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  • translational
  • The eIF-3 complex specifically targets and initiates translation of a subset of mRNAs involved in cell proliferation, including cell cycling, differentiation and apoptosis, and uses different modes of RNA stem-loop binding to exert either translational activation or repression. (uniprot.org)
  • We also identified PEK homologs from both Caenorhabditis elegans and the puffer fish Fugu rubripes , suggesting that this eIF-2α kinase plays an important role in translational control from nematodes to mammals. (asm.org)
  • We provide evidence that post-translational modifications on histone proteins and translation factors serve as a primary means of energy conservation and that select components of the stress response are altered in hypoxic squids. (biologists.org)
  • catalytic
  • In addition to a catalytic domain with sequence and structural features conserved among eIF-2α kinases, PEK contains a distinctive amino-terminal region 550 residues in length. (asm.org)
  • Dendritic
  • NMDA receptor-dependent dephosphorylation of serine 387 in Argonaute 2 increases its degradation and affects dendritic spine density and maturation. (nih.gov)
  • Interacts
  • Hypophosphorylated form interacts strongly with EIF4E using (1) the YXXXXLPhi motif, that undergoes a disorder-to-helix transition upon binding and (2) the secondary EIF4E binding sites (residues 78-82) (PubMed:24207126, PubMed:25533957). (rcsb.org)
  • Proteins
  • L6 cells were acutely (2 h) and chronically (6 and 12 h) exposed to palmitate, and the expression of several proteins involved in insulin resistance, ER stress and inflammation were analyzed. (springer.com)
  • The posttranscriptional fate of a given mRNA is governed in part by its interaction with specific trans -acting factors such as RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • inhibitor
  • The changes caused by VLDL were dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 since they were prevented by the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 or by knockdown of this kinase by siRNA transfection. (springer.com)
  • kinase family
  • While each member of the eIF-2α kinase family shares sequence and structural features distinguishable from those of other families of serine/threonine kinases, there is little similarity in their flanking regulatory regions, which facilitate the different stress signals controlling each eIF-2α kinase. (asm.org)
  • Biological
  • L-arginine (L-Arg) is a nonessential amino acid that plays a central role in regulating several biological systems, including the immune response ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • skeletal muscle
  • Many reports have demonstrated that reduced GLUT4 expression in both skeletal muscle [ 2 ] and adipose tissue [ 3 , 4 , 5 ] is related to insulin resistance. (springer.com)
  • Skeletal muscle from transgenic mice overexpressing apoCIII showed increased levels of some ER stress and inflammatory markers and increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels, whereas PGC-1α levels were reduced, confirming apoCIII effects in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition
  • The addition of recombinant PEK to reticulocyte lysates caused a dose-dependent inhibition of translation. (asm.org)
  • ApoCIII mimicked the effects of VLDL and its effects were also blocked by ERK1/2 inhibition, suggesting that this apolipoprotein was responsible for the effects of VLDL. (springer.com)
  • amino
  • This alteration is dependent on the expression of the amino acid starvation sensor general control nonderepressible 2 kinase. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recombinant
  • Using recombinant PEK produced in Escherichia coli or Sf-9 insect cells, we demonstrate that PEK is autophosphorylated on both serine and threonine residues and that the recombinant enzyme can specifically phosphorylate eIF-2α on serine-51. (asm.org)
  • 2. The recombinant nucleic acid of claim 1, wherein said first region and said second region are in proximity to each other or are adjacent to each other or overlap with each other or one encompasses the other. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The recombinant nucleic acid of claim 2, wherein the 3′ end of the first region is adjacent to the 5′ end of the second region or the 3′ end of the second region is adjacent to the 5′ end of the first region or the first region is located within the second region. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • regulatory
  • Consequently, an intense research effort was launched to illuminate the molecular mechanisms driving tachyzoite and bradyzoite inter-conversion in hopes of identifying critical regulatory factors in the process that could be subverted for therapeutic advantage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • activity
  • EIF4E BP2 is enriched in brain and acts as a regulator of synapse activity and neuronal stem cell renewal via its ability to repress translation initiation (By similarity). (rcsb.org)
  • Molecular
  • In this review, we shed some light on the molecular identity of the factors that are required for cell death to be perceived as immunogenic. (springer.com)
  • insulin resistance
  • Finally, incubation of myotubes with a neutralising antibody against Toll-like receptor 2 abolished the effects of apoCIII on ER stress, inflammation and insulin resistance, indicating that the effects of apoCIII were mediated by this receptor. (springer.com)
  • These results imply that elevated VLDL in diabetic states can contribute to the exacerbation of insulin resistance by activating ERK1/2 through Toll-like receptor 2. (springer.com)
  • specific
  • Cells succumbing to immunogenic cell death undergo specific changes in their surface characteristics and release pro-immunogenic factors according to a defined spatiotemporal pattern. (springer.com)
  • viral
  • Appears to play a role in the switch from cap-dependent to IRES-mediated translation during mitosis, apoptosis and viral infection. (abcam.com)
  • region
  • The present invention describes the use of hybrid short 3′ untranslated (3′UTR) regions which are composed of two regions, one region from an 3′ untranslated region of a stable eukaryotic mRNA, and another region from the downstream end of an 3′ untranslated region of another eukaryotic mRNA that contains a polyadenylation (polyA) signal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • cells
  • We report the identification and characterization of a cDNA from rat pancreatic islet cells that encodes a new related kinase, which we term pancreatic eIF-2α kinase, or PEK. (asm.org)