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  • genes
  • Transgenic plants possess a gene or genes that have been transferred from a different species. (crystalinks.com)
  • The aim is to design plants with specific characteristics by artificial insertion of genes from other species or sometimes entirely different kingdoms. (crystalinks.com)
  • Varieties containing genes of two distinct plant species are frequently created by classical breeders who deliberately force hybridization between distinct plant species when carrying out interspecific or intergeneric wide crosses with the intention of developing disease resistant crop varieties. (crystalinks.com)
  • Novel genetic rearrangements of plant chromosomes, such as insertion of large blocks of rye (Secale) genes into wheat chromosomes ('translocations'), has also been exploited widely for many decades. (crystalinks.com)
  • Mechanisms of plant protection against stresses and genes encoding a wide spectrum of compounds that confer the ability to survive under stress conditions, which cause inhibition of development and are even lethal to control plants are also discussed. (springer.com)
  • Concurrently, a second aim of this thesis was to identify plant genes that are expressed either constitutively or in the majority of cell types. (le.ac.uk)
  • The first method is based on the indirect physical transfer of foreign genes into target plant cells. (brokenfadercartel.com)
  • For example, in the case of certain bacterial genes, the adenine thymine (AT) content of the coding sequence is much higher than in plants and this results in aberrant premature transcription termination. (brokenfadercartel.com)
  • Plants develop crown galls upon infection with Agrobacterium , and this involves the transfer of genes from the bacterium to the plant. (escience.ws)
  • The genes for opine catabolism stay with the specific A. tumefaciens species, allowing that bacterium to benefit from the opine production of the plant. (escience.ws)
  • Special attention is paid to novel approaches to create marker-free plants initially containing no selective genes in their genomes. (deepdyve.com)
  • 1997
  • These Proceedings evolved from the OECD Co-operative Research Programme workshop on 'Potential ecological impact of transgenic plants expressing viral sequencies', held at the Agricultural Biotechnology Center in Gödöllö, Hungary on 24-26 April 1997. (indigo.ca)
  • Bolwell GP, Wojtaszek P (1997) Mechanisms for the generation of reactive oxygen species in plant defence: a broad perspective. (springer.com)
  • Chua, Nam‐Hai 1997-03-01 00:00:00 Summary A novel chemical induction system for transcription in plants has been developed, taking advantage of the regulatory mechanism of vertebrate steroid hormone receptors. (deepdyve.com)
  • recombinant
  • Although DNA of another species can be integrated in a plant genome by natural processes, the term "transgenic plants" refers to plants created in a laboratory using recombinant DNA technology. (crystalinks.com)
  • Methods used in traditional breeding that generate plants with DNA from two species by non-recombinant methods are widely familiar to professional plant scientists, and serve important roles in securing a sustainable future for agriculture by protecting crops from pests and helping land and water to be used more efficiently. (crystalinks.com)
  • 4. Does a plant variety, in which each individual plant of that variety contains at least one specific gene introduced into an ancestral plant by recombinant gene technology, fall outside the provision of Article 53(b) EPC that patents shall not be granted in respect of plant varieties or essentially biological processes for the production of plants, which provision does not apply to microbiological processes or the products thereof? (epo.org)
  • Well, one problem with working with plants is that they have a cell wall - how do you get a recombinant plasmid to cross that barrier? (escience.ws)
  • sequences
  • DNA sequences both natural and synthetic encoding for the expression of immunogenic agents which are capable of causing an immune response in animals when fed in edible plants, plant tissues, or derived plant materials are constructed, and plants transformed for stable or transient expression in plant cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Earp DJ, Lowe B, Baker B: Amplification of genomic sequences flanking transposable elements in hosts and heterologous plants: a tool for transposon tagging and genome characterization. (springer.com)
  • Currently, there are two major techniques for transferring foreign DNA into an organism: right border (RB), consisting of a 25 bp repeat sequence, and only the DNA segment in between the two border sequences is transferred to the plant cell. (brokenfadercartel.com)
  • nicotiana
  • Ahmadovich Bozorov T, Prakash Pandey S, Dinh ST, Kim SG, Heinrich M, Gase K, Baldwin IT (2012) DICER-like proteins and their role in plant-herbivore interactions in nicotiana attenuata. (springer.com)
  • One aim of the work presented in this thesis was to investigate the effects of a chicken B-globin gene matrix attachment region to insulate against these position effects in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). (le.ac.uk)
  • biotechnology
  • With the increase in the commercialisation of plant products derived from the use of modern biotechnology, OECD's Working Group on Harmonisation of Regulatory Oversight in Biotechnology (WG-HROB) recognized the importance of standardising the way in which such plant products are identified. (oecd.org)
  • Interest in the detailed lignin and polysaccharide composition of plant cell walls has surged within the past decade partly as a result of biotechnology research aimed at converting biomass to biofuels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • crops
  • By the late 1930s with the introduction of colchicine, perennial grasses were being hybridized with wheat with the aim of transferring disease resistance and perenniality into annual crops, and large-scale practical use of hybrids was well established, leading on to development of Triticosecale and other new transgenic cereal crops. (crystalinks.com)
  • The study offers insights into the drought survival mechanisms of plants and presents a possible means of protecting crops from severe drought stress. (purdue.edu)
  • socioeconomics and public reputation of transgenic crops. (brokenfadercartel.com)
  • Production
  • Production of transgenic plants in wide-crosses by plant breeders has been a vital aspect of conventional plant breeding for about a century. (crystalinks.com)
  • Manifestation of male sterility in plants is an important requirement for hybrid seed production. (springer.com)
  • The procedure offers simultaneous production of double-strand breaks and delivery of DNA template combined with a large number of progeny plants for future gene targeting experiments. (deepdyve.com)
  • transgene
  • Provided are constructs and methods for expressing a transgene in plant cells and/or plant tissues using Zea mays chlorophyll a/b binding gene regulatory. (patents.com)
  • It was found that, while this sequence mediates position-independent transgene expression in mice, it does not do so in transgenic tobacco. (le.ac.uk)
  • The approach was to introduce a promoterless gusA transgene, situated adjacent to the left border repeat of a T-DNA, to generate plant gene-reporter gene fusions in vivo following transformation of potato (Solanum tuberosum). (le.ac.uk)
  • A transgenic line was identified exhibiting transgene expression in leaf, stem, root and tuber tissue. (le.ac.uk)
  • conventional
  • With the recent increase of plant products having one or more traits obtained by conventional crosses, so-called "stacked events", the WG-HROB initiated a discussion on how to address those products, and revised the document in 2006 . (oecd.org)
  • and/or one or more beta-1,3-glucanases, and crossing said plants using conventional breeding techniques. (epo.org)
  • Zhao cautioned, however, that the spike in survival rate does not mean that the yield of the transgenic plants under drought conditions would equal that of conventional rice varieties under good growing conditions. (purdue.edu)
  • heterologous
  • 1. A plant cell comprising a heterologous polynucleotide encoding a gene product that is expressed in the plant cell wherein the gene product has trichothecene resistance activity. (epo.org)
  • 8. The plant according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the heterologous polynucleotide comprises a sequence substantially similar to SEQ ID No: 1, 5 or 7. (epo.org)
  • 9. The plant according to claim 8, wherein the heterologous polynucleotide comprises the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID No: 1, 5 or 7. (epo.org)
  • 1. A plant cell comprising a heterologous polynucleotide encoding a gene product that is expressed in the plant cell wherein the gene product has trichothecene resistance activity, and wherein said heterologous polynucleotide comprises a nucleotide sequence having at least 65% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:1. (epo.org)
  • This review compares the activity of the plant transposable elements Ac , Tam3 , En/Spm and Mu in heterologous plant species and in their original host. (springer.com)
  • Perspectives for manipulated transposable elements in transposon tagging strategies within heterologous plant species are discussed. (springer.com)
  • mice
  • For years now it has been known that in general, DNA from plants is not completely degraded in the gut, and can be found in inner organs, the blood stream and even in the offspring of mice. (testbiotech.org)
  • promoter
  • Here, it is demonstrated that this toxicity can be sufficiently alleviated by the Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated introduction of the E. coli UDP-glucose:galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase ( galT ) gene, driven by a 35S-promoter, to allow transgenic shoots of potato and oil seed rape to regenerate on galactose containing selection media, resulting in high transformation frequencies (up to 35% for potato). (springer.com)
  • A right border sequence (and perhaps a left border sequence as well), a promoter and gene of interest, and selectable markers for selection in E. coli , A. tumifaciens , and plants. (escience.ws)
  • Accumulation
  • Data from plants transformed to accumulate fructan are assessed in the context of natural concentrations of reserve carbohydrates and natural fluxes of carbon in primary metabolism: Transgenic fructan accumulation is universally reported as an instantaneous endpoint concentration. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Transgenic plants overexpressing TPS have shown enhanced drought tolerance in spite of minute accumulation of trehalose, amounts believed to be too small to provide a protective function. (kuleuven.be)
  • Seeds
  • Under severe drought conditions, the transgenic plants triggered the death of their old leaves - a process known as senescence - to conserve resources for seeds and buds, a survival strategy some plant scientists refer to as "die and let live. (purdue.edu)
  • Long-term drought conditions cause plants to go into dormancy and redirect water and nutritional resources away from leaves to sink tissues such as seeds and buds, reservoirs for new growth. (purdue.edu)
  • demonstrates
  • This study not only illuminates the function of PYL9 in stress-induced leaf senescence but also demonstrates a great potential for using PYL9 to improve plant drought resistance. (purdue.edu)
  • tissues
  • This suggests that the plants had blocked their old leaves' access to water, preferentially driving water to developing tissues instead. (purdue.edu)
  • Now that apoaequorin can be targeted to specific organelles, cells and tissues, with the range of coelenterazines with differing calcium sensitivities and properties available, this new method could be valuable for determining the role of calcium in intracellular signalling processes in plants. (nih.gov)
  • generate
  • Developers of a new transgenic plant can generate an identifier and include it in the information package that they forward to national authorities during the risk/safety assessment process. (oecd.org)
  • Classical plant breeders use a number of in vitro techniques such as protoplast fusion, embryo rescue or mutagenesis to generate diversity and produce plants that would not exist in nature (see also Plant breeding, Heterosis, New Rice for Africa). (crystalinks.com)
  • Cell
  • 2. A plant comprising a plant cell of claim 1, wherein the plant is resistant to a trichothecene. (epo.org)
  • 1. A wheat plant, which is resistant to a fungus that produces a trichothecene that comprises a C-3 hydroxyl group, said wheat plant comprising a plant cell, wherein said plant cell comprises the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 and wherein said plant is resistant to Fusarium infection. (epo.org)
  • Finnegan EJ, Taylor BH, Craig S, Dennis ES: Transposable elements can be used to study cell lineages in transgenic plants. (springer.com)
  • Plant Cell 1: 757-764 (1989). (springer.com)
  • measurements can be made on whole plants and a calcium indicator can be constituted in every viable cell. (nih.gov)
  • To correlate cysteine protease mediated cell death of tapetum, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and proteomic pattern of anthers of cysteine protease induced male sterile plant were compared with the untransformed control plant. (springer.com)
  • Dunoyer P, Himber C, Voinnet O (2005) DICER-LIKE 4 is required for RNA interference and produces the 21-nucleotide small interfering RNA component of the plant cell-to-cell silencing signal. (springer.com)
  • When A. tumefaciens attaches to a plant cell, it transfers this T-DNA from the bacterium through a cytoplasmatic bridge to the plant cell. (brokenfadercartel.com)
  • One very common way of introducing DNA into plant cells is through DNA coated particles (e.g. gold 1 micron particles) that are literally shot through the cell wall. (escience.ws)
  • crop
  • Such traditional techniques (used since about 1930 on) have never been controversial, or been given wide publicity except among professional biologists, and have allowed crop breeders to develop varieties of basic food crop, wheat in particular, which resist devastating plant diseases such as rusts. (crystalinks.com)
  • The transgenes did not affect plant growth and development under normal conditions, which suggests that they could be used to improve crop drought tolerance. (purdue.edu)
  • 2 GMO Technology: What, How and Its Importance to Plant Breeding This section describes the different steps of developing a transgenic crop. (brokenfadercartel.com)
  • methods
  • Methods for measuring plant cytoplasmic calcium using microelectrodes or microinjected fluorescent dyes are associated with extensive technical problems, so measurements have been limited to single or small groups of cells in tissue strips or protoplasts. (nih.gov)
  • animal
  • The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations. (osti.gov)
  • A recent Testbiotech survey shows that DNA fragments from transgenic plants are increasingly found in animal tissue such as milk, inner organs and muscles. (testbiotech.org)
  • Microinjected aequorin has been widely used for intracellular calcium measurement in animal cells, but its use in plants has been limited to exceptionally large cells. (nih.gov)
  • This ebook comprises 15 chapters that debate using transgenic vegetation as animal feeds. (brokenfadercartel.com)
  • yield
  • The agricultural performance of transgenic potatoes was evaluated by monitoring the phenotype and tuber yield for two generations and these characters were found to be indistinguishable from non-transgenic controls. (springer.com)
  • agar
  • Plants can be cultured in the laboratory in nutritive agar, regenerated from single cells. (escience.ws)
  • relates
  • 2. Does a claim which relates to plants but wherein specific plant varieties are not individually claimed ipso facto avoid the prohibition on patenting in Article 53(b) EPC even though it embraces plant varieties? (epo.org)