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  • latent
  • Two main models are proposed how integrins contribute to latent TGF-beta1 activation: (1) In a protease-dependent mechanism, integrins alphavbeta8 and alphavbeta3 are suggested to simultaneously bind the latent TGF-beta1 complex and proteinases. (epfl.ch)
  • This close vicinity at the cell surface improves enzymatic cleavage of the latent complex to release active TGF-beta1. (epfl.ch)
  • 2) Integrins alphavbeta3, alphavbeta5, alphavbeta6, and alphavbeta8 appear to change the conformation of the latent TGF-beta1 complex by transmitting cell traction forces. (epfl.ch)
  • Understanding that different integrins use different mechanisms to activate latent TGF-beta1 opens new possibilities to develop cell-specific therapeutic strategies for TGF-beta1-induced pathologies. (epfl.ch)
  • pathway
  • Therefore, we suggested that the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (the key enzyme of which is glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase [GFAT]) contributes to the high glucose-induced TGF-beta1 production. (jci.org)
  • Growth factors do not only stimulate cell proliferation, but they may also act as growth inhibitors, depending on the cell type and the stimulatory pathway that is involved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • epithelial
  • These results show that blocking TGFβ1 signaling renders most epithelial cancer cells more sensitive to radiation therapy regardless of their sensitivity to TGFβ1 mediated growth regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-β [TGF-β] is such an example, being a growth stimulator in fibroblastic cells with TGF-β receptors, but a negative regulator in epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • positively
  • The positively stained areas were measured using an image analysis program (Image Pro-Plus 4.5), and then the TGF-beta1 volume fraction (TGF-VF) and alpha-SMA volume fraction (alpha-SMA-VF) were calculated. (jpatholtm.org)
  • tissues
  • TGF-beta1 controls tissue homeostasis in embryonic and normal adult tissues and contributes to the development of fibrosis, cancer, autoimmune and vascular diseases when being mis-regulated. (epfl.ch)