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  • Pyruvate
  • Thus in aglycemic HepG2 cells, the hypoxia-induced factor (HIF) upregulation of glycolytic enzymes enabled acceleration of glycolysis pathway, preceded by galactolysis (Leloir pathway), redirecting pyruvate via still incompletely blocked pyruvate dehydrogenase toward the ACO-IDH3. (frontiersin.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to low glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities, in tumor cells the conversion of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate mainly takes place via glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Addition of membrane-permeant dimethyl-2-oxoglutarate (dm2OG) to inhibited cells instantly partially restored respiration, evidencing the lack of 2OG-dehydrogenase substrate upon aminotransferase inhibition. (frontiersin.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • Hypoxanthine injection decreased the percentage of cells with mitochondrial membrane label and increased mitochondrial membrane potential labeling. (springer.com)
  • Our findings show that intrastriatal hypoxanthine administration altered neuroenergetic parameters, and caused mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death by apoptosis, suggesting that these processes may be associated, at least in part, with neurological symptoms found in patients with Lesch-Nyhan Disease. (springer.com)
  • Measurement of endogenous free and bound NAD(P)H relative concentrations in living cells is a useful method for monitoring aspects of cellular metabolism, because the NADH/NAD + reduction-oxidation pair is crucial for electron transfer through the mitochondrial electron transport chain. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • This study uses two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to investigate metabolic changes in MCF10A premalignant breast cancer cells treated with a range of glycolysis inhibitors: namely, 2 deoxy-D-glucose, oxythiamine, lonidamine, and 4-(chloromethyl) benzoyl chloride, as well as the mitochondrial membrane uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • During the initial phases of glycolysis and the TCA cycle, cofactors such as NAD+ donate and accept electrons that aid in the electron transport chain's ability to produce a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycolysis
  • Aerobic glycolysis coordinates the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of rapidly proliferating cells ( 4, 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is postulated that increased glycolysis during proliferation could counter a shift in the cellular redox environment facilitating progression through the cell cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These O XPHOS cells represent a prototype of cancer cell bioenergetics with mixed aerobic glycolysis and OXPHOS. (frontiersin.org)
  • We show in fact that PI3K activation induces, through the inactivation of AMPK, a coordinated repression of the expression of TCA cycle and respiratory genes, which favors aerobic glycolysis at the expense of OXPHOS. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 Such biology is exhibited by cells under hypoxic conditions and is also typical of many cancer cells, which exhibit increased glycolytic biology even in the presence of oxygen (which is called aerobic glycolysis). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Besides glycolysis in tumor cells glutaminolysis is another main pillar for energy production. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nearly all cancer cells, glycolysis has been seen to be highly elevated to meet their increased energy, biosynthesis, and redox needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study completed in 2008, inhibiting the malate-aspartate shuttle was found to impair the glycolysis process and essentially decreased breast adenocarcinoma cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, knocking down GOT2 and GOT1 has also been reported to inhibit cell proliferation and colony formation in pancreatic cancer cell lines, suggesting that the GOT enzyme is essential for maintaining a high rate of glycolysis to support rapid tumor cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology textbooks often state that 38 ATP molecules can be made per oxidised glucose molecule during cellular respiration (2 from glycolysis, 2 from the Krebs cycle, and about 34 from the electron transport system). (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Metformin decreases glucose oxidation and increases the dependency of prostate cancer cells on reductive glutamine metabolism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that metabolic activities play a significant role linking cellular metabolism to the cell-cycle regulatory machinery ( 3-7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, it is necessary to investigate cellular metabolism under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions at different light/dark cycles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to the dependence of autotrophically cultured cells on light energy, the light/dark cycle has a more remarkable influence on cellular metabolism under autotrophic conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabolism of cancer cells and recently also of stromal cells (endothelial cells, immune cells, fibroblasts) have emerged as critical hallmark in the (patho)physiology of organs in healthy and diseased tissue. (vibconferences.be)
  • Evidence indicates that metabolism not only co-determines the differentiation and function of cells, but it also contributes to the pathogenesis of cancer, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. (vibconferences.be)
  • With this international meeting we will focus on how cancer and stromal cells metabolically communicate and how their specific metabolism impacts disease development and progression. (vibconferences.be)
  • This meeting will bring together researchers from cancer metabolism and stromal cell metabolism fields. (vibconferences.be)
  • Highly proliferative conditions, such as embryonic development, tissue regeneration, lymphocyte activation, and neoplastic transformation, require a complex reorganization of energy metabolism to feed cell growth and division ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Metabolism is a biochemical activity of all cells, thought to fuel the physiologic needs of a given cell in a quantitative, rather than qualitatively specific, manner. (asmscience.org)
  • The combination of these two techniques gave valuable insights into cell metabolism and indicated that FLIM was more sensitive than traditional biochemical methods, as it directly measured metabolic changes within cells as compared to quantification of lactate secreted by metabolically active cells. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • Proliferating cells consume more glucose to cope with the bioenergetics and biosynthetic demands of rapidly dividing cells as well as to counter a shift in cellular redox environment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study investigates the hypothesis that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) regulates cellular redox flux and glucose consumption during the cell cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A direct correlation was observed between glucose consumption and percentage of S-phase cells in MnSOD wild-type fibroblasts, which was absent in MnSOD homozygous knockout fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Results from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and flow cytometric assays showed a significant increase in cellular superoxide levels in S-phase cells, which was associated with an increase in glucose and oxygen consumption, and a decrease in MnSOD activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • O XPHOS cells and glycolytic cells at 5 mM glucose decreased their reduced glutathione fraction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Animals use the energy released in the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to convert ADP to ATP, which can then be used to fuel necessary growth and cell maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, both glucose and glutamine increase GOT2 3K acetylation in Panc-1 cells and that GOT2 3K acetylation plays a critical role in coordinating glucose and glutamine uptake to provide energy and support cell proliferation and tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • Cell-wall containing organisms, such as plants, fungi, and bacteria, require very large amounts of carbohydrates during growth for the biosynthesis of complex structural polysaccharides, such as cellulose, glucans, and chitin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical energy stored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis, locomotion or transportation of molecules across cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Glycolytic flux upregulation at hypoxia was evidently matched by a higher activity of the Leloir pathway in O XPHOS cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • He was the pioneer scientist in study of cellular respiration, a biochemical pathway in cells for production of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway thus allows cells to obtain energy from fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways are required for the maintenance of homeostasis within an organism and the flux of metabolites through a pathway is regulated depending on the needs of the cell and the availability of the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coupled with an endergonic reaction of anabolism, the cell can synthesize new macromolecules using the original precursors of the anabolic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Normal cell proliferation is an orderly transition from quiescence (G 0 ) to proliferation (G 1 , S, G 2 , and M phases) and back to quiescence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Such an orderly transition is needed to maintain the regenerative capacity of cells and to avoid aberrant proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • GOT2 has been seen to have a role in cell proliferation, especially in terms of tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids, as well as the reducing agent NADH, that are used in numerous other biochemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reactions of the cycle also convert three equivalents of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into three equivalents of reduced NAD+ (NADH), one equivalent of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) into one equivalent of FADH2, and one equivalent each of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) into one equivalent of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although all chemical reactions are technically reversible, conditions in the cell are often such that it is thermodynamically more favorable for flux to flow in one direction of a reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although cellular respiration is technically a combustion reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs in a living cell because of the slow release of energy from the series of reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • OXPHOS
  • By analyzing the molecular and metabolic alterations found in thyroids from young, tumor-free Pten thyr−/− mice, we have discovered a novel mechanism responsible for the active repression of TCA cycle and OXPHOS in preneoplastic thyrocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • respiration
  • At normoxia, O XPHOS cell respiration was decreased down to ~15 and ~10% by the aminotransferase inhibitor aminooxyacetate (AOA) or with AOA plus the glutamate-dehydrogenase inhibitor bithionol, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to aglycemic cells, glycolytic HepG2 cells decreased their respiration at hypoxia despite the dm2OG presence, i.e., even at unlimited respiratory substrate availability for 72 hr at 5% O 2 , exhibiting the canonical HIF-mediated adaptation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases chemical energy to fuel cellular activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cycle allows seeds to use lipids as a source of energy to form the shoot during germination. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADP cycling supplies the energy needed to do work in a biological system, the thermodynamic process of transferring energy from one source to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • variation
  • In practical cases, light/dark cycling and temperature variation during the day occur simultaneously. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, studies about the combined effects of light/dark cycles and temperature variation on microalgal lipid production are of practical value, potentially providing significant guidelines for large-scale microalgal cultivation under natural conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the combined effects of temperature variation and light/dark cycle of 12 h/12 h on cell growth and lipid accumulation of microalgal mutant Z-4 were investigated under mixotrophic cultivation, and the results showed that biomass was mainly produced at higher temperatures during the day, and a portion of biomass was converted into lipid under dark condition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By combining temperature variation with optimal light/dark cycle of 12 h/12 h, this study will be of great significance for practical microalgae-biodiesel production in the outdoor conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tissues
  • The detection of a protein in unexpected locations within cells, cell types, or tissues may suggest that a protein has a moonlighting function. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • Its one of the first described electrogenic bacterium that performs complete oxidation of an organic substrate with electron transfer directly to the electrode in microbial fuel cell (MFC). (spie.org)
  • Warburg
  • Consequently, a wide acceptance of the irreversible and exclusive Warburg phenotype in cancer cells is incorrect. (frontiersin.org)
  • progression
  • PHD1 links cell-cycle progression to oxygen sensing through hydroxylation of the centrosomal protein Cep192. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • By modulating Cep192 levels, PHD1 thereby affects the processes of centriole duplication and centrosome maturation and contributes to the regulation of cell-cycle progression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These results support the hypothesis that MnSOD regulates a "metabolic switch" during progression from quiescent through the proliferative cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These previously published results support the hypothesis that a redox cycle within the cell cycle regulates progression from quiescent through the proliferative cycle ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • redox
  • The increase in glutathione during the cell cycle could be in response to a shift in the cellular redox environment toward a more oxidizing environment ( 11, 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The redox environment of mitotic cells is 3- to 4-fold more oxidizing than G 1 -cells ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • enzyme
  • ICL competes with isocitrate dehydrogenase, an enzyme found in the TCA cycle, for isocitrate processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • and proteins, the major structural and enzymatic component of cells. (biovision.com)
  • In bacteria that are pathogenic for animals, type III secretion systems allow extracellular bacteria adhering to the surface of a host cell to inject specialized proteins across the plasma membrane. (antievolution.org)
  • The injected proteins subvert the functioning of the aggressed cell or destroy its communications, favoring the entry or survival of the invading bacteria. (antievolution.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • These inherited changes to hemoglobin or other characteristic erythrocyte proteins which are critical and rather invariant features of mammalian biochemistry, usually result in some kind of anemia, a disease or defect of red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Very specific proteins coded by the DNA of the infectious organism as well as the host cells allow those steps to happen. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Many organisms (or cells) will use aerobic respiration primarily, however, if there is a limited oxygen supply they can utilize anaerobic respiration for survival. (wyzant.com)
  • Although there are some organisms (or cells) that always require anaerobic respiration and others that will always require aerobic respiration. (wyzant.com)
  • With the advancement in the molecular biology techniques, researchers have learnt to isolate, characterize, and manipulate the molecular components of cells and organisms. (biovision.com)
  • Rickettsial organisms are obligate intracellular parasites and invade vascular endothelial cells in target organs, damaging them and producing increased vascular permeability with consequent oedema, hypotension, and hypoalbuminaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eventually, unchecked replication causes the cells to burst, releasing the infectious organisms into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • after 6 h, bacterial microcolonies are no longer present, indicating that bacterial aggregation and dispersal occurs in vitro during EPEC adhesion to cultured epithelial cells. (antievolution.org)
  • To examine the role of BFP in EPEC aggregation and dispersal, we examined HEp-2 cell adhesion of strain E2348/69 and defined E2348/69 mutants by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. (antievolution.org)
  • prokaryotic
  • This was the first time that more than a single origin of DNA replication had been shown to be used in a prokaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulatory T Cel
  • Significant Roles of Regulatory T Cells and Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells in Hepatitis B Virus Persistent Infection and Hepatitis B Virus-Relate. (growkudos.com)
  • To ensure a robust placenta and sustainable pregnancy, an active state of maternal immune tolerance mediated by CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) is essential. (jci.org)
  • membranes
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • These alterations generally protect red blood cells from invasion by Plasmodium parasites or replication of parasites within the red blood cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • As cells die and toxic products of invasive organism replication accumulate, disease symptoms appear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of invading the host cell, hijacking the cellular machinery, replication and final release is a complicated set of steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhere
  • Clumps of malaria-infested red cells adhere to the endothelium and occlude the microcirculation of the brain with deadly consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thalassemic erythrocytes adhere to parasitized red cells much less readily than do their normal counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Several inherited variants in red blood cells have become common in parts of the world where malaria is frequent as a result of selection exerted by this parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Central to achievement of this goal is metabolic flexibility, wherein the heart shifts reliance from one substrate to another, in response to acute perturbations in workload and/or substrate availability (including feeding-fasting and sleep-wake cycles, which occur on a daily basis). (onlinejacc.org)
  • step
  • This allosteric regulation allows IDH3 to function as a rate-limiting step in the TCA cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutant
  • Global shotgun proteomic analysis of isogenic DLD-1 and RKO colon cancer cell lines expressing mutant and wild type KRAS or BRAF, respectively, failed to identify significant differences (at least 2-fold) in metabolic protein abundance. (mcponline.org)
  • flux
  • In the PTS - background, inactivation of PykA caused a reduction in Ppc and Pck cycling as well as a reduction in flux to TCA, whereas inactivation of PykF caused an increase in anaplerotic flux from PEP to OAA and an increased flux to TCA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • reduction
  • On the other hand, a reduction of glutamine correlates with phenotypical and functional differentiation of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • To prevent this wasteful process, plants increase the local CO2 concentration in a process called the C4 cycle. (wikipedia.org)