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  • neuronal
  • Various studies have shown that the excitatory amino acid glutamate plays a pivotal role in ischemic neuronal cell death. (asahq.org)
  • The ability of neuronal Ca ++ channel blockers to inhibit glutamate release recently was shown for the conopeptide MVIIC. (asahq.org)
  • In vitro pharmacological studies suggest that zonisamide blocks sodium channels and reduces voltage-dependent, transient inward currents (T-type Ca 2+ currents), consequently stabilizing neuronal membranes and suppressing neuronal hypersynchronization. (drugs.com)
  • Other in vitro studies have demonstrated that zonisamide (10-30 µg/mL) suppresses synaptically-driven electrical activity without affecting postsynaptic GABA or glutamate responses (cultured mouse spinal cord neurons) or neuronal or glial uptake of [ 3 H]-GABA (rat hippocampal slices). (drugs.com)
  • proteins
  • A series of proteins are involved in the cross-regulation between MORs and calcium channels like the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), including the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), calmodulin (CaM) and the σ1R. (frontiersin.org)
  • A polyC motif in the 3′ UTR serves as a target for polyC binding proteins likely initiated by endogenous siRNAs. (queensu.ca)
  • We have identified the scaffolding proteins Homer-3 and Homer-1 as binding partners of hFat1 by pull-down experiments and mass spectrometry. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In vitro binding and mutation analyses showed that Homer proteins interact with the sequence 4440PPEDF which represents a class II EVH1 binding site. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The interaction domains in hFat1 for ENA/VASP and Homer proteins are different but overlapping, and consequently binding of hFat1 to Homer proteins competes with binding to mammalian Ena and vice versa. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Although the EVH1 domains of Homer proteins are highly homologous, stronger binding of Homer-3 compared to that of Homer-1 was observed. (beds.ac.uk)
  • With respect to interaction between hFat1 and Homer proteins and the links between Homer proteins and psychic disorders, the recently reported link between the susceptibility to familial bipolar disorder and mutations in the genomic locus encoding the EVH1 binding site of hFat1 appears to be of special interest. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Zonisamide, at concentrations of 1.0-7.0 µg/mL, is approximately 40% bound to human plasma proteins. (drugs.com)
  • synthase
  • Glutamate synthase (GltS) is a complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein that catalyzes the reductive transfer of L-glutamine amide group to the C2 carbon of 2-oxoglutarate yielding two molecules of L-glutamate. (unimi.it)
  • Substrates binding also induce (1) closure of the loop formed by residues 263-271 with partial shielding of the glutaminase site from solvent, and (2) widening of the ammonia tunnel entrance at the glutaminase end to allow for ammonia diffusion toward the synthase site. (unimi.it)
  • The Q-loop of glutamate synthase, which acts as an active site lid in other amidotransferases, seems to maintain an open conformation. (unimi.it)
  • reuptake
  • Standard reuptake inhibitors are believed to act simply as competitive substrates that work by binding directly to the plasmalemma transporter of the neurotransmitter in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • They appear to exert their reuptake inhibition by binding to vaguely characterized allosteric sites on each of the respective monoamine transporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, glutamate reuptake depends at least in part on the maintenance of the transmembrane Na + gradient. (asahq.org)
  • currents
  • Transport-related fluorescent ratio signals obtained with sodium-binding benzofuran isophtalate (SBFI) AM from unperturbed or voltage-clamped astrocytes and respective glutamate transporter currents (GTCs) were induced by photolytic or synaptic glutamate release and isolated pharmacologically. (jneurosci.org)
  • vitro
  • The ability of lamotrigine to reduce cerebral glutamate accumulation has been proved in vitro, and several animal trials of focal or transient global cerebral ischemia showed that lamotrigine had beneficial effects on histologic cerebral changes, neurological outcome, or both. (asahq.org)
  • Postnatal changes of [3H]L-glutamate binding sites in mouse cerebellum were studied by in vitro autoradiography. (muscimol.xyz)
  • agonists
  • However, these agonists dampened σ1R binding to the TRPA1 and TRPV1 N-terminal domains, and also to the TRPA1 C-terminal, as seen for σ1R-BiP interactions in the ER. (frontiersin.org)
  • modulate
  • In particular, we focus on the idea that the nucleus has an autonomous Ca 2+ signalling system that can generate its own Ca 2+ transients that modulate processes such as gene transcription. (biologists.org)
  • conformation
  • The present 4-ns molecular dynamics calculations reveal that the GltS glutaminase site may exist in a catalytically inactive conformation unable to bind glutamine, and in a catalytically competent conformation, which is stabilized by the glutamine substrate. (unimi.it)
  • synapses
  • L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. (uniprot.org)
  • The increase of the Cl-/Ca(2+)-dependent binding in the molecular layer is simultaneous with the growth of Purkinje cell dendrites and of parallel fibres and with the formation of the synapses between them. (muscimol.xyz)
  • This suggests that these binding sites are localized in these synapses. (muscimol.xyz)
  • astrocytes
  • This study evaluates single-cell indicators of glutamate transport in sulforhodamine 101-positive astrocytes of Q175 mice, a knock-in model of Huntington's disease (HD). (jneurosci.org)
  • The HD-induced deficit ranged from −27% (GTC maximum at −100 mV in Ba 2+ ) to −41% (sodium transients in astrocytes after loading SBFI-AM). Our specific aim was to clarify the mechanism(s) by which Kir4.1 channels can influence glutamate transport, as determined by either Na + imaging or transport-associated electrical signals. (jneurosci.org)
  • This leads to the testable prediction that restoring the high conductance state of passive astrocytes will not only normalize glutamate uptake but also restore other astrocytic transporter activities afflicted with HD. (jneurosci.org)
  • synaptosomes
  • To activate the increase in [Ca 2 +] i and glutamate release, synaptosomes were depolarized by abruptly increasing external [Potassium sup +] from 5 to 35 mM. (asahq.org)
  • Sequence
  • TrpC4 exists as two splice variants (TrpC4 α and TrpC4 β ) that differ only in an 84-residue sequence that binds to phosphatidylinositol(4,5) bis phosphate (PIP 2 ), the substrate of PLC β 1b. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We conclude that TrpC4 α is selectively involved in mechanisms downstream of PLC β 1b culminating in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and that the hypertrophic response is dependent on the TrpC4 α splice variant-specific sequence that binds to PIP 2 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • accumulation
  • In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate. (uniprot.org)
  • [4-A breakdown of intra- and extracellular ion balance caused by a failure of cellular energy supply can contribute to ischemic glutamate accumulation. (asahq.org)
  • characterization
  • Autoradiographic characterization of [3H]L-glutamate binding sites in developing mouse cerebellar cortex. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Observing molecular properties at the single-molecule level allows characterization of subpopulations, the visualization of transient intermediates, and the acquisition of detailed kinetic information that would otherwise be hidden by the averaging over an ensemble of stochastically behaving constituents. (rupress.org)
  • stimulation
  • Depalmitoylated upon glutamate stimulation. (abcam.com)
  • Following stimulation of T-cells, Homer-3 is translocated to the nucleus and affects serum response element - dependent transcription by binding to and inactivating C/EBP. (beds.ac.uk)
  • nitrous oxide
  • The slow-delta pattern was transient and was replaced by the beta and gamma oscillations after 2 to 12 minutes, even though patients were still receiving nitrous oxide. (eurekalert.org)
  • Why the slow-delta EEG pattern is transient is part of the mystery of nitrous oxide," says Brown. (eurekalert.org)
  • It's interesting to wonder whether the transient nature of nitrous-oxide-induced slow-delta oscillations could partially explain why the first attempt to demonstrate anesthesia here at MGH - by dentist Horace Wells who'd used nitrous oxide with several of his patients - was a complete failure," Brown adds. (eurekalert.org)
  • concentrations
  • The present study was designed to examine the effect of two different doses of lamotrigine on the peri-ischemic extracellular cerebral concentrations of glutamate. (asahq.org)
  • Protein binding of zonisamide is unaffected in the presence of therapeutic concentrations of phenytoin, phenobarbital or carbamazepine. (drugs.com)
  • molecular
  • At birth, these binding sites were diffused through the whole cerebellar mass, but became distinctly concentrated in the molecular and the internal granular layers by postnatal day 10. (muscimol.xyz)
  • In the molecular layer the Cl-/Ca2+ effect increased during ontogeny until, in adults, the ion-dependent binding was threefold higher than the ion-independent binding. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Starting from postnatal day 15, binding site density in the molecular layer of lobules VIb and VII of the vermis was lower than in other lobules. (muscimol.xyz)
  • The low density of [3H]L-glutamate binding in the molecular layer of lobules VIb and VII probably indicates the presence of specific nerve projections to these areas. (muscimol.xyz)
  • ligands
  • Since binding of Homer-3 to hFat1 appears to be very strong, the interaction is also expected to compete with the binding of other ligands of its EVH1 domain. (beds.ac.uk)
  • site
  • Notably, this allosteric site may be directly related to the above-mentioned PCP binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another possible site of interaction between neurotrophin- and plasticity-related pathways is represented by the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). (jneurosci.org)
  • Sites
  • Benztropine, mazindol, and vanoxerine also bind to these sites and have similar properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quisqualate-sensitive sites accounted for 80% of the total binding sites already at postnatal day 15, while displacement by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic and ibotenic acids attained the maximum (68%) at postnatal day 60. (muscimol.xyz)
  • These transient binding sites were sensitive to quisqualic and ibotenic acid. (muscimol.xyz)
  • In adults, the majority of glutamate binding sites were ion-independent and mainly sensitive to D,L-amino-5-phospho-valeric acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate. (muscimol.xyz)
  • The localized postnatal changes of the [3H]L-glutamate binding sites were correlated with the events occurring during growth and maturation of cerebellar structures. (muscimol.xyz)
  • physiological
  • In this Commentary, we describe mechanisms of nuclear Ca 2+ signalling and discuss what is known about the origin and physiological significance of nuclear Ca 2+ transients. (biologists.org)
  • In this Commentary, we discuss what is known about the origin and physiological significance of nuclear Ca 2+ transients. (biologists.org)