• Besides the miscolonisation of the vaginal flora, Trichomonas vaginalis also plays an important role as co-factor during transmission of HIV. (r-biopharm.com)
  • According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 3 - 5 million people are infected with Trichomonas vaginalis in the US. (r-biopharm.com)
  • Curcumin was shown to be highly effective against T. vaginalis , and the susceptibility of the different strains was not affected by an existing resistance to metronidazole. (springer.com)
  • Metronidazole is the mainstay of treatment for T. vaginalis infection and can be given as a single dose, 2 g orally (divided into 1 g in the morning and 1 g at night), or 250 mg 3 times/day for 7 days [5, (who.int)
  • Metronidazole resistance has been observed in 4.3 to 9.6% of clinical T. vaginalis isolates in the United States ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • The mechanism of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is unknown. (asm.org)
  • Laboratory-generated resistance is associated with downregulation of enzymes thought to reduce metronidazole, such as pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and ferredoxin, as well as shrinking of the hydrogenosome, a mitochondrion-related organelle where these enzymes are located in T. vaginalis ( 4 , 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Lastly, another study identified 11 nitroreductase genes in the T. vaginalis genome ( 6 ), at least one of which was capable of metronidazole reduction ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • We hypothesized that loss of function of one or more of these nitroreductase proteins could mediate metronidazole resistance in some T. vaginalis isolates. (asm.org)
  • Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is categorized as low (MLC, 50 to 100 μg/ml), moderate (MLC, 200 μg/ml), or high (MLC, ≥400 μg/ml) ( 3 , 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Berberine extracted from the plant Berberis aristata was as effective as the anti-parasital drug metronidazole in inhibiting the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis in the laboratory, indicated another study published in the December 2001 edition of the "Journal of Egyptian Society of Parasitology. (healthfully.com)
  • The results of hybridization experiments and unusual properties of the two strains lacking dsRNA (both were metronidazole resistant) led the authors to assume that the dsRNA is intrinsic to typical T. vaginalis cell and is not of viral origin. (flegr.com)
  • Further, 20 h mid-exponential phase trichomonads placed in fresh culture medium for 3 h gave higher levels of binding to FN, suggesting that changes during growth in vitro to T. vaginalis organisms affect maximal levels of binding to FN. (nih.gov)
  • Previous in vitro studies revealed that exposure to T. vaginalis stimulated IL-8 secretion in human neutrophils (Ryu et al. (scielo.br)
  • In vitro, oxytetracycline led to death of T. vaginalis at a concentration of 15 mg in 0.5 mL medium. (who.int)
  • In vitro, l'oxytétracycline a entraîné la mort de T. vaginalis à une concentration de 15 mg dans 0,5 mL de milieu. (who.int)
  • Two drugs were tested experimentally in vivo, and 1 drug and 2 plant extracts in vitro, in order to study their effect on T. vaginalis. (who.int)
  • Herein, we report the in vitro and in silico analysis of 12 furanyl N -acylhydrazone derivatives (PFUR 4, a-k) against Trichomonas vaginalis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pathogenic effect of Trichomonas vaginalis on various cell lines in vitro. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Screening for Trichomonas vaginalis is limited today, due in part to the limitations of traditional testing techniques such as culture and wet mount microscopy, which are much less sensitive than molecular tests. (science20.com)
  • Molecular characterization of the Trichomonas gallinae morphologic complex in the United States. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In addition, compounds that displayed anti- T. vaginalis activity were analyzed using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay and molecular docking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular docking studies predicted strong interactions of PFUR 4a and 4b with T. vaginalis enzymes, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, and lactate dehydrogenase, while only PFUR 4b interacted in silico with thioredoxin reductase and methionine gamma-lyase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular assay reagents intended to identify Trichomonas vaginalis, a species of flagellated protozoon, by detecting specific genetic information of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the target parasite. (medicalproductguide.com)
  • S-DiaTV TM is a trusted and easy-to-use molecular diagnostic CE-IVD kit designed to qualitatively detect Trichomonas vaginalis in biological samples (urine and swabs) collected from patients showing symptoms related to this pathogen using real-time PCR. (diagenodediagnostics.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, we obtained 200 T. vaginalis isolates from the American Type Culture Collection ( n = 5) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( n = 195). (asm.org)
  • In the evaluation of the ADA profile in different T. vaginalis isolates treated with different iron sources or with limited iron availability, a decrease in activity and an increase in ADA gene expression after iron limitation by 2,2-bipyridyl and ferrozine chelators were observed. (fiocruz.br)
  • Trichomonas vaginalis , a sexually transmitted human parasite, was detected by performing PCR with primers from a region of the 18S rRNA gene that produce a 312 base pair product. (cdc.gov)
  • However, when the BOECs were exposed to the human parasite, T. vaginalis, the levels of IL-10 remained at baseline and increased only slightly compared to controls ( Fig. 2 ). (scielo.br)
  • Importantly, the T. vaginalis adhesin proteins that mediate cytoadherence, and iron, a factor that regulates adhesin synthesis, were not involved in FN and LM recognition. (nih.gov)
  • In order to study the extent and function of S-acylation in T. vaginalis biology, we undertook a proteomic study to profile the full scope of S-acylated proteins in this parasite and reported the identification of 363 proteins involved in a variety of biological processes such as protein transport, pathogenesis related and signaling, among others. (mcponline.org)
  • Here, we characterized proteins potentially involved in cell cycle regulation in T. vaginalis. (nih.gov)
  • This work is the first characterization of proteins involved in cell cycle control in T. vaginalis. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we use a combination of methodologies including cell fractionation, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, RNA, proteomic and cytokine analyses and cell adherence assays to examine pathogenic properties of T. vaginalis. (nih.gov)
  • Third, the genetic approaches involving antisense decreased expression of ap65 [ 16 ] and heterologous expression of T. vaginalis AP65 in T. foetus [ 23 ] reaffirmed the role of AP65 in adherence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan pathogen that causes the most widespread sexually transmitted disease of nonviral origin, especially affecting reproductive age females ( 9 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • SAN DIEGO, June 30, 2010 /PRNewswire/ -- Gen-Probe Incorporated announced today that it has received a European CE mark for its APTIMA(R) assay for Trichomonas vaginalis, a common parasitic sexually transmitted disease. (science20.com)
  • Gen-Probe's APTIMA Trichomonas assay utilizes the same nucleic acid amplification technologies as the APTIMA COMBO 2(R) assay, the Company's market-leading test for chlamydia and gonorrhea, and studies have shown that Gen-Probe's Transcription-Mediated Amplification (TMA) technology provides greater sensitivity than existing tests for Trichomonas vaginalis. (science20.com)
  • The APTIMA Trichomonas assay offers clinicians and laboratorians a new method of detection that is significantly more sensitive than current tests. (science20.com)
  • Subjects will undergo an audio computer assisted self- interview (ACASI), and will self-collect vaginal swabs for Trichomonas testing by InPouch and NAAT, Gram stain testing, and a future microbiome specimen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The results showed that 10 (2.4%) swabs were positive for T. vaginalis by wet smear preparation, 15 (3.5%) by haematoxylin-eosin stained smear, 17 (4.0%) by Papanicolaou stain and 23 (5.4%) using Diamond modified culture. (who.int)
  • In a new Johns Hopkins study, researchers have added to evidence that Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), the world's most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI), disproportionately affects the black community. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In case of men the trichomonas might embed in the urethra, prostate gland, testicles and penis ulceration.The invasions generally show no symptoms and it must be distinguished from infection and diploccocus gonorrhoea. (e-cleansing.com)
  • Most people infected with trichomonas vaginalis do not have any symptoms and can be undetected for years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low positivity rate after systematic screening for Trichomonas vaginalis in three patient cohorts from general practitioners, STI clinic and a national population-based chlamydia screening study. (springer.com)
  • Methods: Colonised epithelia were infected with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) or exposed to purified TV virulence factors (membrane lipophosphoglycan (LPG), its ceramide-phosphoinositol-glycan core (CPI-GC) or the endosymbiont Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV)), followed by assessment of bacterial colony-forming units, the mucosal anti-inflammatory microbicide secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and chemokines that drive pro-inflammatory, antigen-presenting and T cells. (harvard.edu)
  • From these, 18 (4.98%) of the pregnant women were positive for T. vaginalis infection by Modified Columbian Agar culture technique. (hindawi.com)
  • Because this infection increases the risk of HIV transmission and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, there is a need for increased provision of health information concerning T. vaginalis to the community, educating women, screening, and treatment of T. vaginalis infection in Ethiopia. (hindawi.com)
  • Trichomonas vaginalis also makes women more susceptible to infection with HIV-1. (science20.com)
  • Several studies have suggested that pregnant women infected with Trichomonas vaginalis may be at increased risk of an adverse outcome. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate prospectively the association between T. vaginalis and risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in a large cohort of ethnically diverse women. (nih.gov)
  • At University-affiliated hospitals and antepartum clinics in five United States cities, 13,816 women (5,241 black, 4,226 Hispanic, and 4,349 white women) were enrolled at mid-gestation, tested for T. vaginalis by culture, and followed up until delivery. (nih.gov)
  • Samples were obtained from the vaginal discharges of infected women by sterile vaginal swab and cultured in selective medium, Bacto trichomonas broth, (Difco No. 0911.02, Difco Laboratories, Michigan), incubated at 37 °C and checked for the presence of T. vaginalis after 48-72 hours. (who.int)
  • Pregnant women infected with T. vaginalis may be at increased risk of premature labour, low-birth-weight offspring and postabortion or post-hysterectomy infection [4- (who.int)
  • In pregnant women, an infection with Trichomonas vaginalis may lead to further complications such as premature labour or premature membrane rupture. (r-biopharm.com)
  • RESULTS: Compared with uninfected women, endocervical infection with C trachomatis, N gonorrhoeae, or T vaginalis was associated with significant increases in endometrial T cells, B cells, plasma cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • In 2002, an association was found with Trichomonas vaginalis and PID in HIV positive women. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Transcription-mediated amplification has additionally identified novel facets of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis epidemiology that warrant further investigation. (docphin.com)
  • Trichomonas vaginalis is a pear-shaped trophozoite (7 to 23 m long) with four anterior flagella and a fifth forming the outer edge of a short undulating membrane. (forumotion.com)
  • Trichomonas vaginalis associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery. (nih.gov)