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  • antibody
  • The follicular helper T (Tfh) cells help is critical for activation of B cells, antibody class switching, and germinal center (GC) formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Follicular helper T cell (Tfh), a subset of helper CD4 + T cells, is involved in providing critical help for antibody maturation and germinal center (GC) formation ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Robust regulation of Tfh cell response and subsequent antibody maturation are critical for infection clearance ( 2 , 3 ), whereas aberrancy in controlling Tfh immune response is implicated in progression of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), arthritis, and type I/II diabetes ( 4 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Human being recombinant TNF, Phosflow Buffer I, Phosflow Perm Buffer III, phycoerythrin (PE)-labelled mouse antibody against human being ICAM-1, VCAM-1, NF-B p65 and IgG1 (isotype control) had been all given by Becton Dickinson (NORTH PARK, CA, USA). (ovarian-cancersymptoms.com)
  • The early antibody genes used to construct genetic engineering were derived from hybridoma cells. (acs.org)
  • The plaques were transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane, the specific antibody fragment was cloned with the antigen labeled by isotope or horseradish peroxidase to obtain a gene of the Fab fragment. (acs.org)
  • membrane
  • In this study, we show by an in vitro coculture system that GFP-tagged H-Ras, but not GFP, transfers from MEL526 to T cells and localizes to the inner aspect of their plasma membrane. (jimmunol.org)
  • Lymphocytes also form structural continuity with the cells they survey, including plasma membrane fusions and bridges ( 2 ), gap junctions ( 3 ), tunneling nanotubes ( 4 ), and other "pores" through which individual lymphocytes become physically integrated with the target cells they scan. (jimmunol.org)
  • In recent years, it has become clear that cell-cell transfer of both extracellular receptors and membrane patches are inherent to the formation of the IS. (jimmunol.org)
  • Beside other enzymes involved in sphingolipid synthesis, intermembrane transfer of ceramide, and putative redox partners of FA2H, progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) and PGRMC2 were identified as putative interaction partners. (biochemj.org)
  • We report a mass spectrometry-based strategy for quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteome changes. (nih.gov)
  • High blood glucose releases insulin, stimulating the trans location of specific glucose transporters to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Even though the transfer of molecules among lymphocytes and the cells they scan is an intriguing topic, it is one of the less understood and studied aspects of cellular immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Background Modified expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) continues to be implicated in a number of persistent inflammatory conditions, including atherosclerosis. (ovarian-cancersymptoms.com)
  • The present review will focus on emerging technologies that allow in vivo imaging of specific cells or molecules using noninvasive methods or direct microscopic imaging of single cells in the in vivo environment using minimally invasive methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Invasiveness in this case refers specifically to the need for surgical procedures to expose tissues for high-resolution imaging of cells or molecules of interest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transfer of highly permeable molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide is particularly influenced by reduced blood flow [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Kinases transfer phosphate groups from ATP to specific serine, threonine or tyrosine residues of target molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen-containing compounds thus labeled can be tracked and measured as they move through the fungus and into the plant, as well as how they are incorporated into nitrogen-containing molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation allows cells to accumulate sugars because the phosphate group prevents the molecules from diffusing back across their transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) is essential for synthesis of 2-hydroxylated fatty acids in myelinating and other cells and deficiency of this enzyme causes a complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia also known as fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration. (biochemj.org)
  • Hershey and Chase showed that the introduction of deoxyribonuclease (referred to as DNase), an enzyme that breaks down DNA, into a solution containing the labeled bacteriophages did not introduce any 32P into the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is involved in creatine biosynthesis, whereby it catalyzes the transfer of a guanido group from L-arginine to glycine, resulting in guanidinoacetic acid, the immediate precursor of creatine. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • A third class of small molecule fluorophore is that of the transition metal-ligand complexes, which display molecular fluorescence from a metal-to-ligand charge transfer state which is partially forbidden, these are generally complexes of Ruthenium, Rhenium or Osmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • It was initially described as a lophomonad due to its apical tuft of multiple flagella that disintegrate during cell division, but its phylogenetic relationships have not been investigated using molecular evidence. (jove.com)
  • The molecular genetics tools are also complemented by new technologies to image the movements and interactions of cells in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Imaging modalities have long been crucial to the researcher in observing changes, either at the organ, tissue, cell, or molecular level, in animals responding to physiological or environmental changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a hitherto unknown phenomenon of intercellular transfer of Ras oncoproteins from melanoma to TILs that consequently augments their effector functions. (jimmunol.org)
  • Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh during viral infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mechanistic details of effector T cells conversion into Tfh are yet to be clear. (frontiersin.org)
  • processes
  • The diversity of synthetic routes and cellular processes involving the transfer of reducing equivalents to and from these cofactors makes the accurate quantitation and metabolic tracing of NAD(H) and NADP(H) of broad interest. (rsc.org)
  • The autoantigens are organ and cell-specific, and in some cases surgical removal of the neoplasm has resulted in amelioration of immune-mediated paraneoplasia.2,14-18 Gammaglobulin treatment is reported to have beneficial results in some through processes that include anti-idiotype immunomodulation.19 Plasmapheresis and immuno- suppression may provide symptomatic relief in others,3,6,15,20 but no single immunomodulation is universally successful. (redorbit.com)
  • adaptive immune system One of two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates that inhibits or eliminates pathogens through the actions of highly specialized systemic cells and processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • The odor character is encoded in the ratio of activities of receptors tuned to different vibration frequencies, in the same way that color is encoded in the ratio of activities of cone cell receptors tuned to different frequencies of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Initially external signals such as growth factors, provided by the axon, activate genes that produce myelin and lipid-producing enzymes in Schwann cells. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • In addition to the signaling diversity provided by targeting subunits, PP1 is also expressed in mammalian cells as three closely related isoforms, α, β/δ, and γ, which are encoded by separate genes. (rupress.org)
  • When labeled nitrogen compounds were added to the ERM compartment of an in vitro bsystem, six fungal genes encoding enzymes involved in the incorporation of inorganic nitrogen into glutamine and its subsequent conversion to arginine were rapidly up-regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, we asked whether Ras oncoproteins can transfer from melanoma to T cells, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and subsequently induce functional effects in the adopting T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • phage
  • The Escherichia coli infected with λ phage was cracked by the proliferation of phage, and the released phage re-infects the surrounding E. coli cells to form plaques. (acs.org)
  • undergo
  • In the peripheral nervous system (outside the brain and spinal cord), specialized Schwann cells produce huge quantities of myelin, undergo massive expansions of their membranes, and wrap themselves around axons. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Since obtaining hybridoma cells must undergo a long-term, complex process of animal immunization, cell fusion and clonal screening. (acs.org)
  • apoptosis
  • RNA interference-induced knockdown of Repo-Man caused large-scale cell death by apoptosis, as did overexpression of this dominant-negative mutant. (rupress.org)
  • In vitro research have proven how the fruit draw out inhibits 7-hydroxycholesterol-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells . (ovarian-cancersymptoms.com)
  • permeable
  • Hepatic cell is freely permeable to glucose, and the initial rate of phosphorylation of glucose is the rate-limiting step in glucose metabolism by the liver (ATP-D-glucose 6-phosphotransferase) and non-specific hexokinase (ATP-D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase). (wikipedia.org)
  • They surround cells and organelles with a semi-permeable barrier that prevents free flow of substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • During interphase, FP-PP1γ was found in both cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic pools, showing a prominent accumulation within nucleoli, whereas time-lapse imaging revealed dynamic targeting to specific sites during cell division, including kinetochores and chromatin. (rupress.org)
  • novel
  • Here, novel methods are used to study nutrient assimilation and transfer within and between the outer-layer cells of the Indopacific bioeroding sponge Cliona orientalis. (edu.au)
  • subunit
  • From single cell isolations, we sequenced the small subunit rRNA gene and determined that K. loriculata falls within the Cristamonadea, but is unrelated to other lophomonads. (jove.com)
  • fragments
  • Our results show these methods have the potential to provide direct evidence for nutrient flow and suggest the oxymonad protist Oxymonas dimorpha phagocytoses and enzymatically degrades ingested wood fragments, and may transfer carbon derived from this to its surface bacterial symbionts. (cambridge.org)
  • study
  • With this study, we've analyzed the hypothesis that industrial draw out from fruits can inhibit the cytokine-induced endothelial adhesiveness to peripheral bloodstream mononuclear leucocytes as well as the manifestation of adhesion substances (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) in endothelial cells. (ovarian-cancersymptoms.com)
  • Microscopic imaging has the advantage of being able to study single cells in action. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Toward elucidating the mechanisms through which nitrogen transfer is completed, the sum of numerous studies have provided the necessary tools to study this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • In the early 1950s, he studied photosynthesis and was the first to present evidence for the light-dependent formation of ATP (photophosphorylation) in vivo in Chlorella cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, the PGRMC1 inhibitor AG-205 significantly reduced synthesis of hydroxylated ceramide and glucosylceramide in FA2H expressing cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Moreover, Tfh cells were found to be choice of cells for HIV virus replication and survival ( 3 , 11 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)