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  • mutation
  • Dedifferentiated component more frequently harbored LOH, mutation or promoter methylation of RB1 gene as compared with those in the well-differentiated component. (nii.ac.jp)
  • ATCC has created a list of ATCC tumor cell lines based on the gene mutation information maintained in the Sanger Institute COSMIC database. (atcc.org)
  • Even if reproducible, those findings imply that two thirds of 11q deletion CLLs do not have mutation of the other ATM allele, suggesting either a gene dosage effect or the involvement of other genes in pathogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Providing support for the involvement of other genes is the observation that families with ataxia telangiectasia, due to germline mutation of the ATM gene, do not have high rates of CLL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • That is to say, the DNA which is like an instruction that tells a cell how to duplicate itself has a faulty instruction, which in turn a cell duplicates itself with an error or mutation-this can be compared to building a Toyota pickup truck using blueprints for a Ford Ranger. (biology-online.org)
  • This approach would be of great interest for high-throughput mutation screening projects aiming to identify genes carrying functional regulatory polymorphisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • epigenetic
  • This review elucidates the epigenetic consequences of EBV-host interactions during development of multiple EBV-induced B-cell lymphomas, which may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic interventions against EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas by alteration of reversible patho-epigenetic markings. (mdpi.com)
  • survival
  • In fact, insulin leads to AKT phosphorylation at about the same levels as stimulation through the B-cell receptor (BCR), which is well known to provide survival signals to CLL cells ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, SGI-1776 inhibited cellular survival in primary adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma cells (b). (nih.gov)
  • Global gene analysis indicated that functions related to cell survival and invasion were influenced by combined treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • In CRC, most of the tumors detected are already in advanced stages, such as Dukes' C or D, lowering the estimated survival rate. (mcponline.org)
  • Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumour, where patients respond poorly to radiotherapy and exhibit dismal survival outcomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aberrant
  • Such a systematic screen has so far been performed only in cell lines, as non-aberrant cell infiltration has historically hindered the reliable identification of homozygous deletions in primary tumors. (ashg.org)
  • necrosis
  • BACKGROUND: Etanercept is a tumor necrosis factor-alpha binding fusion protein that demonstrates efficacy in the treatment of psoriasis, which is accompanied by decreased plaque infiltration of T cells and myeloid dendritic cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • aggressive
  • Because these tumors are highly aggressive and currently incurable, a greater understanding of how they arise may lead to novel treatments. (aacrjournals.org)
  • anti-tumor
  • Additional studies will be conducted evaluating the anti-tumor activity of Kevetrin when used as a combination therapy with several FDA-approved drugs. (marketwired.com)
  • patients
  • Circulating tumor DNA in plasma from 30 patients after chemotherapy was additionally analyzed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We performed whole exome sequencing on 29 tumors obtained from 21 patients with high grade or metastatic KIT -mutant GIST (discovery set). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to benign tumors, NF1 patients have an increased risk for developing particular malignancies, including malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and malignant astrocytomas including glioblastoma ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • MPNSTs arise in the nerves of NF1 patients and have been shown to originate from Schwann cells ( 3 , 4 ) often through malignant transformation of benign plexiform neurofibromas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The MDM2 and CDK4 genes are located on chromosome 12 in close proximity to one-another, with CDK4 very frequently co-amplified in the MDM2-amplification-positive patients to be enrolled in this trial. (streetinsider.com)
  • The renowned Scottish surgeon Alexander Monro saw only 2 breast tumor patients out of 60 surviving surgery for two years. (blogspot.com)
  • Although mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized as an intermediate-grade lymphoma, it is incurable for most patients ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Carfilzomib (Kyprolis), an irreversible proteasome inhibitor active in bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma cells in vitro ( 11 ) and in patients with bortezomib-resistant disease ( 12 ), is approved for refractory/relapsed multiple myeloma ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Many studies and several meta-analyses have compared gene and protein expression in melanocytes, naevi, primary, and metastatic melanoma in an attempt to find informative prognostic markers for these patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • Currently, prognosis is based on a small set of clinical and histological features, e.g., tumor thickness, level of invasion, and ulceration ( 7 ), which have limited predictive power for individual patients and no direct implications for personalizing treatment ( 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Chk1
  • It has been shown that CHK1 can phosphorylate Wee 1 in vitro , providing evidence that the hyperphosphorylated form of Wee 1, seen in cells delayed by CHK1 over-expression, is due to phosphorylation by CHK1. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • chromosome
  • MAD1L1 is a component of the mitotic spindle-assembly checkpoint that prevents the onset of anaphase until all chromosome are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. (jax.org)
  • 17), which fuses promyelocytic (PML) leukemia gene located on chromosome 15 to retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR α) gene mapped on chromosome 17. (medsci.org)
  • Four submits of GINS complexes initiate a cyclic structure which plays a significant role in the beginning of DNA replication [ 9 , 10 ].GINS2, also known as Psf2, is encoded by GINS2 gene locates on human chromosome 16q24 which performs in both initiation of DNA replication and the cell cycle process [ 11 ]. (medsci.org)
  • regulatory
  • The question of how the cell cycle regulatory activities are integrated into the specific stem cell context is not well understood. (pnas.org)
  • This study identifies a previously unknown regulatory module in the flowering plant consisting of two regulatory genes, TSO1 and MYB3R1 . (pnas.org)
  • Since animal homologs of TSO1 and MYB3R1 are components of a cell cycle regulatory complex, the DREAM complex, we tested and showed that TSO1 and MYB3R1 coimmunoprecipitated in tobacco leaf cells. (pnas.org)
  • Our work reveals a conserved cell cycle regulatory module, consisting of TSO1 and MYB3R1, for proper plant development. (pnas.org)
  • The detection of differential allelic expression (DAE) represents a sensitive assay to direct the search for a functional sequence variant within the transcriptional regulatory elements of a candidate gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • induce
  • Most of the currently used chemotherapeutic agents do not optimally discriminate between normal and tumor cells and induce cell death in all actively proliferating cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Animal experiments and in vitro studies have shown that compounds found in tobacco smoke, such as polycyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, and N -nitrosamines, may induce mammary tumors ( 1 - 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • genomic instability
  • These recurrent homozygous deletions occurred either over tumor suppressors or over regions of increased genomic instability called fragile sites. (ashg.org)
  • The importance of these events to cellular physiology is highlighted by the fact that tumours, in which p53 is frequently mutated, have widespread defects in the G1/S DNA damage checkpoints and a heightened level of genomic instability. (nih.gov)
  • metabolism
  • Altered mitochondrial function in tumor cells contributes to a wide array of tumor phenotypes, including higher rates of glycolysis ( 4 ), glucose transport ( 5 ), gluconeogenesis ( 6 ), and modified amino acid metabolism ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • alterations
  • These alterations are correlated with the presence of round cell component, which is one of the strong adverse prognostic factors. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These alterations triggered by different external stimuli-ranging from multiple genotoxic stresses to infections caused by several intracellular pathogens, including tumor viruses-are stable and cell type-specific but may not always be heritable. (mdpi.com)
  • overexpression
  • Saiya-Cork and colleagues were not able to identify a candidate gene or a common pattern of deletion within 11q that explains INSR overexpression, although they did not comment on microRNAs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • cellular senescence
  • Specifically, although fibroblasts from NONO-deficient mice showed approximately normal circadian cycles, they displayed elevated cell doubling and lower cellular senescence. (pnas.org)
  • Ontology
  • The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. (peerj.com)
  • Differential gene co‑expression analysis was performed using R/EBcoexpress package in R. DEGs in the gene co‑expression network were subjected to Gene Ontology analysis using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integration Discovery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • receptor
  • CCL5 (RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted)) and its cognate receptor, CCR5, have been implicated in T cell activation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recently, we examined the preventive effects of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor Iressa on the induction of bladder tumors by OH-BBN ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Oestrogen receptor status and expression of the tumour suppressor gene p27 were not associated with either diet or body constitution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, cell-cycle distribution profiling indicates constantly lower G 1 and higher G 2 -M population as well as higher expression of a mitotic marker p-histone H3 following the dual treatment in p53 knockdown isogenic variant, compared with the parental counterpart. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, various tumor cell lines exhibit differences in the number, size, and shape of their mitochondria relative to slower growing tumors and normal controls ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, a strong inhibitory effect on the viability of H1_DL2 cells, when grown as 3D multicellular spheroids, was seen. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, NG2 expressing GBM cells showed resistance to ionising radiation (IR), rapidly recognised DNA damage and effectuated cell cycle checkpoint signalling. (biomedsearch.com)
  • novel
  • Our results add to the emerging evidence of several genes recently proposed in the literature as tumor suppressors (including FAT1 , BIRC2 / BIRC3 , TET1 and MGMT ), and bring forward several novel candidate tumor suppressors (including CASP3 , CASP9 , RAD17 , BAZ1A , CPEB3 and SETD1B ). (ashg.org)
  • candidate
  • In the current study, we combined the candidate gene approach with our high-throughput DNA methylation profiling technology. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Candidate modifiers of tumor susceptibility can then be tested for their role in the variable expressivity of NF1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our pilot screen identified 11 established tumor suppressors and discovered 25 candidate tumor suppressors. (ashg.org)
  • In this review, we discuss the roles the Mycs play in the body and what led us to choose them to be our candidate gene for inner ear therapies. (mdpi.com)