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  • bile
  • The maps, constructed for mouse liver and human liver, put PPAR-alpha at the center of a regulatory hub impacting fatty acid uptake and intracellular binding, mitochondrial β-oxidation and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, triglyceride turnover, gluconeogenesis, and bile synthesis/secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the intestine, following the secretion of lipases and bile, triglycerides are split into monoacylglycerol and free fatty acids in a process called lipolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid sequestrants (resins, e.g. cholestyramine) are particularly effective for lowering LDL-C by sequestering the cholesterol-containing bile acids released into the intestine and preventing their reabsorption from the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • CONCLUSIONS -Administration of 10- and 80-mg doses of atorvastatin provides similar, significant reductions from baseline in triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • LDL cholesterol-lowering strategies, with the use of hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitors, have shown at least equal benefits for subgroups of patients with diabetes in large secondary prevention trials ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, these were all post-hoc analyses, and patients with diabetes included in these studies did not have the typical diabetic lipid profile, i.e., elevated triglyceride level, decreased HDL cholesterol, and normal or slightly increased LDL cholesterol ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • reduction
  • Several plant species being a major source of terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, coumarins, and other bioactive constituents have shown reduction in blood glucose levels [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • lipase
  • Like niacin, acipimox acts on the niacin receptor 1, inhibiting the enzyme triglyceride lipase. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the body requires fatty acids as an energy source, the hormone glucagon signals the breakdown of the triglycerides by hormone-sensitive lipase to release free fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • ANGPTL3 inhibits endothelial lipase to catalyze HDL-phospholipid and increase HDL-PL levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Most natural fats contain a complex mixture of individual triglycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the brain cannot utilize fatty acids as an energy source (unless converted to a ketone),[citation needed] the glycerol component of triglycerides can be converted into glucose, via gluconeogenesis by conversion into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and then into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, for brain fuel when it is broken down. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Exercise should be promoted, as it can increase HDL. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypertension
  • The cholesterol was found to be responsible for the thickening of the arterial walls and thus decreasing the radius in the arteries which leads in most cases to hypertension and increased risk of occlusive vascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • rodents
  • In rodents, highest mRNA expression levels of PPAR-alpha are found in liver and brown adipose tissue, followed by heart and kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver
  • Liver function and hematologic tests and creatine kinase levels and fasting glucose levels were measured every 6 weeks. (acponline.org)
  • When carb intake falls below 50 grams per day, the lower blood glucose levels cause the Pancreas to signal the liver to process fatty acids, from the blood stream and from body fat, where they are processed into ketones to provide energy. (alivebynature.com)
  • This action not only interferes with the absorption of cholesterol from food, it has the additional (and probably more important) effect of removing cholesterol from substances made in the liver that are recycled through the digestive tract. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • This signals the liver to release stored glycogen and change it back to glucose, raising blood sugar levels to the normal range. (jcm.co.uk)
  • Liver cells can synthesize and store triglycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the main design objectives of statin design is the selective inhibition of HMGR in the liver, as cholesterol synthesis in non-hepatic cells is needed for normal cell function and inhibition in non-hepatic cells could possibly be harmful. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acids
  • However, unlike fatty acids, ketones can cross the blood-brain barrier and provide up to 70% of the brain's energy needs when glucose levels are low ( 3 ). (alivebynature.com)
  • A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three to four fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride). (wikipedia.org)
  • Triglycerides are chemically tri esters of fatty acids and glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In triglycerides, the hydroxyl groups of the glycerol join the carboxyl groups of the fatty acid to form ester bonds: HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH + RCO2H + R′CO2H + R″CO2H → RCO2CH2CH(O2CR′)CH2CO2R″ + 3H2O The three fatty acids (RCO2H, R′CO2H, R″CO2H in the above equation) are usually different, but many kinds of triglycerides are known. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chain lengths of the fatty acids in naturally occurring triglycerides vary, but most contain 16, 18, or 20 carbon atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simplest triglycerides are those where the three fatty acids are identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids, monoglycerides (one glycerol, one fatty acid), and some diglycerides are absorbed by the duodenum, once the triglycerides have been broken down. (wikipedia.org)
  • Special enzymes on the walls of blood vessels called lipoprotein lipases must break down triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • uptake
  • Angptl3 plays a major role in promoting uptake of circulating triglycerides into white adipose tissue in the fed state, likely through activation by Angptl8, a feeding-induced hepatokine, to inhibit postprandial LPL activity in cardiac and skeletal muscles, as suggested by the ANGPTL3-4-8 model. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLPIIa is a rare genetic disorder characterized by increased levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood due to the lack of uptake (no Apo B receptors) of LDL particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • esters
  • Since then, a substantial amount of research suggests that plant stanols (usually modified into stanol esters) can help to lower cholesterol in individuals with normal or mildly to moderately elevated levels. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • Related substances called sterols or phytosterols (such as beta-sitosterol) and sterol esters appear to lower cholesterol in much the same manner as stanols. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • Typical dosages of stanol/sterols and their esters to improve cholesterol profile range from 2.7 to 5.1 g per day. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • Numerous double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, ranging in length from 30 days to 12 months and involving a total of more than 1,000 people, have found that sterol/stanols and their esters are effective for improving cholesterol profile. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • For example, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 153 people with mildly elevated cholesterol were given sitostanol esters in margarine (at 1.8 or 2.6 g of sitostanol per day), or margarine without sitostanol ester, for a total of one year. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • synthesize
  • If hyperglycerolemia is caused by a mutation in the glycerol kinase gene then it generally causes an isolated glycerol kinase deficiency, resulting in the inability to synthesize triglycerides and glycerophospholipids. (wikipedia.org)