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  • gene
  • Based on the unique hybrid nature of the H-2D/L dml antigen, additional hybrid class I molecules have been constructed in collaboration with Drs. Iwona Stroynowski and Lee Hood, using the mutant and parent genes for exonshuffled gene constructs. (springer.com)
  • Identification of the class I genes of the mouse major histocompatibility complex by DNA-mediated gene transfer. (springer.com)
  • Infection of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with murine cytomegalovirus induced expression of H60b , but not H60c or the previously known H60 gene, indicating that transcriptional activation of the three types of H60 genes is differentially regulated. (jimmunol.org)
  • J.F.A.P. Miller, M.A. Vadas, A. Whitelaw, A., and J. Gamble, H-2 gene complex restricts transfer of delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice. (springer.com)
  • The gene encoding the C18-defined antigen was identified as a mutated form of a mouse mitogen-activated protein kinase, ERK2, and a peptide incorporating the resulting amino acid substitution (lysine to glutamine) was efficiently recognized by C18. (pnas.org)
  • Here we describe a new mouse strain, in which human interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene encoding the cytokine that is important for B- and T-cell differentiation was knocked into its respective mouse locus. (bloodjournal.org)
  • High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from Jax and Tac mice fecal samples confirmed a convergence of microbiota composition after cohousing or fecal transfer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • immune
  • Furthermore, the hsp110-gp100 chaperone complex exhibited inhibitory effects on the progression of wild-type B16 tumor, suggesting that the induced immune response by human gp100 cross-reacts with mouse gp100. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Humanized mice are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • However, the existing models cannot support robust adaptive immune responses, especially the generation of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • To establish a functional human immune system that contains the multiple cell lineages required to provoke cellular and humoral activities, several models such as the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice engrafted with hematopoietic stem cells and the bone marrow (BM)-liver-thymus (BLT) model have been developed. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Many other forms of injury are inflicted on the allograft throughout all stages of transplantation (ie, caused by cold ischemic preservation, surgical trauma, reperfusion, immune-mediated responses, infections, or metabolic derangements). (ahajournals.org)
  • Allo-antigen priming led to allo-specific immune suppression even after 1 year of transplantation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We mimicked this situation in vivo in immune-competent mice by syngeneic transplantation of HCV replicon-containing mouse hepatoma cells. (bmj.com)
  • Immune mice were generated by DNA-based vaccination. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion Syngeneic transplantation of mouse HCV replicon cells into immune-competent animals mirrors many in vivo events in humans. (bmj.com)
  • We measured the serum levels of soluble HLA class I antigen (sHLA-I) to evaluate the immune status of uremia and following renal transplantation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Immune responses targeting these proteins could thus result in a limited or no generation of antigen-loss variants and, therefore, they may efficiently control in vivo tumor growth, thus meeting the requirements for an ideal TAA set forth above. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mice are the experimental tool of choice for the majority of immunologists and the study of their immune responses has yielded tremendous insight into the workings of the human immune system. (jimmunol.org)
  • Despite this conservation there exist significant differences between mice and humans in immune system development, activation, and response to challenge, in both the innate and adaptive arms. (jimmunol.org)
  • The overall structure of the immune system in mice and humans is quite similar. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD4 + CD45RB low cells from germfree mice were significantly reduced in their ability to transfer colitis to immune deficient recipients, suggesting the presence of commensal bacteria in the donor mice drives colitogenic T cells into the Ag-experienced/memory T cell pool. (jimmunol.org)
  • It is now appreciated that disruption of immune regulatory networks, including deletion of cytokine genes, cell signaling molecules, and alterations in T cell subsets, can lead to an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD 3 )-like syndrome in mice ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • T cells capable of responding to enteric bacteria are present in T cell-restored immune deficient mice with colitis, and are most likely involved in the pathogenesis of the disease ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Macrophages and dendritic cells are bone marrow derived antigen presenting cells (APC) which serve in the first step of the acquired immune responses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When BALB/c mice were immunized with this MAM, they generated a specific humoral immune response against CEA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The primary obstacle to the success of active-specific immunotherapy has been the inability of the current vaccines to elicit a strong and persistent immune response to tumor antigens, which for most tumors, particularly melanoma, are primarily self-antigens ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • molecules
  • Serologic data suggest that at least two additional transplantation antigen molecules, H2-Rd and H2-Md, are encoded in the H-2D region of the major compatibility complex. (caltech.edu)
  • Inhibitory receptors of the members of the mouse Ly49 and human killer Ig-related receptor families recognize self-MHC class I molecules on target cells ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In a direct manner some of the MHC antigens, the class I molecules, seem to be involved in combatting virus-infections inasmuch as MHC antigens on virus-infected cells are part of the target for T-killer cells. (springer.com)
  • 9 , 10 Inappropriate selection on mouse major histocompatibility complex molecules may contribute to the weak T-cell responses and insufficient interactions between B and T cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The direct pathway is defined as the presentation of alloantigen by MHC class II or class I molecules on the surfaces of donor antigen-presenting cells to recipient CD4 + or CD8 + T lymphocytes, respectively. (asnjournals.org)
  • Our data indicate that there may be more than one type of self-Ag for i NKT cells, that the self-Ags comparing mouse and human may not be conserved, and that the search to identify these molecules should not be confined to GSLs. (jimmunol.org)
  • After synthesis and transport to the cell surface, mouse CD1d (mCD1d) molecules are internalized and directed to late endosomes and lysosomes by a tyrosine-containing sequence motif in their cytoplasmic tails ( 7 - 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Reasons for this phenomenon are that tumor-associated antigens represent well-tolerated self-molecules of low antigenicity per se due to a high content of non-protein compounds including carbohydrates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • transgenic
  • Human FcRn Transgenic Mice for Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Therapeutic Antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Conditional ablation of dendritic cells in transgenic mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • In a second series, donor hearts were transplanted into DDAH-I-transgenic or WT mice and procured 30 days after transplantation (n=7 each). (ahajournals.org)
  • Vaccine-induced NS3/4A(gt2a)-specific T cells protected against HCV replicon tumours in wild-type, but not in HCV NS3/4A(gt1a)-transgenic mice with dysfunctional HCV-specific T cells. (bmj.com)
  • In this study, using islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-reactive CD8 T cell receptor NY8.3 transgenic nonobese diabetic mice, we demonstrated that MyD88 strongly modulates CD8 + T cell-mediated T1D development via the gut microbiota. (rupress.org)
  • Bone marrow and HSC from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were transplanted into irradiated wild‐type mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dendritic cell vaccination induced activation and subsequent deletion of adoptively transferred naive CD8 + T-cell receptor transgenic (pmel-1) T cells specific for gp100 in normal mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, if T cells are exposed to foreign antigens during homeostatic proliferation, a dramatic expansion of antigen-specific T cells was observed in thymic-deficient mice after bone marrow transplantation and adoptive transfer of a small number of antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic T cells ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using a melanoma antigen gp100-specific TCR transgenic T-cell transfer model ( 15 ), our current study is aimed to determine whether vaccination during lymphopenia would drive a rapid and preferential expansion of naive tumor-specific CD8 + T cells and whether the lymphopenic conditions would allow a large fraction of the activated T cells to survive, persist, and mediate tumor regression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • vitro
  • Because activation of murine leukemia virus is frequently associated with tumorgenesis in the mouse ( 13 ), murine leukemia virus-related antigens frequently are expressed by sarcomas, and their presence has complicated the interpretation of the in vitro specificity analysis of T cells from immunized mice. (pnas.org)
  • After removal of the epithelium, the central corneas of mice eyes were irradiated over an area of 2×2mm 2 with a UVA diode under riboflavin treatment in vivo and in vitro. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cell-free zone in the stroma was achieved on the mice cornea irradiated by UVA/Riboflavin in vivo and in vitro. (arvojournals.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • Blanden, R. V., Dunlop, M. B. C., Doherty, P. C., and Kohn, H. I.: Effects of four H-2K mutations on virus-induced antigens recognized by cytotoxic T cells. (springer.com)
  • The resultant natural hsp110-gp100 complexes are strongly immunogenic as determined by their ability to elicit an antigen-specific IFN-γ production and a cytotoxic T-cell response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Arnold, D., Faath, S., Rammensee, H. and Schild, H. (1995) Cross-priming of minor histocompatibility antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells upon immunization with the heat shock protein gp96. (springer.com)
  • donor
  • Those images are provided not just by a series of 20 colour plates showing skin graft recipient mice, rats, rabbits, chickens and duck, bearing fur or plumage of donor origin, but by his choice of metaphor, simile and analogy to express the questions being addressed and the interpretation of their results, along with those of relevant published data and his prescient ideas of what the results might portend. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Donor-derived endothelial cells expressed FVIII in HA mice, leading to the correction of bleeding phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eight weeks after delivery of the fetuses, the young CBA mice were challenged with a skin graft from the donor strain A mice. (omicsonline.org)
  • Our patient received a deceased donor-kidney-bearing HLA antigens to which she originally had antibodies, which would have precluded transplant. (hindawi.com)
  • There is limited data on desensitization facilitating deceased donor transplantation and little long-term followup data. (hindawi.com)
  • We describe a patient who underwent successful deceased donor transplantation 7 years ago using a hybrid of the John Hopkins [ 6 ] and Cedars Sinai [ 5 ] desensitization protocols. (hindawi.com)
  • Flowcytometry revealed the existence of the double-positive cells which expressed both MHC class I antigen for donor and recipient in the grafted liver. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These data suggests that the double-positive cells were possibly the recipint type premature dendritic cells which trapped the donor type soluble MHC class I antigen to their surface. (nii.ac.jp)
  • syngeneic
  • All of the above studies were based on transplantation of syngeneic BM-derived cells in mice with perturbed liver in which no humoral response to the missing proteins was observed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Design A total of 5 million H-2 b positive Hep56.1D cells, carrying a subgenomic genotype (gt) 2a replicon (HCV replicon cells) or stably expressing comparable levels of the HCV NS3/4A protease/helicase complex (NS3/4A hepatoma cells), were injected subcutaneously into syngeneic H-2 b -restricted mice. (bmj.com)
  • genetically
  • We used T cell-depleting strategies and genetically altered mice that did not express MHC class I or class II antigens. (asnjournals.org)
  • This system is versatile and can be applied to any genetically modified H-2 b -restricted mouse strain. (bmj.com)
  • The natural allograft of the mammalian fetus to its mother, and the clinical practice of organ and tissue transplantation between genetically distinct individuals can teach us the answer. (springer.com)
  • Clearly, with so many paradigms that translate well between the species, and with the relative ease with which mice can now be genetically manipulated, mouse models will continue to provide important information for many years to come. (jimmunol.org)
  • differentiation
  • We previously showed that commensal bacteria modified diabetes development in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice via myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88). (rupress.org)
  • peptide
  • TAP (transporter associated with antigen processing)-independent presentation of endogenously synthesized peptides is enhanced by endoplasmic reticulum insertion sequences located at the amino- but not carboxyl-terminus of the peptide. (jimmunol.org)
  • serum
  • Human IL-6 improves T-cell engraftment and serum IgG production in humanized mice. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Not only the antibodies have to be engineered as human/mouse chimeric or fully humanized antibodies to prevent production of human anti-mouse antibodies, but also repeated administrations are necessary to obtain adequate serum levels for an appropriate antitumor effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Preclinical
  • After a decade of cancer immunotherapy (both active and adoptive), based on the use of well-defined tumor-associated antigens (TAA), and despite the large amount of new information that has been collected both in preclinical and clinical settings, the clinical outcome of immunotherapy trials has been altogether disappointing ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Such differences should be taken into account when using mice as preclinical models of human disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • Included in this subset will be differences that may preclude a successful preclinical trial in mice becoming a successful clinical trial in human. (jimmunol.org)
  • sarcoma
  • Garrido F, Schirrmacher V, Festenstein H. H-2-like specificities of foreign haplotypes appearing on a mouse sarcoma after vaccinia virus infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • melanoma
  • This report defines a novel approach to heat shock protein vaccine formulation that takes advantage of the chaperoning property of heat shock protein hsp110 to efficiently bind a large protein substrate (specifically, human melanoma-associated antigen gp100) during heat shock. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunization with the hsp110-gp100 complex protected mice against subsequent challenge with human gp100-transduced B16 melanoma, which involves both CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell populations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Carrel S, Theilkaes L. Evidence for a tumour-associated antigen in human malignant melanoma. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Protein
  • P.A. Peterson, and L. Rask, HLA-DR transplantation antigen chain is a member of the same protein superfamily as the immunoglobulins. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the use of hsp110 to form natural chaperone complexes with tumor protein antigens such as gp100 represents a powerful approach to therapeutic vaccine formulation with significant potential for clinical application. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Extensive efforts to isolate antigen-loss variants of CMS5 were unsuccessful, suggesting that the mutated mitogen-activated protein kinase is essential for maintenance of the malignant phenotype. (pnas.org)
  • Using a CMS5-specific CTL clone to screen a cDNA library, we identified a mutated form of mitogen-activated protein kinase as the source of the CMS5-specific antigen. (pnas.org)
  • Camardella L, Carratore V, Ciardiello MA, Damonte G, Benatti U, De Flora A (1995) Primary structure of human erythrocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP[H])-binding protein FX: identification with the mouse tum- transplantation antigen P35B. (springer.com)
  • receptors
  • Whether one T-cell receptor jointly recognizes a virus product in association with a class I antigen or whether separate T-cell receptors independently recognize the virus product and the class I antigen, respectively, is not yet resolved (for a recent review see ref. 2). (springer.com)
  • skin graft
  • We have recently shown that major alterations of the microbiota following broad-spectrum antibiotics, or use of germ-free animals, promoted longer skin graft survival in mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The association between Alistipes and prolonged skin graft survival in mice suggests that members of this genus might affect host physiology, including at sites distal to the gastrointestinal tract. (biomedcentral.com)