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  • mitotic
  • Indeed, Meox1 depletion decreased the cells under mitosis, but conversely increased the proportion of DNA synthesizing cells, thereby inhibited mitotic transition. (ahajournals.org)
  • Though Wee1 is a fairly conserved negative regulator of mitotic entry, no general mechanism of cell size control in G2 has yet been elucidated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrate cells, the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint consists of an arrest of the cell in G2 just before mitotic entry in response to genotoxic stress (such as UV radiation, oxidative stress, DNA intercalating agents, etc.) in both a p53-dependent and p53-independent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cells have reached sufficient size during G2, the phosphatase Cdc25 removes the inhibitory phosphorylation, and thus activates Cdc2 to allow mitotic entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • A balance of Wee1 and Cdc25 activity with changes in cell size is coordinated by the mitotic entry control system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blt1 knockout cells had increased length at division, which is consistent with a delay in mitotic entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Goldbeter A. Modeling the mitotic oscillator driving the cell division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chang JB, Ferrell JE Jr. Mitotic trigger waves and the spatial coordination of the Xenopus cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell biology, the spindle apparatus (or mitotic spindle) refers to the cytoskeletal structure of eukaryotic cells that forms during cell division to separate sister chromatids between daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is referred to as the mitotic spindle during mitosis, a process that produces genetically identical daughter cells, or the meiotic spindle during meiosis, a process that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the cell cycle progresses, concentrations of Aurora A increase and the kinase associates with the mitotic poles and the adjacent spindle microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting mitotic spindle is then used to propel apart the sister chromosomes into what will become the two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During citokinesis the mother centriole returns to the mid-body of the mitotic cell at the end of mitosis and causes the central microtubules to release from the mid-body. (wikipedia.org)
  • arrest
  • The DNA damage responsive kinases ATR (Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related) and ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated) can trigger a DNA damage checkpoint arrest at the G2/M-transition via the Chk1 and Chk2 kinases and p53. (abcam.com)
  • These data demonstrate that resveratrol causes a complete and reversible cell cycle arrest at the S phase checkpoint. (unicampania.it)
  • FIS1 also prevents mitochondria elongation, which would otherwise lead to cell cycle delay or arrest, and ultimately, senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • While both pro- and anti-proliferative genes are targeted by miR-17-5p, pro-proliferative mRNAs are specifically up-regulated by secondary and/or tertiary effects in HEK293T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since the cells are now transcribing their own DNA, this stage is where differential expression of paternal genes is first observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes to Cells : Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • oscillations
  • Pomerening JR, Kim SY, Ferrell JE Jr. Systems-level dissection of the cell-cycle oscillator: bypassing positive feedback produces damped oscillations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such multi-component (involving multiple inter-linked proteins) switches have been shown to generate decisive, robust (and potentially irreversible) transitions and trigger stable oscillations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The right combination of positive and negative feedback loops can generate ultrasensitivity and bistability, which in turn can generate decisive transitions and oscillations. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • This pathway card outlines the mechanisms through which DNA damage can trigger a stop at the G2 to M-phase transition. (abcam.com)
  • Our study verified that overexpressing IMPDH2 could promote G1/S phase cell cycle transition through activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and PI3K/AKT/FOXO1 pathways and facilitate cell invasion, migration and EMT by regulating PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. (springer.com)
  • Gene
  • Isolation and characterization of a novel TP53-inducible gene, TP53TG5, which suppresses growth and shows cell cycle-dependent transition of expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A colony-formation assay using human glioblastoma cell line T98G, which lacks wild-type TP53 and expresses no endogenous TP53TG5, revealed a growth-suppressive effect of the TP53TG5 gene product. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that the gene set related to cell cycle was linked to upregulation of IMPDH2 expression. (springer.com)
  • In developmental biology, midblastula or midblastula transition (MBT) is a stage during the blastula stage of embryonic development in which zygotic gene transcription is activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance throughout the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Cells control Cdt1 and Geminin levels post-translationally, using ubiquitination to target the unwanted proteins for proteasomal degradation. (clontech.com)
  • It localizes preferentially to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) of mammalian cells and regulates, for example, the secretory transport of bone-specific proteins from the Golgi complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellular spindle apparatus includes the spindle microtubules, associated proteins, which include kinesin and dynein molecular motors, condensed chromosomes, and any centrosomes or asters that may be present at the spindle poles depending on the cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • Subsequently, these newly developed methods were used to determine the control by the individual processes of an important checkpoint in mammalian cells, the restriction point. (sun.ac.za)
  • Finally, we applied the new methods, with a modular approach, to compare a number of cell cycle models for Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) and mammalian cells with respect to the existence of a mass checkpoint. (sun.ac.za)
  • Such a checkpoint ensures that cells would have a critical mass at the G1/S transition point. (sun.ac.za)
  • In particular, the G2 checkpoint arrests cells in G2 in response to DNA damage through inhibitory regulation of CDK1. (wikipedia.org)
  • It plays a major role in the G1/S transition, and functions in the p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • bistable
  • Xiong W, Ferrell JE Jr. A positive-feedback-based bistable 'memory module' that governs a cell fate decision. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulator
  • Our findings identify a novel cell-cycle regulator and propose that Meox1 is a potential target for therapies aimed at preventing tissue fibrosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • CDK1
  • In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. Pombe), cells divide at a defined, reproducible size during mitosis because of the regulated activity of Cdk1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • The Research Center for Medical Genomics, MOH Key Laboratory of Cell Biology and Key Laboratory of Medical Cell Biology, Ministry of Education, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China. (ijbs.com)
  • Cell biology: thanks for the memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • Our Fucci cell cycle reporters let you label just the nucleus, or both the nucleus and cytoplasm, allowing visualization of cell shape. (clontech.com)
  • Finally, Aurora A helps orchestrate an exit from mitosis by contributing to the completion of cytokinesis- the process by which the cytoplasm of the parent cell is split into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • When used in the context of cell development, the term refers to increase in cytoplasmic and organelle volume (G1 phase), as well as increase in genetic material (G2 phase) following the replication during S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • by allowing only one centrosome replication per cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc2
  • This covalent modification of the molecular structure of Cdc2 inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cdc2 and prevents cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wee1 acts to keep Cdc2 inactive during early G2 when cells are still small. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown in Wee1 mutants, cells with weakened Wee1 activity, that Cdc2 becomes active when the cell is smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pomerening JR, Sontag ED, Ferrell JE Jr. Building a cell cycle oscillator: hysteresis and bistability in the activation of Cdc2. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • bipolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules emanating from opposite cell poles couples opposing tension forces, aligning chromosomes at the cell equator and poising them for segregation to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • budding yeast
  • Indeed, in budding yeast, a correction mechanism was observed in the G1 phase, which stabilizes the size of cells at the G1/S transition point, irrespective of changes in the specific growth rate. (sun.ac.za)
  • inhibits
  • Rb binds and inhibits E2 promoter-binding-protein-dimerization partner (E2F-DP) dimers, which are transcription factors of the E2F family that push the cell into S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • switches
  • The ability to make dramatic change in system output is often essential to organism function, and bifurcations are therefore ubiquitous in biological networks such as the switches of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Cyclin F interacts with RRM2 to control the production of dNTPs in the cell to avoid genomic instability and frequency of mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was found that certain CCNF mutations caused increased ubiquitination of TDP-43 protein in cells, which is a major feature of ALS and FTD pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • bistability
  • These studies helped demonstrate how ultrasensitivity, positive feedback, and bistability can allow cells to switch between discrete states. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • IMPDH2 was upregulated in CRC cells and tissues at both mRNA and protein level. (springer.com)
  • The mRNA is localised in different parts of the oocyte, so that as the embryo divides it is segregated into different cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • http://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/abstract/S1535-6108%2814%2900031-2 Ku DH, Chang CD, Koniecki J, Cannizzaro LA, Boghosian-Sell L, Alder H, Baserga R (Apr 1991). (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa
  • CLIP170 was shown to localize near microtubule plus-ends in HeLa cells and to accumulate in kinetochores during prometaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • We have cloned genomic KL gene and 10kb upstream from the transcription initiation site was analyzed by CAT assay using hematopoiesis supporting stromal cell line ST2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We found that 35bp upstream of TATA-box is sufficient for assigning CAT-gene expression in this cell line. (nii.ac.jp)
  • As expected, some transgenic mice bearing 2kb or 6kb constructs showed tissue specific expression of LacZ gene in hair follicles, gut pacemaker cells and neurons where KL is expressed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleolar antigen expressed in proliferating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Mitchison's lab he made substantial contributions to the study of the cell cycle in fission yeast isolating and characterising cell cycle mutants and the first identification of a gene product (DNA ligase) in these mutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • This represented the first case where the position of a gene in the chromosome had demonstrable biological significance, and prompted Nasmyth to abandon work on the cell cycle for a time and concentrate instead on studying gene silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the IMP, Nasmyth changed his focus from gene silencing back to cell cycle control. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • All eukaryotes that reproduce sexually have both a haploid and diploid stage in their life cycle. (psu.edu)
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Aging of the hair follicle appears to be primed by a sustained cellular response to the DNA damage that accumulates in renewing stem cells during aging. (neograftofcharleston.com)
  • We argue here that serum ferritin arises from damaged cells, and is thus a marker of cellular damage. (rsc.org)
  • Taking a systems approach, we develop and summarise the view that "serum ferritin" actually originates from damaged cells (and thus reflects cellular damage), that it contains some iron but has lost or liberated most of its normal content, and that since the protein part of ferritin is assumed to be benign, that it is this (initially) free iron that correlates with and is causative of disease. (rsc.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrate
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few genera have life-cycles involving a secondary host, which may be a vertebrate, invertebrate or plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • This heteroxenous life cycle typically includes the intestine of a bloodsucking insect and the blood and/or tissues of a vertebrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Recognition and analysis of these transient cell populations has been hampered by technical difficulties in accessing them in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • mice
  • The purpose of the present study is to produce model mice in which the hematopoiesis supporting cells are easily distinguished from other stromal cell component. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mice engineered to specifically have vascular endothelium cells deficient in β-catenin showed disrupted adhesion between vascular endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • intermediates
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor
  • Publications] Ogawa M: 'Expression and function of c-kit in fetal hemopoietic progenitor cells:transtion from the early c-kit-independent to the late c-kit:dependent wave of hemopoiesis in the murine embryo. (nii.ac.jp)
  • typically
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • duration
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • In Xenopus , the germline is specified through the inheritance of germ plasm formed during oogenesis and asymmetrically segregated into the future germ cell lineage. (biologists.org)
  • metabolic
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanamide interacts with the cytokinin metabolic cycle, which results in triggering a new growth cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • Whereas normal PGCs do not become transcriptionally active until neurula, Nanos1-depleted PGCs prematurely exhibit a hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain at the midblastula transition. (biologists.org)
  • 1997
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • receptor
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • However, with regard to 42 strains thus far produced , none showed expression in the hematopoietic tissues, except one strain in which LacZ expression was observed in osteoblast cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • signals
  • Clocking causes the flip-flop either to change or to retain its output signal based upon the values of the input signals at the transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • This leads to suggestions for how one might exploit the corollaries of the recognition that serum ferritin levels mainly represent a consequence of cell stress and damage. (rsc.org)
  • A variety of different morphological forms appear in the life cycles of trypanosomatids, distinguished mainly by the position, length and the cell body attachment of the flagellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • dormancy
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing budbreak when the plant is on the edge of breaking dormancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • After binding, fructose 6-phosphate will interact with UDP via a hydrogen bond, which lowers the activation energy of the reaction and stabilizes the transition state. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • king May Help Cut Women's Breast Cancer Risk Cedars-Sinai increases the body's estrogen levels fostering the growth of cancer cells. (villa-agata.eu)
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological temperatures are optimal for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein synthesis, otherwise the cell will move into G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of this pigment in Haematococcus Pluvialis is enhanced due to various environmental stresses which limit the growth of the cell under light conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • stages
  • Alternation of generations (Fig. 3c) refers specifically to a life cycle that includes the alternation between multicellular haploid life stages and multicellular diploid life stages. (psu.edu)
  • The reactor is provided with three main coolant circuits, and the steam cycle has three stages of regenerative heating. (unt.edu)
  • Different species go through a range of different morphologies at different stages of the life cycle, most have at least two different morphologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • 2000 Genus Zelonia Shaw, Camargo et Teixeira 2016 Some trypanosomatids only occupy a single host, while many others are heteroxenous: they live in more than one host species over their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However the details of interband transitions in semiconductors and insulators and the effect of d-levels in transition metals require a quantum model of dispersion close to binary commodities trading resonances. (imbc-med.ru)
  • Most of these morphologies can be found as a life cycle stage in all trypanosomatid genera however certain morphologies are particularly common in a particular genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The injury is associated with the inhibition of catalase, which in turn stimulates the pentose phosphate cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Here he worked on the cell cycle alongside Paul Nurse and his PhD thesis focused on the control of DNA replication in fission yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • life cycle
  • this type of life cycle is also found in plants. (psu.edu)
  • Three genera are dixenous (two hosts in the life cycle) - Leishmania, Phytomonas and Trypanosoma and the remainder are monoxenous (one host in the life cycle). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the amastigote (prefix "a-", meaning no flagellum) form is also known as the leishmanial form as all Leishmania have an amastigote life cycle stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following its cultivation under sterile conditions, its life cycle was defined and its mode of infection was studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • sadness or loss of enjoyment at the time of the menopause transition you new treatments and therapies as well as long-term natural history studies. (villa-agata.eu)
  • known
  • Serum ferritin is also a well known inflammatory marker, but it is unclear whether serum ferritin reflects or causes inflammation, or whether it is involved in an inflammatory cycle. (rsc.org)
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • such devices ignore their inputs except at the transition of a dedicated clock signal (known as clocking, pulsing, or strobing). (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • 1999) Rapid induction of cytokine and E-selectin expression in the liver in response to metastatic tumor cells. (imbc-med.ru)
  • decrease
  • Morpholino knockdown of maternal Nanos1 resulted in a striking decrease in PGCs and a loss of germ cells from the gonads. (biologists.org)
  • division cycle
  • The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • This normal adaptive response to the microgravity environment is, for the most part, of little consequence within the space vehicle per se, but may become a liability resulting in increased risk of an inability or decreased efficiency in crewmember performance of physically demanding tasks during extravehicular activity (EVA) or abrupt transitions to environments of increased gravity (return to Earth, landing on the surface of another planetary body). (wikipedia.org)