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  • quinolinic acid
  • In the next steps, Kyn is further converted to other active metabolites, such as hydroxykynurenine, anthranilic acid, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, quinolinic acid, and picolinic acid (Figure 1 A). The two end-products of the pathway are NAD + and ATP that both fuel cellular metabolism ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • cytosolic
  • Indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 is a cytosolic enzyme with a heme (Fe 2+ ) prosthetic group that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism (Figure 1 A). IDO1 converts the essential amino acid Trp to kynurenine (Kyn) by cleaving the 2,3-double bond of the indole ring while a molecular oxygen (O 2 ) merges into the unsealed molecule. (frontiersin.org)
  • acid
  • Kynureninase converts l -hydroxykynurenine to 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid that is further metabolized by hydroxyanthranilate dioxygenase to aminocarboxymuconic semialdehyde. (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on previous findings, it was hypothesized that low vitamin B-6 status decreases n-6/n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) but increases their precursors, linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in both blood lipids and cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line by impairing LCPUFA synthesis. (ufl.edu)
  • gene
  • Here, we used microarray analysis to identify two tumor subclasses resembling distinct phases of liver development and a discriminating 16-gene signature. (broadinstitute.org)
  • motif
  • Data show that missense mutation c.299G>A changes serine in the acyltransferase NHX4D motif of AGPAT2, and intronic c.493-1G>C mutation destroy a splicing site that leads to exon 4 skipping and deletion of whole AGPAT2 substrate binding domain. (antibodies-online.cn)
  • beta
  • UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylgluc. (broadinstitute.org)
  • beta-catenin activated different transcriptional programs in the two tumor types, with distinctive expression of hepatic stem/progenitor markers in immature tumors. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Figure 4 shows the alpha helices (pink) and beta sheets (yellow) involved in the secondary structure of SDH. (wikidoc.org)
  • Beta-eliminations [4] mediated by PLP yields products that have undergone a two-electron oxidation at C-alpha. (wikidoc.org)
  • Human
  • Myc-induced hepatoblastoma-like tumors in mice strikingly resembled the human immature subtype, and Myc downregulation in hepatoblastoma cells impaired tumorigenesis in vivo. (broadinstitute.org)