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  • donor
  • Pretreatment with donor alloantigen under the cover of anti-CD4 therapy generates alloantigen reactive T reg cells that can prevent rejection of donor-specific skin grafts that are mediated by naive CD45RB high CD4 + T cells. (rupress.org)
  • To examine the kinetics and importance of cytokine gene transcription by such alloantigen-reactive T reg cells, pretreated mice were rechallenged with donor alloantigen in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • These data support a unique role for IFN- γ in the functional activity of alloantigen-reactive T reg cells during the development of operational tolerance to donor alloantigens in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • T reg cells can play a major role during the induction and maintenance of operational tolerance to donor alloantigens in vivo ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • We showed previously that pretreatment with donor-specific transfusion in combination with anti-CD4 therapy generated donor-specific CD4 + T reg cells that can suppress rejection of skin grafts mediated by naive CD45RB high CD4 + T cells ( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • This pretreatment protocol results in long-term survival and induction of operational tolerance to blood donor-specific-B10-but not third-party allografts transplanted on day 0 ( 12 ). (rupress.org)
  • The Slashdot headline neglected to mention that they synthesised an embryo from adult human skin cells - so it's 100% genetically compatible with the donor. (slashdot.org)
  • A cloned cell should be identical to its donor, but the probe found that of 48 common genetic variations, or markers, present in the 2004 cells, eight did not match their apparent donor. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In somatic cell nuclear transfer ("SCNT"), the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken from a donor and transplanted into a host egg cell, which had its own genetic material removed previously, making it an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, a significant fraction of Kaposi's sarcoma occurring after transplantation may be due to tumorous outgrowth of donor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This therapy would also eliminate the need for donor hair, as it can be simply grown from the patient's own cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Texas A&M University cloned a Black Angus bull named 86 Squared in 2000, after cells from his donor, Bull 86, had been frozen for 15 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • These features are key factors for successful stem cell transplantations that are used in cancer patients and in gene therapy protocols. (rupress.org)
  • Somatic cell therapy refers to efforts to correct the functioning of a defective gene in an individual's body cells or to replace it and thus cure the disease that it causes. (apologeticspress.org)
  • A ) In vivo hematopoietic cell clone tracking data for five retrospectively analyzed pig-tailed macaques followed for more than 2 years after myeloablative transplant of lentivirus gene-modified autologous CD34 + cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Gene, the first cloned calf in the world was born in 1997 at the American Breeders Service facilities in Deforest, Wisconsin, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Michael Houghton - co-discoverer of hepatitis C Tak Wah Mak - first to identify and clone T-cell receptor genes Joseph B. Martin (MD '62) - member of the team that discovered a biomarker that led to locating the gene associated with Huntington's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fibroblasts were engineered so that any cells reactivating the ESC-specific gene, Fbx15, could be isolated using antibiotic selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • One feature of chronic rejection is the infiltration of ectopic B-cell clusters that are clonal into the transplanted kidney. (pnas.org)
  • Recently we prepared combinatorial antibody libraries from these infiltrating B-cell clusters and showed that they are clonal. (pnas.org)
  • induced MALT lymphomas as a precedent because studies of their pathogenesis has taught us that the sustained interaction between bacteria and/or their products and immunocompent cells in a confined space can lead to clonal proliferation of B-cells and even malignancy. (pnas.org)
  • 91% of the chick clones recovered from transplants were muscle clones, and of these 97% were CMR-I. It was concluded that CMR-I myoblasts do not undergo a change in differentiated state identifiable by clonal analysis. (biologists.org)
  • Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The new finding brings a measure of closure to a story that first rocked the science world in February 2004, when Hwang and colleagues at Seoul National University announced they had cloned a female donor's cell by transferring its nucleus into one of her egg cells stripped of its nucleus in a procedure known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and harvested embryonic stem cells from the resulting fusion. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the hybrid cell was cultured, and developed into an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process involves sucking out the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell and injecting it into an oocyte that has had its nucleus removed Using an approach based on the protocol outlined by Tachibana et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • They transplanted a nucleus from an antibody-producing lymphocyte (proof that it was fully differentiated) into an enucleated egg and obtained living tadpoles. (wikipedia.org)
  • bald scalp
  • However it was discovered that the follicles are not entirely absent, as there are stem cells in the bald scalp from which the follicles naturally arise. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic idea of hair cloning is that healthy follicle cells or dermal papillae can be extracted from the subject from areas that are not bald and are not suffering hair loss, they can be multiplied (cloned) by various culturing methods and the newly produced cells can be injected back in the bald scalp, where they would act healthy and produce hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • hair transplant
  • The Farjo Hair Institute exclusively offers hair transplant surgery and hair restoration medicine with offices in Manchester and London, and is one of the world's leading hair transplant clinics. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is considered to be an expert in the field of hair transplant surgery and hair restoration medicine, and is regularly quoted in the media. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both Bessam and Nilofer Farjo are recognised by their peers as the only British hair transplant surgeons to make regular, educational contributions at international congresses and meetings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hair Transplant Community. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolly
  • INCOSC comprises the Roslin Institute (University of Edinburgh, Scotland) which originally cloned Dolly, the sheep, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peking University, Sichuan University, the Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine, and two anonymous contributors. (hubpages.com)
  • Everyone remembers Dolly, no-one really notices the hundreds of other sheep clones that didn't survive. (slashdot.org)
  • While employing "stressed" body cells (e.g., mammary gland cells from an adult, such as those used to clone Dolly the sheep) has no ethical overtones (when used in non-human cloning procedures), the use of certain human stem cells does. (apologeticspress.org)
  • identical
  • CEO, Xu Xiaochun, educated at Canadian and American universities, plans to produce cloned beef using genetically identical super-cattle to cater to the hugely successful Chinese middle class who enjoy the taste of Kobe beef. (hubpages.com)
  • With cloning, all meat will be identical. (hubpages.com)
  • Phillip had Melvin cloned about two years ago, and he now has two identical dogs - Ken Gordon, named after his uncle, and Henry Fontenot, named after his friend - with the same traits and characteristics as Melvin. (hubpages.com)
  • Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy (or clone) of a human. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two mechanisms exist to ensure that a stem cell population is maintained: Obligatory asymmetric replication: a stem cell divides into one mother cell that is identical to the original stem cell, and another daughter cell that is differentiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stochastic differentiation: when one stem cell develops into two differentiated daughter cells, another stem cell undergoes mitosis and produces two stem cells identical to the original. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects, plants or animals reproduce asexually. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • The only region in which chick nuclei appeared at significantly greater frequency than in control tissue was the dorsal thigh muscle, the region into which the cloned chick cells were placed originally. (biologists.org)
  • hESCs can be generated by SCNT using dermal fibroblasts nuclei from both a middle-aged 35-year-old male and an elderly, 75-year-old male, suggesting that age-associated changes are not necessarily an impediment to SCNT-based nuclear reprogramming of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work was an important extension of work of Briggs and King in 1952 on transplanting nuclei from embryonic blastula cells and the successful induction of polyploidy in the stickleback, Gasterosteus aculatus, in 1956 by Har Swarup reported in Nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • At that time he could not conclusively show that the transplanted nuclei derived from a fully differentiated cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Since LPS is a costimulatory immunogen that can react with both the B-cell receptor (BCR) and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), these results suggest a mechanism for the selective pressure that leads to clonality of these B-cell clusters and opens the possibility that infection and the attendant exposure to LPS plays a role in the chronic rejection of human kidney transplants. (pnas.org)
  • LPS is an immunogen that can react with both the B-cell receptor (BCR) and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). (pnas.org)
  • This cytokine is found to be a cofactor for V(D)J rearrangement of the T cell receptor beta (TCRß) during early T cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout mice which genetically lack IL-7 receptor exhibit thymic atrophy, arrest of T-cell development at the double positive stage, and severe lymphopenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to a cytokine called IL-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three receptor chains are expressed separately and differently on various cell types and can assemble in different combinations and orders to generate low, intermediate, and high affinity IL-2 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • and all three receptor chains form a complex that binds IL-2 with high affinity (Kd ~ 10−11 M) on activated T cells and regulatory T cells The intermediate and high affinity receptor forms are functional and cause changes in the cell when IL-2 binds to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three IL-2 receptor chains span the cell membrane and extend into the cell, thereby delivering biochemical signals to the cell interior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the concentration of IL-2 and its receptor available determines the tempo, magnitude and extent of T cell immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-2 and its receptor have key roles in key functions of the immune system, tolerance and immunity, primarily via their direct effects on T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to an immunology textbook: "IL-2 is particularly important historically, as it is the first type I cytokine that was cloned, the first type I cytokine for which a receptor component was cloned, and was the first short-chain type I cytokine whose receptor structure was solved. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Two commonly discussed types of theoretical human cloning are: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of April 2017[update]. (wikipedia.org)
  • these are the "holy grail" that would be useful for therapeutic or reproductive cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the iPSC technology has not yet advanced to a stage where therapeutic transplants have been deemed safe, iPSCs are readily being used in personalized drug discovery efforts and understanding the patient-specific basis of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • We now report that the antibodies produced by the B-cells within these clusters, as well as those in the serum of patients who were rejecting transplants, react strongly with the core carbohydrate epitopes of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (pnas.org)
  • The frequency of neutropenia ranges from 41% to 58% in stem cell transplant (SCT) patients treated with ganciclovir. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These patients may develop infectious mononucleosis-like lesions or polyclonal polymorphic B-cell hyperplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in immunosuppressed transplant patients, the lack of T-cell immunosurveillance can lead to the proliferation of these EBV-infected of B-lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A human study of IL-7 in patients with cancer demonstrated that administration of this cytokine can transiently disrupt the homeostasis of both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells with a commensurate decrease in the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Associated with antiretroviral therapy, IL-7 administration decreased local and systemic inflammations in patients that had incomplete T-cell reconstitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, cytomegalovirus-specific T cells have been enriched to high levels of purity using magnetic bead-based enrichment for use as a therapy for stem cell transplant patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • 100,000
  • Sooam plans on selling cloned pet dogs to grieving owners at $100,000 each. (hubpages.com)
  • In 2015 the Chinese company BoyaLife announced that in partnership with the Korean company Sooam Biotech, they were planning to build a factory in Tianjin, China to produce 100,000 cloned cattle per year, starting in 2016 to supply China's growing market for quality beef. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Who is Cloning Humans? (hubpages.com)
  • Depending on who you talk to, cloning of humans is now more an ethical than technical dilemma. (hubpages.com)
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • The restoration of cellular immunity to CMV is necessary in order to prevent viral reactivation, and the generation of cytotoxic T cells against CMV early antigens is perhaps the most important part of the host immune response to CMV. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • MHC multimers allow for ex vivo selection and proliferation of T-cells specific to viral or tumor-related antigens, which can then be reintroduced to augment the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • The Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics in the United States helped set up the Hinxton Group , a collaboration of British and American scientists determining the ethical and moral structures of stem cell research. (hubpages.com)
  • I have this vision of the scientists keeping the cell cultures separate by placing them into separate waffle holes. (slashdot.org)
  • Scientists have created prototypes made out of cells extracted from women's bodies. (greatdreams.com)
  • Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013, a group of scientists led by Shoukhrat Mitalipov published the first report of embryonic stem cells created using SCNT. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first time scientists were able to grow artificial hair follicles from stem cells was in 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists of the Berlin Technical University in Germany took animal cells and created the follicles by using them. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011 scientists from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine published their own findings regarding hair cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, scientists at Texas A&M University created the first cloned cat, CC (CopyCat). (wikipedia.org)
  • A cloned male buffalo calf Shresth was born in 2010 at the NDRI In May 2010, Got became the first cloned Spanish Fighting Bull, cloned by Spanish scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2016 scientists at the National University Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza in Chachapoyas, Peru cloned a Jersey cattle by handmade cloning method using cells of an ear of a cow. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • In 1989, he was a founding member of the Wellcome/CRC Institute for Cell Biology and Cancer (later Wellcome/CR UK) in Cambridge, and was its Chair until 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • A purebred Hereford calf clone named Chloe was born in 2001 at Kansas State University's purebred research unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Millie and Emma were two female Jersey cows cloned at the University of Tennessee in 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, Brazil cloned their first heifer, Vitória. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • You basically just have to pluck a cell off of it and you're done as long as it is done before differentiation. (slashdot.org)
  • Progenitors are obtained by so-called direct reprogramming or directed differentiation and are also called induced somatic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This meant that the cells can change their differentiation pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila imaginal discs, cells have to choose from a limited number of standard discrete differentiation states. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that transdetermination (change of the path of differentiation) often occurs for a group of cells rather than single cells shows that it is induced rather than part of maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the thymus, where T cells mature, they prevent autoimmune diseases by promoting the differentiation of certain immature T cells into regulatory T cells, which kill off other T cells that are primed to attack normal healthy cells in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-2/IL2R also promotes the differentiation of T cells into effector T cells and into memory T cells when the initial T cells is also stimulated by an antigen, thus helping the body fight off infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically matched
  • The claim went up in smoke in January of 2006 after a probe by the university concluded that Hwang had fabricated the evidence, which followed a similarly damning assessment of a landmark paper from the previous year in which the group falsely reported creating 11 cell lines genetically matched to their donors. (scientificamerican.com)
  • So, using presently available in vitro fertilization techniques, they set out intentionally to create a "genetically matched" brother or sister for Molly-with the specific goal of using the newborn's stem cells (derived from the umbilical-cord blood shortly after birth) to treat Molly's condition. (apologeticspress.org)
  • isolate
  • MHC multimers are oligomeric forms of MHC molecules, designed to identify and isolate T-cells with high affinity to specific antigens amid a large group of unrelated T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These backbones are conjugated with fluorochromes to subsequently isolate bound T-cells via flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell th
  • This article will address gender reassignment surgery, stem cell therapy and research, cloning, face transplants, and cancer treatment and research. (thailawforum.com)
  • Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is the only form of stem-cell therapy that is widely practiced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another stem-cell therapy called Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host disease in children who are unresponsive to steroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among several clinical trials that have reported that adult stem-cell therapy is safe and effective, powerful effects have been reported from only a few laboratories, infarcts as well as heart failure not arising from myocardial infarction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cell therapy for treating heart disease was commercially available in at least five continents as of 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • autologous cells
  • By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • The disease is an uncontrolled proliferation of B cell lymphocytes latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] It also stimulates proliferation of all cells in the lymphoid lineage (B cells, T cells and NK cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] It is important for proliferation during certain stages of B-cell maturation, T and NK cell survival, development and homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules
  • Molecules found in a balanced diet, needed for growth and repair of cells. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • The molecules and exosomes released from stem cells are also being studied in an effort to make medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC tetramers were originally developed using MHC class I molecules for the recognition of cytotoxic T cells, but over the last decade they have allowed for the recognition of CD4 T cells by a wide variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • the generation and function of alloantigen-reactive T reg cells was impaired dramatically in IFN- γ -deficient mice. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, neutralization experiments and studies with IFN-γ-deficient mice reveal an important role of IFN-γ production for the generation and the function of alloantigen reactive T reg cells in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Cibotti R, Churaqui E, Bolonaki-Tsilivakos D, ScottAlgara O, Halle P, Kosmatopoulos K (1989): Specific inhibition of hybrid resistance in F1 hybrid mice pretreated with parent-strain spleen cells. (springer.com)
  • Cudkowicz G, Stimpfling JH (1964a): Deficient growth of C57BL marrow cells transplanted in F1 hybrid mice. (springer.com)
  • A series of genetic markers sprinkled throughout the cells' chromosomes show the same pattern found in parthenogenetic mice as opposed to cloned mice, according to a report published online today in the journal Cell Stem Cell . (scientificamerican.com)
  • citation needed] Knockout studies in mice suggested that this cytokine plays an essential role in lymphoid cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetramer variants have been developed that, either radiolabelled or coupled to a toxin such as saporin, can be injected into live mice to modulate or even deplete specific T cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the first generation of iPSCs, these second generation iPSCs produced viable chimeric mice and contributed to the mouse germline, thereby achieving the 'gold standard' for pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The mechanism of chronic rejection of transplanted human kidneys is unknown. (pnas.org)
  • In the case of transplanted human kidneys, a search for the antigen(s) that drives the replication of the B-cells that have infiltrated the allograft should be simpler because one knows the perturbations that initiated the process. (pnas.org)
  • Boyalife factory in China now has the technology to clone human beings. (hubpages.com)
  • Boyalife's South Korean partner, Sooam, has set up in China in order to avoid Korea's bioethics laws which ban the use of human eggs in stem cell research. (hubpages.com)
  • CEO Xu states that there is very little difference between cloning a primate and cloning a human being. (hubpages.com)
  • He also states that the only reason that Boyalife is not yet involved in cloning human life is that the possible backlash against the lab would be financially damaging. (hubpages.com)
  • Sounds more like making breakfast than human cloning. (slashdot.org)
  • There will be an equal number of subjects (10) receiving transplants from 3-5/6 Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Matched Donors as those receiving transplants from 6/6 HLA Matched Donors for a total of 20 subjects on study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • This would have been the first major breakthrough in human cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this experiment, the researchers developed a protocol for using SCNT in human cells, which differs slightly from the one used in other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, they produced follicles "thinner than normal", but they were confident they could develop the right method of cloning hair from human stem cells by 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • This controversy is often related to abortion politics and to human cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery
  • A man who had a terminal disease decided to get a whole body transplant surgery, removing his brain from his original body and transplanting it to a new brainless body, which was cloned from his cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It turns out that the surgery was splitting his brain into 2 pieces and transplanting them into 2 different bodies, to achieve the safer result from the redundancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jonathan White - co-founder of Surgery 101 podcast and National 3M Teaching Fellow Arya Sharma - Canadian obesity expert Lori West - Canada Research Chair in Cardiac Transplatation and director of the Canada National Transplant Research Program. (wikipedia.org)
  • rejection
  • An understanding of this process is important because, chronic rejection ultimately leads to loss of the kidney allograft in most transplants. (pnas.org)
  • In this model, T reg cells are contained predominantly in the CD25 + fraction, because equivalent numbers of CD25 − CD4 + T cells were unable to prevent rejection. (rupress.org)
  • He subsequently postulated that the antigenic determinants recognized during the rejection are expressed on parental and not on F1 hybrid cells and hence must be inherited noncodominantly (Cudkowicz and Stimpfling, 1964). (springer.com)
  • Intercytex
  • These include collaborations with University of London (including hair and oxidative stress), University of Bradford (including Minoxidil mechanism of action), University of Manchester, Durham University, Intercytex plc (hair cell cloning and cell therapy) and Unilever plc. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the first companies to begin experiment with hair cloning was Intercytex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intercytex tried to clone new hair follicles from the stem cells harvested from the back of the neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008 Intercytex admitted that they failed in fully developing the hair cloning therapy and decided to discontinue all research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another firm researching hair cloning was ARI (Aderans Research Institute), a Japanese company which operated in the USA and was the greatest competitor of Intercytex in developing the therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • The significance of cytokine production by CD4 + regulatory T (T reg) cells after antigen exposure in vivo and its impact on their regulatory activity remains unclear. (rupress.org)
  • CD25 + CD4 + T cells, but not CD25 − CD4 + T cells, showed a fivefold increase in IFN- γ mRNA expression within 24 h of reencountering alloantigen in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, the kinetics and functional significance of cytokine expression by T reg cells after in vivo antigen stimulation require clarification. (rupress.org)
  • The goal of our present study was to follow cytokine expression by alloantigen-reactive T reg cells after in vivo alloantigen stimulation and to evaluate its functional significance. (rupress.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that in contrast to findings after ex vivo or in vitro stimulation, CD25 + CD4 + T cells transiently up-regulate IFN-γ mRNA expression after alloantigen exposure in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • The first goal of this study was to determine the kinetics of cytokine mRNA expression by alloantigen-reactive T reg cells after alloantigen exposure in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC multimers may also be used to eliminate harmful or unwanted T-cells in vivo, such as those that target self cells and lead to autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Targeted deletion and lipidomic analysis identify epithelial cell COX-2 as a major driver of chemically induced skin cancer. (lipidmaps.org)
  • This cytokine can be produced locally by intestinal epithelial and epithelial goblet cells, and may serve as a regulatory factor for intestinal mucosal lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • follicle
  • Regardless of the harvesting technique, proper extraction of the hair follicle is paramount to ensure the viability of the transplanted hair and avoid transection, the cutting of the hair shaft from the hair follicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • autologous stem cell trans
  • Treatment with LentiGlobin® is given as an autologous stem cell transplant. (healthcanal.com)
  • It is approved for use in: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) (brentuximab vedotin) after failure of autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) HL in patients who are not ASCT candidates after failure of at least 2 multiagent chemotherapy regimens Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL) after failure of at least 1 multiagent chemotherapy regimen CD30 has been shown to interact with TRAF5, TRAF1, TRAF2 and TRAF3. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryo
  • France prohibits reproductive cloning and embryo creation for research purposes, but enacted laws (with a sunset provision expiring in 2009) to allow scientists to conduct stem cell research on imported a large amount of embryos from in vitro fertilization treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory strategy for creating a viable embryo from a body cell and an egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development will ensue normally and after many mitotic divisions, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with an identical genome to the original organism (i.e. a clone). (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain pluripotent cells from a cloned embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the mouse, primordial germ cells (PGCs) arise in the posterior primitive streak of the embryo and start to migrate around 6.25 days after conception. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian PGCs are specified by signalling between cells (induction), rather than by the segregation of germ plasm as the embryo divides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor
  • CD2, also known as LFA-2, is a receptor for CD58 in the human and is expressed on the cell surface of 80-90% of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, a subset of NK cells, and all mature T cells. (tonbobio.com)
  • When an antigen-presenting cell interacts with a T cell receptor on T cells, there is an increase in the cytoplasmic level of calcium, which activates calcineurin, by binding a regulatory subunit and activating calmodulin binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) along with costimulatory receptors of a T lymphocyte triggers balanced activation of all the T-cell´s signalling pathways (full T-cell stimulation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, during full T-cell stimulation a costimulatory receptor CD28 activates PI3K or other pathways that eventually lead to increased nuclear levels of rel, NF-κB and AP-1 (transcription factors) much more than just by the TCR activation alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD30, also known as TNFRSF8, is a cell membrane protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and tumor marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • This receptor is expressed by activated, but not by resting, T and B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Background- Previous studies have shown that adrenomedullin (AM) inhibits vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and induces angiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • citation needed] In order to harvest stem cells from the circulating peripheral blood, blood donors are injected with a cytokine, such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), that induces cells to leave the bone marrow and circulate in the blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Such functions are all carried out by the innate immune system, which employs evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition receptors to eliminate cells displaying "nonself markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adaptive or "specific" immune system in its fully qualified form (i.e. based on major histocompatibility complex (MHC), T-cell receptors (TCR), and antibodies) exists only in jawed vertebrates, but an independently evolved adaptive immune system has been identified in hagfish and lampreys (non-jawed vertebrates). (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • This is how Craig Venter created the first synthetic cell, assembling chemically-synthesized oligos into DNA chunks that were recombined in yeast to create an entire synthetic genome that was transplanted into a recipient bacterial cell that took on characteristics defined by the synthetic genome. (wordpress.com)
  • autoimmune
  • Type 1 diabetes is caused by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. (jove.com)
  • Autoimmune destruction of insulin producing cells. (docplayer.net)
  • The induction or administration of Foxp3 positive T cells has, in animal studies, led to marked reductions in (autoimmune) disease severity in models of diabetes, multiple sclerosis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, thyroiditis and renal disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, patients with an autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have a relative dysfunction of Foxp3 positive cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • 8 Furthermore, AM has been shown to inhibit vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and induce angiogenesis through the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • antigen
  • T-cell anergy can arise when the T-cell does not receive appropriate co-stimulation in the presence of specific antigen recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell anergy can be induced by exposure to soluble circulating antigen, and is often marked by a downregulation of surface IgM expression and partial blockade of intracellular signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by Ki-1-positive tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Stem cells are cells found in most, if not all, multi-cellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organisms that have evolved functional specialization, an important division of labor may exist over reproduction: only a small fraction of cells contribute to the next generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another possibility may arise from somatic fusion: there are multicellular life-styles where there are few if any physical barriers to the intermingling of cells (for example: sponges, fungal mycelia) and even among organisms that have evolved physical integuments representing a first line of defense against invasion, opportunities for cellular exchange occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Passage through a unicellular bottleneck assures that each representative of the next generation of organisms represents a distinct clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancerous cells
  • For example, patients with tumors have a local relative excess of Foxp3 positive T cells which inhibits the body's ability to suppress the formation of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some individuals, the disease comes to light only after the cancerous cells overwhelm the bone marrow resulting in anemia producing tiredness or weakness. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Cancerous cells can be identified by DNA-based or immunological tests, but they can not be identified as cancerous when viewed under a microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Suppression of STAT3 NH 2 -terminal domain chemosensitizes medulloblastoma cells by activation of protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 via de-repression by microRNA-21. (nih.gov)
  • Cells were treated with up to 10 ng/ml of either IL-4, IL-5, or IL-13, or 100 ng/ml of the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10, or 10,000 U/ml of the Th1-associated cytokine interferon-beta, for 24 hr, after which RNA was isolated for evaluation by quantitative PCR and protein was collected for Western blot analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This protein is specifically expressed in club cells in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) is a protein first described in 1996 as a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, i.e. it stimulated human neutrophils to move directionally in an in vitro assay system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was detected in and purified from cultures of Phytohaemagglutinin-activated human T-cell leukemia SKW-3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies have defined LECT2 as a hepatokine, i.e. a substance made and released into the circulation by liver hepatocyte cells that regulates the function of other cells: it is a hepatocyte-derived, hormone-like, signaling protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using very sensitive methods, LECT2 protein can also be detected at low levels in the endothelial cells of hepatic arteries and veins including central veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A member of the FOX protein family, FOXP3 appears to function as a master regulator of the regulatory pathway in the development and function of regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymph nodes
  • Less commonly, CLL may present with enlarged lymph nodes without a high white blood cell count or no evidence of the disease in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, because of their CD34+ expression, such undifferentiated cells can be sorted out. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is expressed in embryonal carcinoma but not in seminoma and is thus a useful marker in distinguishing between these germ cell tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treg
  • citation needed] Foxp3 is the major transcription factor controlling T-regulatory cells (Treg or CD4+ cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • While CD4+ cells are heavily regulated and require multiple transcription factors such as STAT-5 and AhR in order to become active and function properly, Foxp3 has been identified as the master regulator for Treg lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • destruction
  • 2 In patients with PNH, chronic, uncontrolled activation of the complement system, a component of the body's immune system, results in hemolysis (the destruction of red blood cells) 4 , which in turn can result in progressive anemia, fatigue, dark urine, and shortness of breath. (alexionpharma.com)
  • Oncolytic viruses are thought not only to cause direct destruction of the tumour cells, but also to stimulate host anti-tumour immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • Foxp3 is a specific marker of natural T regulatory cells (nTregs, a lineage of T cells) and adaptive/induced T regulatory cells (a/iTregs), also identified by other less specific markers such as CD25 or CD45RB. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphology
  • The cells can be removed as liquid (to perform a smear to look at the cell morphology) or they can be removed via a core biopsy (to maintain the architecture or relationship of the cells to each other and to the bone). (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell res
  • 5 Frequently Asked Questions About Adult Stem Cell Research Stem cells are often referred to in the sociopolitical realm with some level of controversy and beyond that, some level of confusion. (docplayer.net)
  • The European Union has yet to issue consistent regulations with respect to stem cell research in member states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germany has restrictive policies for stem cell research, but a 2008 law authorizes "the use of imported stem cell lines produced before May 1, 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to modern stem cell researchers, Spain is one of the leaders in stem cell research and currently has one of the most progressive legislations worldwide with respect to hESC research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United Kingdom is one of the leaders in stem cell research, in the opinion of Lord Sainsbury, Science and Innovation Minister for the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new £10 million stem cell research centre has been announced at the University of Cambridge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Leukemia involves a genetic abnormality that can begin in a single cell and then multiply rapidly, leading to a disruption in the proportion of cell types in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic tests can confirm the leukemic cells at relapse are descendants of those present when the disease first appeared. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientist
  • Scientist were able to develop other methods to perform the transformations, such as incorporating transgenes into retroviruses and then infecting cells, using electroinfusion which takes advantage of an electric current to pass foreign DNA through the cell wall, biolistics which is the procedure of shooting DNA bullets into cells, and also delivering DNA into the egg that has just been fertilized. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] The first phase of migration in Drosophila occurs when the pole cells move passively and infold into the midgut invagination. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The initial five weeks of treatment[clarification needed] kill most leukaemic cells, and the marrow begins to recover. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • However, its expression in these cells is extremely low or undetectable even though these cells express very high levels of LECT2 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • Using the ratio ρ = L / M {\displaystyle \rho =L/M} of lymphoid (L) to myeloid (M) cells in blood as a quantitative marker, the stem cell compartment can be split into three categories of HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • The extracellular enzymes secreted by swarming bacteria, the slime of a biofilm, or the soma cells in a differentiated organism represent public goods which are vulnerable to exploitation by cheaters. (wikipedia.org)
  • frozen
  • In 2003, Spain's laws state that embryos left over from IVF and donated by the couple that created them can be used in research, including ES cell research, if they have been frozen for more than five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • subset
  • This cytoplasm moves to the bottom of the blastocoel and eventually ends up as its own subset of endodermal cells. (wikipedia.org)