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  • Middle America
  • Various additional testing were performed, however the earliest date that carbon 14 testing came up with regarding the stone images was the year 291 B.C. As more diggings were performed in Middle America, larger heads were discovered (24 tons - average sum of the weight). (wordpress.com)
  • Ancient Middle America civilization or 'Meso-America' antiquity is divided into three epochs: Archaic (before Christ), Classic (during the first thousands years A.D), and Post Classic (from one thousand A.D to the Spanish Conquest). (wordpress.com)
  • 1998
  • Printed Sources: A Guide to Published Genealogical Records'' (Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1998). (ancestry.com)
  • The Website of the Oneida Indian Nation in the State of New York was, reputedly, the first site to be launched by any indigenous body anywhere, coming online in 1994 even before the Website for the White House, at a time when there were perhaps only 5,000 Internet sites in total (Polly 1998). (udg.mx)
  • 8,000
  • This information is invaluable because discoveries of skeletal evidence in North America that are more than 8,000 radiocarbon years old are not only rare but usually incomplete. (wsws.org)
  • inhabitants
  • Meso-America archeology provides enough data to suggest that these inhabitants were a high status group with the presence of elite leaders, a military force, a political hierarchy, and quite obviously or at least sensibly, a penal system as opposed to a primitive tribal culture's vigilante' methods of punishment. (wordpress.com)
  • white ancestry
  • The backstory here is that in the 19th century abolitionists realized that Northerners might be more horrified as to the nature of slavery if they could find children of mostly white ancestry, who nevertheless were born to slave mothers (and therefore were slaves themselves). (gnxp.com)
  • Public rhetoric and published essays by Professor Haunani-Kay Trask are filled with vicious anti-white racism (Note #3), despite the obvious fact that she has a substantial amount of white ancestry and that her long-time boy-toy is white. (angelfire.com)
  • 1800s
  • From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. (familysearch.org)
  • Most of these tribes were eliminated from Kentucky by about the early 1800s either through warfare or resettlement to other territories by the federal government. (familysearch.org)
  • Alaska Native
  • Of this group, 2.9 million identified themselves only as "American Indian" or "Alaska Native. (prrac.org)
  • 20 minutes for each speaker followed by 15 minutes of questioning by the Advisory Committee) 1 Briefing Binder from 2nd Hearing of the Advisory Committee of the Attorney General's Task Force on American Indian/Alaska Native Children Exposed to Violence. (docplayer.net)
  • Her 2008 policy brief, A Tangled Web of Justice: American Indian and Alaska Native Youth in Federal, State, and Tribal Justice Systems (co authored with Neelum Arya), remains one of the most important national assessments of Native youth and juvenile justice. (docplayer.net)
  • enrollment
  • For various reasons (political, historical, cultural, economic and more) just about every Native American Tribe has a cut-off or fine line for establishing an ancestral line and the requirements for enrollment can be even more demanding. (powwows.com)
  • Even some full-blooded Native Americans lack enough of any one tribe's heritage to qualify for enrollment. (hcn.org)
  • As more and more children are born with blood that doesn't measure up, tribes across the West are taking a look at their enrollment requirements. (hcn.org)
  • FLAGSTAFF, Ariz. - Jon Rios traces his ancestry to the Pima people of Arizona, but he has no tribal enrollment card and lives hundreds of miles away in Colorado. (deseretnews.com)
  • Within tribes, enrollment also means being able to seek office, vote in tribal elections and secure property rights. (deseretnews.com)
  • Degree of blood became a widely used standard for tribal enrollment in the 1930s when the federal government encouraged tribes to have written constitutions. (deseretnews.com)
  • Many tribes that adopted constitutions under the Indian Reorganization Act, and even those that did not, changed enrollment requirements. (deseretnews.com)
  • centuries
  • Their captive forebears were Native Americans - slaves frequently known as Genízaros (pronounced heh-NEE-sah-ros) who were sold to Hispanic families when the region was under Spanish control from the 16th to 19th centuries. (nytimes.com)
  • For centuries, a person's percentage of Native American blood had nothing to do with determining who was a tribal member. (deseretnews.com)
  • Siberia
  • Other historians speculate that the people who populated Meso-America were Mongoloid people who crossed over between Siberia and Alaska and were called, Paleosiberian, or "Ice Hunters. (wordpress.com)
  • cultures
  • Understanding these old cultures requires understanding the system of principles or rules that gave meaning and shared values to members of each tribe. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As of 2002, scholars were employing more complete records, both written and unwritten, and were producing books that revealed a more complete look at Native American cultures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • On the Gray Line tour New Mexico may be the Land of Enchantment, with a charming mixture of piñon smoke and three cultures -- Native American, Anglo, and Hispano. (theatlantic.com)
  • treaties
  • Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government. (familysearch.org)
  • From 1778 to 1871, the Indigenous nations, of what is now referred to as the United States of America, negotiated and signed nearly 400 treaties with this nation. (prrac.org)
  • racial
  • 'Black Indians: An American Story' (as seen on ABC) brings to light a hidden heritage of America's past ‐ the cultural and racial fusion of Native and African Americans. (richheape.com)
  • Black Indians: An American Story," explores the issue of racial identity among Native and African Americans. (richheape.com)
  • Black Indians: An American Story" is a distinguished documentary which presents the rarely-told story of the racial fusion of Native and African-Americans. (richheape.com)
  • If you read Daniel Walker Howe's excellent What Hath God Wrought you observe that racial beliefs about the necessity and institutionalization of white supremacy in the early American republic evolved over time. (gnxp.com)
  • Melungeons a "tri-racial" group of Indian, and possibly Portuguese, and possibly African mix. (familysearch.org)
  • Her 2011 article, The Promise of Mancari: Indian Political Rights as Racial Remedy, focused on bridging gaps between civil rights law, federal Indian law, and indigenous rights. (docplayer.net)
  • Apaches
  • Apache Indians (probably from ápachu, 'enemy,' the Zuñi name for the Navaho, who were designated "Apaches de Nabaju" by the early Spaniards in New Mexico). (accessgenealogy.com)
  • earliest
  • In regards to the monolith stone heads, they are representations of supernatural or super humanoid beings as the earliest civilization of ancient America. (wordpress.com)
  • Interest in this subject is far from new as it has been a subject of writings as far back as the 17th Century for those seeking family heritage from the earliest of movement of Native American Nations at the onset of White Contact and beyond. (powwows.com)
  • Pacific Northwest
  • [ 9 ] Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats , they migrated down the Pacific Northwest coast to South America . (thefullwiki.org)
  • In this Oct. 17, 2018 photo, Nicole Willis, left, a member of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation who lives in Seattle, listens to speakers at a rally in Lacey, Wash. Willis grew up hours away from the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation in the Pacific Northwest, which she calls home. (deseretnews.com)
  • slavery
  • Indian Slavery Once Thrived in New Mexico. (nytimes.com)
  • New Mexico, which had the largest number of sedentary Indians north of central Mexico, emerged as a coveted domain for slavers almost as soon as the Spanish began settling here in the 16th century, according to Andrés Reséndez, a historian who details the trade in his 2016 book, "The Other Slavery. (nytimes.com)
  • Seeking to strengthen the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery in 1865, Congress passed the Peonage Act of 1867 after learning of propertied New Mexicans owning hundreds and perhaps thousands of Indian slaves, mainly Navajo women and children. (nytimes.com)
  • 1996
  • Without making any effort to investigate the facts or the tribes' claims, the Corps therefore agreed to prevent further scientific study of the remains and announced that the skeleton would be handed over to a coalition of four tribes on October 24, 1996. (wsws.org)
  • ancestor
  • at about 10 generations back you are about 50% likely to inherit zero blocks of genomic ancestry from a given ancestor (assuming no inbreeding in the pedigree obviously). (gnxp.com)
  • authorize
  • To expand Hawai'i's institutional racism and defend it against legal attacks, politicians have introduced legislation in Congress (the Akaka bill) to authorize a phony new Indian tribe to be created out of thin air, whose only rule for membership is possession of a drop of Hawaiian blood. (angelfire.com)
  • 19th
  • Though the economic inequalities of American society persisted through the 19th century, men such as Andrew Jackson affected a more populist and rough-hewn persona than the aristocratic presidents of the early 19th century. (gnxp.com)
  • Census
  • Census enumerations were taken regularly, though not annually, by Indian agents on each reservation from 1885 to 1940. (ancestry.com)
  • In the 1910 census , a special Indian schedule is sometimes found at the end of regular population schedules for some counties. (ancestry.com)
  • heritage
  • A society that wants to build the future must know its origin, its real Native American heritage, as it was. (richheape.com)
  • they're just recognizing their Indian heritage. (richheape.com)
  • The Neville Brothers have been told all their lives that they have American Indian heritage. (richheape.com)
  • But despite his traditional roots and his Native heritage, Ryan may be one of the last of the Comes Last line allowed to enroll as a member of the Fort Peck Tribe. (hcn.org)
  • The clash between the Massachusetts Democratic senator and President Donald Trump over her Native American heritage highlights the varying methods tribes use to determine who belongs - a decision that has wide-ranging consequences. (deseretnews.com)
  • blood
  • I don't have a drop of Native Amercian Blood, or African American Blood. (city-data.com)
  • I've always been told I have some Indian blood and I think I probably do along with French, German, and Irish. (city-data.com)
  • All tribes have different rules, including blood quantum and often other insurmountable rules to join, so you'll need to contact the tribe in question. (nativeheritageproject.com)
  • While this may not be enough Indian blood to brag about, I am frankly more excited about it that my relationship to the President. (mendosa.com)
  • In general, Native Americans cannot enroll in more than one tribe at a time, and for those tribes that require a particular percentage of Native blood, the parameters vary. (hcn.org)
  • If he marries outside of his tribe -- whether with a non-Native or, say, a full-blooded Chippewa -- his children will have a blood quantum of only three-eighths at Fort Peck. (hcn.org)
  • The only way Ryan can avoid watering down his Fort Peck blood is to marry within the tribe. (hcn.org)
  • It's generally assumed that 75% of all persons with any Hawaiian native ancestry have less that 25% native blood quantum. (angelfire.com)
  • Some tribes rely on blood relationships, or 'blood quantum,' to confer membership. (deseretnews.com)
  • The blood quantum often was determined in crude ways such as sending anthropologists and federal agents to inspect Native Americans' physical features, like hair, skin color and nose shape. (deseretnews.com)
  • For example, NV 1910 lists tribe, tribe of father, tribe of mother, proportion of Native American blood, and number of times married. (ancestry.com)
  • These include the names of all children between six and eighteen years of age, and their sex, tribe, degree of Native American blood, distance from home to the school, parent or guardian, and attendance during the year. (ancestry.com)
  • These beleaguered New Mexicans call themselves Hispanos -- not Chicanos, because that word signifies Mexicans, which in turn implies an admixture of Indian blood, and not Hispanics or Latinos, broad terms that also leave open the possibility of descent from Native Americans, whether from Mexico or the United States. (theatlantic.com)