established by scientists at biotechnology company Geron with the cloning of the RNA and catalytic components of human telomerase and the development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for telomerase activity called the TRAP assay, which surveys telomerase activity in multiple types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human genome, there are two miR-138 associated genes and they are not located in any cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that the deregulation of this critical developmental pathway occurs in several human tumor entities. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD47 is ubiquitously expressed in human cells and has been found to be overexpressed in many different tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukemic
  • In addition, it has not been completely elucidated whether cancer-associated MSCs belong primarily to the abnormal clone or emerge after leukemic stem cell induced environmental damage. (hindawi.com)
  • Play media Most signs and symptoms of AML are caused by the replacement of normal blood cells with leukemic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • while the leukemic cells themselves are derived from white blood cell precursors, they have no infection-fighting capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some people with AML may experience swelling of the gums because of infiltration of leukemic cells into the gum tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • LGR5 are well-established stem cell markers in certain types of tissue, wholly due to the fact that they are highly enriched in truly, multipotent stem cells compared to their immediate progeny, the transit-amplifying cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spiradenoma and cylindroma have their basis in the hair follicle bulge rather than the eccrine sweat gland, based on immunohistochemical study stem cell markers and with CD200 according to Sellheyer. (medscape.com)
  • The ability to study live cells as they progress through the stages of cancer provides the opportunity to discover dynamic networks underlying pathology, markers of early stages, and ways to assess therapeutics. (embopress.org)