• Cytotoxicity and neurocytotoxicity of new marine anticancer agents evaluated using in vitro assays," Cancer Chemother. (patentgenius.com)
  • This project aims to develop and validate in vitro assays based on microRNAs which is able to predict the tumorigenicity of hiPSCs and could therefore replace the in vivo tests and ultimately to study mechanism of tumorigenicity. (uu.nl)
  • Sporadic, colitis-associated and inherited forms of colorectal cancer (CRC) arise from somatic mutations and/or epigenetic alterations in tumour suppressors and proto-oncogenes. (bmj.com)
  • However, the complexity of lung cancer genomes is particularly high, as shown by deep-sequencing studies supporting the heterogeneity of lung tumors at cellular level, with sub-clones exhibiting different combinations of mutations. (mdpi.com)
  • pathway activity is also critical for growth of other tumors lacking such mutations, although the mechanism of pathway activation is poorly understood. (pnas.org)
  • Loss of function mutations in PTCH1 or gain of function mutations in SMO are associated with medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, these pre-malignant lymphoma-initiating cells cannot drive complete malignant transformation, requiring additional cooperating mutations in specific stem-cell programs to be converted into the lymphoma-originating cells able to generate and sustain lymphoma development. (haematologica.org)
  • Although secondary reprogramming mutations are generally required, some cells such as centroblasts or memory B cells that have certain stem cell-like features, or lymphocytes with MYC rearrangements that deregulate self-renewal pathways, may bypass this need and directly function as the lymphoma-originating cells. (haematologica.org)
  • However, the vast majority of activating Ras mutations in human tumors involve Kras . (asm.org)
  • These results potentially explain the high frequency of Kras mutations in tumors of endodermal origin. (asm.org)
  • Stem cells survive much longer than ordinary cells, increasing the chance that they might accumulate genetic mutations. (uu.nl)
  • It might take only a few mutations for one cell to lose control over its self-renewal and growth and become the source of cancer. (uu.nl)
  • And because it doesn't use any gene transfer technologies or exogenous cell products, there's minimal risk of introducing mutations or outside contamination,' Zhang said. (ucsd.edu)
  • Characterizing the mechanisms that link JAK2 mutations with this pattern of stem cell division a pattern that eventually leads to the development of MPNs will inform our understanding of the earliest stages of tumor establishment and of the competition between tumor stem cells, say the authors. (medindia.net)
  • This cell model suggests these mutations could occur to any cell in the body resulting in a cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutations could progressively accumulate and enhance the resistance and fitness of cells that allow them to outcompete other tumor cells, better known as the somatic evolution model. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated whether E. faecalis -polarised macrophages could transform primary colon epithelial cells to cancer-initiating cells. (bmj.com)
  • Exposure of primary colon epithelial cells to commensal-polarised macrophages or 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, an endogenous mutagen, induces heritable mutagenesis and CIN-features characteristic of CRC. (bmj.com)
  • The initiation of chromosomal instability (CIN) and epithelial cell transformation by the colonic microbiome represents an endogenous mechanism for driving colon carcinogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • 3 Several human commensals produce toxins that damage epithelial cell DNA, increase intestinal barrier permeability, and/or activate T cell responses to promote colorectal carcinogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • This theory proposes that polarisation of colon macrophages by commensals initiates CIN and transforms colonic epithelial cells through BSE. (bmj.com)
  • However, distant metastases frequently are composed of tumor cells with more differentiated luminal epithelial features. (aacrjournals.org)
  • More recently, additional markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity ( 14 ), CD133 ( 15 , 16 ), and ITGA6 ( 17 , 18 ) have also been proposed as putative markers of mammary epithelial and breast cancer stem cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 7 , 8 Using similar functional approaches, a variety of cancer stem cells have been identified in an increasing number of epithelial tumors, including breast, prostate, pancreatic, and head and neck carcinomas, all of which were distinguished by the expression of the cell-surface glycoprotein CD44. (haematologica.org)
  • Prostate stem cells are thought to be responsible for generation of all prostate epithelial cells and for tissue maintenance. (hindawi.com)
  • To date, human iPSCs have been generated from multiple cellular sources, including skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, neurons, hepatocytes, gastrointestinal epithelial cells, and mature B/T lymphocytes [ 20 ], with variable levels of reprogramming efficiency and technical difficulty. (molvis.org)
  • Skin is the best-characterized mammalian tissue containing epithelial stem cells, and thus offers an ideal model to study the functional roles of histone methylation in vivo . (biomedsearch.com)
  • Murine ES cells have been shown to be able to integrate with E12-E13 metanephros [ 20 ] and have also been demonstrated to have the capacity to differentiate into renal epithelial cells that can integrate into developing kidneys [ 21 , 22 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Establishment of Mouse Epithelial Lung Cell Strains and Cell Lines. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Human Thyroid Epithelial Cells. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Transfection and Transformation of Human Thyroid Epithelial Cells. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Covers methods for creating mammalian fibroblastic cell cultures and maintaining culture conditions for epithelial, neuronal, and hematopoietic cells among others. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • importantly, miR-138 levels dropped when the researchers chemically forced the GSCs to 'mature' into differentiated brain cells , supporting a role for this RNA in uncontrolled tumor growth. (phys.org)
  • Therefore, we designed a robust protocol for high-throughput screening of compounds that target primary pre-LSCs maintained in a niche-like environment, on stromal cells that were engineered for optimal NOTCH1 activation. (jci.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a bone marrow malignancy, and various bone marrow stromal cells seem to support leukemogenesis, including osteoblasts and endothelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tumor development is a complex and dynamic process that involves malignant, vascular, and stromal cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • These receptors include a heterogeneous family of molecules composed of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), which are exclusively expressed by NK cells and NKG2D, which is expressed by both NK cells and CTLs. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data reveal that Hh pathway activation is heterogeneous across the spectrum of MM tumor stem cells and their more differentiated progeny. (pnas.org)
  • the disease is characterized by bone marrow infiltration of immature leukemic blasts ( 1 ), and it is highly heterogeneous with respect to leukemia cell biology as well as response to therapy ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In the case of human ES cells, kidney-like structures have been observed in teratomas formed from human ES cells [ 23 - 25 ] and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of heterogeneous human ES cell-derived populations in embryoid bodies have indicated the presence of transcripts associated with kidney development [ 26 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Also, tumors are very heterogeneous, composed of many different cells, and stem cells can give rise to different types of cells. (rxpgnews.com)
  • iPS-MEF-Ng-20D-17 cell generated from male C57BL/6 mouse embryonic fibroblasts by introducing the 4 factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) is carrying Nanog promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP)/internal ribosome entry site (IRES)/puromycin-resistant gene ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene transfer allows the reliable generation of HER2-specific T cells from GBM patients, which have potent antitumor activity against autologous HER2-positive tumors including their putative stem cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This cell population was subsequently characterised using gene expression analyses and immunocytochemistry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, TAGs display a gene expression profile with enrichment for genes related to stem cells, immature cell types and developmental processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of them, SOX2, is a master gene involved in sustaining self-renewal of several stem cells, in particular neural stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • It is an imprinted gene, expressed only from the paternal allele, and epigenetic changes at this locus are associated with Wilms tumour, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Silver-Russell syndrome. (cancerindex.org)
  • Eventually, this technique could also be used to determine if gene-modified stem cells are effective in fighting cancer. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Here we propose that committed lymphoid progenitor/precursor cells with an active V-D-J recombination program are the initiating cells of follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma when targeted by immunoglobulin (IG)- gene translocations in the bone marrow. (haematologica.org)
  • We show that the up-regulation of the autophagy process, obtained by deprivation of growth factors, induced a reduction of CSC sensitivity to GVS, while the pharmacological inhibition of the autophagy pathway and the silencing of the key autophagy gene ATG7 , increased the cell death rate induced by GVS. (frontiersin.org)
  • CellNet applies network biology to discover the complex network of genes that are turned on or off in an engineered cell, known as the cell's Gene Regulatory Network or GRN. (phys.org)
  • The resulting HTF-derived iPS cell colonies were indistinguishable from human ESC colonies regarding morphology, gene expression levels, pluripotent gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and the ability to generate all three embryonic germ layers. (molvis.org)
  • At the University of Cambridge, researchers have discovered that a single mutation in a leukemia-associated gene reduces the ability of blood stem cells to make more blood stem cells, but leaves their progeny daughter cells unaffected. (medindia.net)
  • This mutation is in a gene called JAK2, which is present in most patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) a group of bone marrow diseases that are characterized by the over-production of mature blood cells and by an increased risk of developing leukemia. (medindia.net)
  • Working with our long-time collaborator Dr. Thomas Würdinger, we showed for the first time that blood platelets carry tumor-derived biomarkers and specific gene signatures that can distinguish patients with localized and metastasized tumors from healthy individuals. (massgeneral.org)
  • These transfection-ready LightSwitch GoClones ® together with the highly optimized assay reagents , transfection reagents , controls , miRNA Mimics and Inhibitors and detailed protocols allows you to perform your gene regulation reporter assay experiments immediately. (activemotif.com)
  • Interestingly, gene signatures derived from cell populations defined on the basis of cell surface markers only (without functional validation) cannot distinguish low-risk from high-risk patients. (nature.com)
  • Glioblastoma cells express several genes typical of normal neural stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • SOX2 is then also fundamental for maintenance of the self-renewal capacity of neural stem cells when they have acquired cancer properties. (nih.gov)
  • She and her colleagues obtained GSCs from five patients with malignant glioma, and examined how their expression levels of known microRNAs differed relative to normal neural stem cells (NSCs). (phys.org)
  • It means we can generate stable, renewable neural stem cells or downstream products quickly, in great quantities and in a clinical grade - millions in less than a week - that can be used for clinical trials and, eventually, for clinical treatments. (ucsd.edu)
  • The same method can be used to push induce pluripotent stem cells (stem cells artificially derived from adult, differentiated mature cells) to become neural stem cells, Zhang said. (ucsd.edu)
  • The primary neural stem cells of the brain and spinal cord, termed radial glial cells , instead reside in the ventricular zone (VZ) (so-called because the VZ lines the inside of the developing ventricles ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of FVTF on the properties of LCSLCs were examined by tumorsphere formation assay and transwell chamber assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vitro experiments, the cell viability and clonogenic ability of three human OSCC cell lines CAL27, SCC25 and UM1 were detected after clotrimazole treatment by CCK8 assay and colony formation assay. (nih.gov)
  • The HTF-derived iPS (TiPS) cells were analyzed with phase contrast microscopy, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, FACS analysis, alkaline phosphatase activity analysis, and a teratoma formation assay. (molvis.org)
  • MSC can form networks in a tube formation assay that is inhibited by an anti-endosialin antibody. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the non-pathological state, the roles of glial cells in the CNS overlap with functions of fibroblasts in other organs, such as secretion of ECM components, provision of structural support and homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, mutationally activated forms of each Ras isoform exhibit transforming activity in cell culture models, such as NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. (asm.org)
  • This study aimed to develop a feasible and efficient method for generating embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTFs) through the expression of a defined set of transcription factors, which will have significant application value for ophthalmic personalized regenerative medicine. (molvis.org)
  • MFs were transformed from rat penile tunica albuginea fibroblasts through stimulation with 5 ng/ml tumor growth factor-β1. (urotoday.com)
  • MYCN is involved in the regulation of self-renewal and can substitute for MYC in reprogramming fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) (Smith et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • But the potential of hESCs has been constrained by a number of practical problems, not least among them the difficulty of growing sufficient quantities of stable, usable cells and the risk that some of these cells might form tumors. (ucsd.edu)
  • Cells derived from hPSCs often contain residual undifferentiated cells, however, and these contaminating remnants can form tumors when transplanted into animals. (the-scientist.com)
  • MSCs are able to deliver drugs to target cells, and are an ideal candidate for cancer therapy. (medsci.org)
  • Similar migration potential was observed between MSC/Fluc and naïve MSCs in migration assay. (medsci.org)
  • Additionally, MSCs delivered DOX to CAL62/Rluc and MDA-MB-231/Rluc cells, thereby decreasing their Rluc activities. (medsci.org)
  • MSCs are adult stem cells that have the ability to transform into many. (bio-medicine.org)
  • MSCs are adult stem cells that have the ability to transform into many different types of cells, such as bone, fat or cartilage. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Both MSCs and primary AML cells show constitutive release of several soluble mediators, and the mediator repertoires of the two cell types are partly overlapping. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we show how highly reactive antigen (Ag)-specific CTLs can be generated from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to provide an unlimited source of functional CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of antigen (Ag)-specific CTLs is a promising treatment for a variety of malignancies ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • HER2-specific T cells from 10 consecutive GBM patients were generated by transduction with a retroviral vector encoding a HER2-specific chimeric antigen receptor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We show here that T cells from GBM patients can readily be modified with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-specific chimeric antigen receptors to produce effector cells, which release immunostimulatory cytokines in response to, and kill, autologous primary HER2-positive GBM tumor cells, including CD133-positive GBM stem cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, these trials have also highlighted some of the limitations of dendritic cell vaccines ( 10 ), particularly their failure to reproducibly and effectively expand tumor antigen-specific T cells, which may be present at low frequency or are anergized. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subsequently, PBMCs are challenged with tumor antigens such as tumor stem cell antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clotrimazole is an antifungal imidazole derivative showing anti- neoplastic effect in some tumors, but its anticancer potential is still unclear in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). (nih.gov)
  • Alberts DS, Salmon SE, Chen HSG, Moon TE, Young L, Surwit EA: Pharmacologic studies of anticancer drugs with the human tumor stem cell assay. (springer.com)
  • Salmon SE, Hamburger AW, Soehnlen B, Durie BGM, Alberts DS, Moon TE: Quantification of differential sensitivity of human tumor stem cells to anticancer drugs. (springer.com)
  • Aim of the present study was to find new anticancer properties of αMG by evaluating the changes that this compound provokes in multicellular tumour spheroids (MCTSs). (medsci.org)
  • These findings suggest a novel anticancer feature of αMG that could be taken into consideration to improve conventional drug penetration into the tumour bulk. (medsci.org)
  • Paclitaxel (Taxol(R)) inhibits motility of paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • The study may alter how scientists think about CLL and how clinicians treat the disease: whether it is better to wait for later stages of the disease when tumor cells are more fragile and easier to kill, or treat early-stage indolent tumor cells aggressively, when they are fewer in number but harder to find and more resistant to therapy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) are resistant against even the most aggressive treatments, which makes the search for new and powerful drugs indispensable. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the present research, we recognized a book human being Compact disc8+ T-cell memory space populace, specified youthful memory space (TYM) Capital t cells, which possess the features of capability of expansion, medication resistant and difference into TCM and TEM, on the basis of the activity of the medication metabolic enzyme, ALDH1. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • reported firstly in 1968 that bone marrow contains a large number of stem cells, and Caplan et al. (hindawi.com)
  • In this stem cell from bone marrow are injected into a recipient after treating them with growth factor. (medindia.net)
  • Immunomodulation potential of SMSCs was examined by mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) reactions, and then by PBMCs or synovial T cells with or without the addition of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-17A (IL-17A), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)) after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, by inhibiting PYK2, VS-6063 also reduced the production of specific cytokines that are responsible for increasing cancer stem cells in mesothelioma and breast cancer in a dose dependent manner. (corporate-ir.net)
  • Examples of secreted proteins in the cell secretome include growth factors, immunoregulatory cytokines, extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes, and cell motility factors 4 - 6 . (thno.org)
  • Since the Teratoma assay is animal dependent, laborious, and only qualitative, the PluriTest and the hPSC ScoreCard assay have been developed as in vitro alternatives. (nih.gov)
  • However, the Teratoma tumorigenicity assay is animal-dependent, costly, time-consuming and only qualitative and has never been standardized. (uu.nl)
  • Adicionalmente, ensaios de formação de teratoma mostraram inibição na formação do tumor e defeitos na diferenciação já que a formação de tecidos do mesoderma foi favorecida. (usp.br)
  • Luciferase reporter assay was used to verify whether miR-1 targeted ecotropic virus integration-1 (EVI-1). (dovepress.com)
  • The luciferase reporter assay verified that EVI-1 was a direct target of miR-1, and upregulation of miR-1 negatively correlated with the expression of EVI-1 in BCSCs at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. (dovepress.com)
  • While the incidence of primary brain tumors is relatively low, about one third of all extracranial cancer patients develop brain metastases (BM), a significant cause of patient morbidity and mortality. (massgeneral.org)