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  • mediates
  • MIA3 resides at the ER exit site and functions as a guide for loading the cargo molecule collagen VII into COPII carriers, which mediates the exit of secretory protein out of the ER with the help of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma-associated antigen 5 (cTAGE-5). (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • The interconversion between GTP and GDP bound states is mediated by ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and ARF GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • have described similarities between the NPC1 protein and members of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family of prokaryotic permeases, suggesting a pumping function for NPC1. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (MUL1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MUL1 gene on chromosome 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • transport
  • Various attempts have been made by engineers to mimic the process of facilitated transport in synthetic (i.e., non-biological) membranes for use in industrial-scale gas and liquid separations, but these have met with limited success to date, most often for reasons related to poor carrier stability and/or dissociation of the carrier from the passive transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • The C-terminal domain of Beta2-adaptin is a protein domain is involved in cell trafficking by aiding import and export of substances in and out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current use is limited by a lack of cell specificity in CPP-mediated cargo delivery and insufficient understanding of the modes of their uptake, that is why other delivery mechanisms have been developed like CellSqueeze and electroporation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, this protein can rescue the phenotypes of PINK1 or parkin knockout mice display, which elucidates why only subtle dopaminergic neuronal degeneration or mitochondrial morphology changes have been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • Once released from the carrier, the Vps35-Vps29-Vps26 complex and the SNX-BAR dimers get recycled back onto the endosomal membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • Since then, the number of known CPPs has expanded considerably and small molecule synthetic analogues with more effective protein transduction properties have been generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • The "cargo" is associated with the peptides either through chemical linkage via covalent bonds or through non-covalent interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • German researchers just found out something interesting about how cells export cargo through their membranes. (evolutionnews.org)
  • Various attempts have been made by engineers to mimic the process of facilitated transport in synthetic (i.e., non-biological) membranes for use in industrial-scale gas and liquid separations, but these have met with limited success to date, most often for reasons related to poor carrier stability and/or dissociation of the carrier from the passive transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secretory-machinery-mediated sorting to ERESs is a process that counters the entropy-driven even distribution of membrane proteins within organellar membranes. (biologists.org)
  • Cargo concentration within ERESs continued in cells overexpressing the GTP-locked ARF1Q71L or in the presence of brefeldin A. In the absence of COPI and microtubules, ERESs transformed from tubulovesicular to spherical membranes that actively accumulated secretory cargo and excluded ER-membrane markers. (biologists.org)
  • Golgi glycosylation enzymes must have intimate access to itinerant cargo to in order to carry out covalent modification reactions, and so cargo and enzyme must be mixed within Golgi membranes for at least the time required to carry out the reaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are anchored into cellular membranes by a single TMS close to the C terminus. (tcdb.org)
  • Once released from the carrier, the Vps35-Vps29-Vps26 complex and the SNX-BAR dimers get recycled back onto the endosomal membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • SAR1
  • Among the small GTP-binding proteins, ARF1 (ADP-ribosylation factor 1) and SAR1 (Secretion-Associated RAS super family 1) are commonly conserved among all eukaryotes with respect to both their functional and sequential characteristics. (mdpi.com)
  • The ARF1 and SAR1 GTP-binding proteins are involved in the formation and budding of vesicles throughout plant endomembrane systems. (mdpi.com)
  • In this paper, we show that Sec12, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Sar1 guanosine triphosphatase, is concentrated at ER exit sites and that this concentration of Sec12 is specifically required for the secretion of collagen VII but not other proteins. (rupress.org)
  • These findings suggest that the export of large cargo requires high levels of guanosine triphosphate-bound Sar1 generated by Sec12 localized at ER exit sites. (rupress.org)
  • Formation of this complex is initiated with the recruitment of the small GTPase Sar1 by the Sec12 transmembrane protein. (biologists.org)
  • Sar1, in its membrane-associated, GTP-bound form, sequentially recruits cargo proteins and the heterodimers Sec23/24 and Sec13/31. (biologists.org)
  • Sec12
  • Furthermore, Sec12 recruitment to ER exit sites is organized by its direct interaction with cTAGE5, a previously characterized collagen cargo receptor component, which functions together with TANGO1 at ER exit sites. (rupress.org)
  • receptors
  • Cell surface signaling receptors, such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and cytokine receptors, are activated by binding to their ligands (e.g., growth hormones, peptide agonists, and cytokines). (rupress.org)
  • The retromer complex has been shown to mediate retrieval of various transmembrane receptors, such as the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, the functional mammalian counterpart of Vps10, and the Wnt receptor Wntless. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Once the blocking, large cargo is removed, the jam resulting from missing Tango1 is resolved, and other cellular stress signals also subside. (pnas.org)
  • In the "active" state, the GTP-bound GTPases interact with various downstream effector proteins that execute diverse cellular functions. (mdpi.com)
  • Our results establish domain formation via rapid lateral partitioning as a general cellular strategy for segregating different transmembrane proteins along the secretory pathway and provide a framework for consideration of molecular mechanisms of secretory transport. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hope our studies will not only shed light on the molecular and cellular mechanisms of FTLD but also on the regulation of normal cellular functions by these FTLD proteins, such as regulation of autophagy-lysosome functions by PGRN, TMEM106B and C9orf72. (cornell.edu)
  • cytosolic
  • Moreover, LmPEX7 also formed a tight association with the Leishmania PEX5, the cytosolic PTS1 receptor, and PEX14, a glycosomal peripheral membrane protein required for protein import into the glycosome. (tcdb.org)
  • interacts
  • It also interacts directly with Sec16, which is proposed to enhance cargo secretion ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • We cloned an ubiquitous 80-kDa protein, identical to CD2-associated protein/Cas ligand with multiple SH3 domains (CD2AP/CMS), that interacts with Rab4-Q67L in the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro. (jove.com)
  • endocytosis
  • The role of receptor-mediated endocytosis is well recognized in the downregulation of transmembrane signal transduction but can also promote sustained signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of the CPPs are to deliver the cargo into cells, a process that commonly occurs through endocytosis with the cargo delivered to delivery vectors for use in research and medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • GAPs
  • GTPases are inactivated through either the intrinsic capability of the GTPase to hydrolyze GTP to GDP+Pi or an interaction with another protein group, the GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). (mdpi.com)
  • The interconversion between GTP and GDP bound states is mediated by ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and ARF GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • bulky
  • We show that this is because bulky cargos "clog up" the transport system, resulting in a general traffic jam. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, failures in the secretion of nonbulky proteins, ER stress, and defective cell morphology are secondary consequences of bulky cargo retention. (pnas.org)
  • Luminal
  • A TMS that escapes capture by TRC40 and is followed by a highly basic luminal domain directs TA proteins to peroxisomes via the PEX19-dependent route. (tcdb.org)
  • lysosomal
  • We have generated transgenic mice overexpressing TMEM106B in the forebrain and found that TMEM106B protein levels are regulated by PGRN and increased TMEM106B levels exacerbates lysosomal abnormalities in PGRN deficient background. (cornell.edu)
  • clathrin
  • These vesicles have specific coat proteins (such as clathrin or coatomer) that are important for cargo selection and direction of transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptins recognise and bind to clathrin through their hinge region (clathrin box), and recruit accessory proteins that modulate AP function through their C-terminal ear (appendage) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal peptide
  • Transmembrane regions (TMR) in gray, S-acylations in HA and M2 indicated by zigzag line, signal peptide of HA in white, and fusion peptide in HA in cyan. (hindawi.com)
  • Though it lacks a conserved N-terminal signal peptide or mitochondrial targeting sequence, its transmembrane domains have been observed to influence its trafficking and insertion into the mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, a hydrophobic patch present in the domain also binds to a subset of D-phi-F/W motif-containing proteins that are bound by the alpha-adaptin appendage domain (epsin, AP180, eps15). (wikipedia.org)
  • GEFs
  • Guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), GDP dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), and GTPase-activating proteins are regulators of small GTP-binding proteins ( Figure 1 ). (mdpi.com)
  • nascent
  • Binding to SRP is a prerequisite for targeting of the PEX3-containing ribosome nascent chain complex (RNC) to the translocon, where an ordered multistep pathway integrates the nascent chain into the membrane adjacent to translocon proteins, Sec61alpha and TRAM. (tcdb.org)
  • encodes
  • The L. major PEX7 (LmPEX7) encodes a 41kDa protein that exhibits limited sequence identity with PEX7 homologues from other eukaryotic organisms. (tcdb.org)
  • However, essentially nothing is known about the function and regulation of TMEM106B, which encodes a type II transmembrane protein. (cornell.edu)
  • localization
  • Moreover, it preserved blood-brain barrier integrity, attenuated changes in expression and localization of tight junction proteins and matrix metalloproteinases, and enhanced angiogenesis in ischemic brain tissue. (springermedizin.de)
  • amino
  • The full-length protein spans 1,907 amino acids and localizes to the ER exit sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human protein Mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 is ~40 kDa in size and composed of 352 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, mechanisms that involve large fluctuations of the membrane structure, such as transient pores and the insertion of charged amino acid side-chains, may be common and perhaps central to the functions of many membrane protein functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • In prokaryotic bacteria cells such as E. coli, facilitated diffusion is required in order for regulatory proteins to locate and bind to target sites on DNA base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vRNPs are encased by a protein layer consisting of the matrix protein M1, which also lines the viral envelope from beneath and is supposed to bind to all other viral constituents. (hindawi.com)
  • ligand
  • In this study, we have engineered the p14 protein to incorporate the prostate cancer targeting ligand bombesin, which binds specifically to the Gastrin-releasing Peptide (GRPR) that is overexpressed in prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • amphipathic
  • The Pex19 proteins exhibit semihydrophobic hydropathy profiles with about 10 amphipathic peaks and 9 hydrophobic peaks. (tcdb.org)