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  • pyruvate
  • For instance, cells incubated under Pi starvation conditions continue to metabolize glucose at a reduced rate, but eventually redirect the metabolic flux from the pyruvate dehydrogenase towards the RpoS-dependent pyruvate oxidase, PoxB, which directly converts pyruvate into acetic acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NADH competitively inhibits the activities of NAD + -IDH, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (although technically not a component of the TCA cycle, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is the entry point of glycolytically derived pyruvate into the TCA cycle). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Glutaminolysis (glutamine + -lysis) is a series of biochemical reactions by which the amino acid glutamine is lysed to glutamate, aspartate, CO2, pyruvate, lactate, alanine and citrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to low glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities, in tumor cells the conversion of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate mainly takes place via glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria
  • In all organisms except bacteria the TCA cycle is carried out in the matrix of intracellular structures called mitochondria . (britannica.com)
  • Therefore, the malate-aspartate shuttle promotes the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria to ensure a high rate of glycolysis in diverse cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase is firstly processed as a pro-protein or proenzyme, in which the transit peptide, whose role is to transport the enzyme to a specific organelle (in this case the mitochondria), comprises the first 39 amino acids (beginning with a methionine and ending with an alanine). (wikipedia.org)
  • When the enzyme is active, the product, malonyl-CoA, is produced which is a building block for new fatty acids and can inhibit the transfer of the fatty acyl group from acyl CoA to carnitine with carnitine acyltransferase, which inhibits the beta-oxidation of fatty acids in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • This study uses two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to investigate metabolic changes in MCF10A premalignant breast cancer cells treated with a range of glycolysis inhibitors: namely, 2 deoxy-D-glucose, oxythiamine, lonidamine, and 4-(chloromethyl) benzoyl chloride, as well as the mitochondrial membrane uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • During prolonged incubation of Escherichia coli K-12 in batch culture under aerobic, phosphate (Pi) starvation conditions, excess glucose is converted into acetic acid, which may trigger cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The TCA cycle plays a central role in the breakdown, or catabolism , of organic fuel molecules-i.e., glucose and some other sugars, fatty acids, and some amino acids. (britannica.com)
  • Warburg further demonstrated that even when sufficient oxygen was available, tumors used glycolysis to metabolize glucose to lactic acid [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Also, both glucose and glutamine increase GOT2 3K acetylation in Panc-1 cells and that GOT2 3K acetylation plays a critical role in coordinating glucose and glutamine uptake to provide energy and support cell proliferation and tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bypasses the decarboxylation steps that take place in the TCA cycle, allowing simple carbon compounds to be used in the later synthesis of macromolecules, including glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, malonic acid has been produced through fermentation of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than oxidizing glucose for ATP production, glucose in cancer cells tends to be used for anabolic processes, such as ribose production, protein glycosylation and serine synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This shift therefore demands that tumor cells implement an abnormally high rate of glucose uptake to meet their increased needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Although a few metabolic effects of metformin and the related biguanide phenformin have been investigated in established cancer cell lines, the global metabolic impact of biguanides during the process of neoplastic transformation and in CSCs is unknown. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The metabolic perturbators metformin, phenformin and AICAR interfere with the growth and survival of murine PTEN-deficient T cell lymphomas and human T-ALL/T-LL cancer cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a year was over at Freiburg, he, with a research student Kurt Henseleit, postulated the metabolic pathway for urea formation, now known as the ornithine cycle of urea synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flux through the TCA cycle in plant tissues can vary, depending on the metabolic requirements of the tissue. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Aerobic glycolysis is an important metabolic adaptation of cancer cells. (mdpi.com)
  • nucleic acid
  • Glutamine and its degradation products glutamate and aspartate are precursors for nucleic acid and serine synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virtually ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells, GOT2 nucleic acid and protein sequences are highly conserved, and its 5'regulatory regions in genomic DNA resemble those of typical house-keeping genes in that, e.g.,they lack a TATA box. (wikipedia.org)
  • malic acid
  • Application of malic acid caused the most stabile and the highest power generation in comparison with other investigated organic acids. (spie.org)
  • Hence the malic acid conversion via reductive stage of TCA cycle is shown to be the most efficient process in terms of electricity generation by D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 in MFC under anaerobic conditions. (spie.org)
  • amino acid
  • The conversion of the amino acid glutamine to α-ketoglutarate takes place in two reaction steps: 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acid sequence alignment of the two β subunit types reveals a homology of ~50% identity, with specific regions conserved throughout the sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polypeptide chain in the mature protein is comprised between amino acid 40 and 493. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last one, which consists of an acetylation in the amino acid lysine in position 472, activates malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, a deacetylation in this specific amino acid by SIRT4 (a mitochondrial protein) represses the enzyme activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another important PTM is the formation of an interchain disulfide bond in the amino acid cysteine in position 206, which may take place in peroxisomes, as the cytosolic and mitochondrial environments are too reducing for this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The fatty acids can be used for phospholipid synthesis or can be released. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pantothenic acid is used in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA). (wikipedia.org)
  • CoA is incidentally also required in the formation of ACP, which is also required for fatty acid synthesis in addition to CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The esters of malonic acid are also used as a −CH2COOH synthon in the malonic ester synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACC1 is found in the cytoplasm of all cells but is enriched in lipogenic tissue, such as adipose tissue and lactating mammary glands, where fatty acid synthesis is important. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Most of the energy obtained from the TCA cycle, however, is captured by the compounds nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and converted later to ATP. (britannica.com)
  • citation needed] Malonic acid is used as a building block chemical to produce numerous valuable compounds, including the flavor and fragrance compounds gamma-nonalactone, cinnamic acid, and the pharmaceutical compound valproate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fermentation is another process in which cells gain energy from organic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Metformin, a first-line diabetes drug linked to cancer prevention in retrospective clinical analyses, inhibits cellular transformation and selectively kills breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Metformin inhibits the inflammatory response associated with cellular transformation and cancer stem cell growth. (semanticscholar.org)
  • He was the pioneer scientist in study of cellular respiration , a biochemical process in living cells that extracts energy from food and oxygen and makes it available to drive the processes of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • malate
  • and, to end the cycle, (8) malate is oxidized to oxaloacetate. (britannica.com)
  • In a study completed in 2008, inhibiting the malate-aspartate shuttle was found to impair the glycolysis process and essentially decreased breast adenocarcinoma cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, a difference in ICL structure is the addition of approximately 100 amino acids near the center of the eukaryotic enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • These additional amino acids account for the difference in molecular mass: the prokaryotic ICL is 48kDa, while the eukaryotic ICL is 67 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The detection of a protein in unexpected locations within cells, cell types, or tissues may suggest that a protein has a moonlighting function. (wikipedia.org)
  • acetic acid
  • Both processes helped to maintain a residual activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which decreased the production of acetic acid and eventually allowed its re-consumption. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A classical preparation of malonic acid starts from chloroacetic acid: Sodium carbonate generates the sodium salt, which is then reacted with sodium cyanide to provide the cyano acetic acid salt via a nucleophilic substitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • Energy is produced in a number of steps in this cycle of reactions. (britannica.com)
  • The discovery of coenzyme A in 1945 by Fritz Lipmann and Nathan Kaplan allowed researchers to work out the cycle of reactions as it is known today. (britannica.com)
  • Since the complete TCA cycle catalyzes two decarboxylative reactions, the quantitative conversion of lipid to Suc can occur only if certain TCA cycle reactions are bypassed. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids, as well as the reducing agent NADH, that are used in numerous other biochemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reactions of the cycle also convert three equivalents of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into three equivalents of reduced NAD+ (NADH), one equivalent of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) into one equivalent of FADH2, and one equivalent each of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) into one equivalent of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • The regulation of the TCA cycle bypass during lipid mobilization was examined. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It is concluded that posttranscriptional regulation of NAD + -isocitrate dehydrogenase activity is one mechanism of restricting carbon flux through the decarboxylative section of the TCA cycle during lipid mobilization in germinating oilseeds. (plantphysiol.org)
  • NADH
  • For each turn of the TCA cycle, three molecules of NAD + are reduced to NADH and one molecule of FAD is reduced to FADH 2 . (britannica.com)
  • Most of the energy made available by the oxidative steps of the cycle is transferred as energy-rich electrons to NAD+, forming NADH. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycolysis
  • Besides glycolysis in tumor cells glutaminolysis is another main pillar for energy production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, knocking down GOT2 and GOT1 has also been reported to inhibit cell proliferation and colony formation in pancreatic cancer cell lines, suggesting that the GOT enzyme is essential for maintaining a high rate of glycolysis to support rapid tumor cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • High amount of aerobic glycolysis (also known as the Warburg effect) distinguishes cancer cells from normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • maintains
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastasized ovarian tumors use fatty acids for their energy needs. (mdpi.com)
  • The development of moonlighting proteins may be evolutionarily favorable to the organism since a single protein can do the job of multiple proteins conserving amino acids and energy required to synthesize these proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Content of pantothenic acid varies among manufactured and natural foods, especially fortified ready-to-eat cereals, infant formulas, energy bars and dried foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cycle allows seeds to use lipids as a source of energy to form the shoot during germination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonic acid was listed as one of the top 30 chemicals to be produced from biomass by the US Department of Energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • acetate
  • The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) detected in D. hydrogenophilus consist of a wide variety of structures, including normal, branched and unsaturated FAME 14 to 19 carbon atoms long, with a greater variety of FAME when grown with acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • Hypoxanthine injection decreased the percentage of cells with mitochondrial membrane label and increased mitochondrial membrane potential labeling. (springer.com)
  • Our findings show that intrastriatal hypoxanthine administration altered neuroenergetic parameters, and caused mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death by apoptosis, suggesting that these processes may be associated, at least in part, with neurological symptoms found in patients with Lesch-Nyhan Disease. (springer.com)
  • It is suggested that KYNA synthesized by GOT2 could constitute a common, and mechanistically relevant, feature of the neurotoxicity caused by mitochondrial poisons, such as otenone, malonate, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and 3-nitropropionic acid. (wikipedia.org)