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  • upstream
  • In this context, a functional polymorphism in the MTP gene promoter region was recently described in which homozygotes for a G-to-T substitution, located 493 bp upstream from the transcription initiation site, display lower plasma levels of apoB-containing lipoproteins than carriers of the −493G allele. (ahajournals.org)
  • Results: Comparative analysis of the TMPRSS2 promoter upstream sequences among different species revealed the conservation of binding sites for the androgen inducible NKX3.1 tumor suppressor. (spotidoc.com)
  • factors
  • This review focuses on some of the many applications of molecular cut-and-paste tools for the manipulation of promoters and transcription factors leading to the understanding of crucial aspects of transcriptional regulation. (mdpi.com)
  • The process begins with the assembly of general transcription factors around the transcription start site (TSS) to form the pre-initiation complex (PIC), which is completed with the recruitment of Pol II. (mdpi.com)
  • When it was first discovered, it was thought that acetylation of lysine neutralizes the positive charge normally present, thus reducing affinity between histone and (negatively charged) DNA, which renders DNA more accessible to transcription factors . (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The understanding of promoter complexity and transcription factor structure offers an insight into the mechanisms of transcriptional control and their impact on cell behaviour. (mdpi.com)
  • Though translation of the mRNA message, as well as modification and correct folding of the polypeptide chains are essential for the protein composition of a cell, expression of all the components begins by transcription from DNA. (mdpi.com)
  • specific
  • This restricted tropism may be a consequence of organ-specific differences in translation initiation by the poliovirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES). (jci.org)
  • I ask for initiation sites encoded by a specific DNA sequence motif for protzeins involved in DNA replication. (protocol-online.org)
  • Research has emerged, since, to show that lysine acetylation and other posttranslational modifications of histones generate binding sites for specific protein-protein interaction domains, such as the acetyllysine-binding bromodomain . (wikipedia.org)
  • step
  • Transcription is the first step in protein expression and the major point of regulation of the components that determine the characteristics, fate and functions of cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The dominant view of transcriptional regulation has been that this is the rate-limiting step of transcription and, therefore, the main point of regulation. (mdpi.com)
  • response
  • The interconnected pathways involve the PhoP-PhoR system, whose primary role is the phosphate deficiency response, the Spo0A phosphorelay required for the initiation of sporulation, and a recently discovered signal transduction system, ResD-ResE, which also has an essential role in aerobic and anaerobic respiration ( Nakano and Hulett, 1997 ). (wiley.com)
  • direct
  • However, there have been no direct measurements in organs of translation initiation dependent on the IRES of rhinovirus, poliovirus, or HCV. (jci.org)
  • Significantly, this represents the first evidence for direct involvement of one two-component system in transcription of a second two-component system. (wiley.com)
  • study
  • Phylogenetic similarities and the profusion of integration sites, two inherent characteristics of transposable elements, make it difficult to study individual locus expression in a large-scale approach, and historically apart from some placental and testis-regulated elements, it was generally accepted that HERVs are silent due to epigenetic control. (plos.org)
  • vitro
  • In addition to a new chapter on the in vitro analysis of chromatin templates for DNA-binding studies and transcription, this second edition has been extensively rewritten and updated to discuss new advances in the field and their impact on gene regulation mechanisms. (cshlpress.com)
  • gene
  • The second edition retains the approach of the first in covering both the conceptual and practical aspects of how to study the regulation of a newly isolated gene and the biochemistry of a new transcription factor. (cshlpress.com)
  • exons
  • cIRK1 contains two exons with splice sites in the 5'-untranslated region, a structure similar to mouse and human orthologs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The alternative splice sites are generated by internal splicing and primarily remove complete exons. (nih.gov)
  • splice site
  • Detection of SILV splice variant Δ816-1340 by splice site specific RT-PCR with primers SPex6AF1 - E9R2 in RNA from non-pigmented tissues. (nih.gov)
  • process
  • After injury, axon segments distal to the injury site undergo Wallerian degeneration ( Dubový, 2011 ), a complex process characterized by axon disintegration, myelin breakdown, and debris phagocytosis by SCs and macrophages. (jneurosci.org)
  • model
  • A model system in which the initiation sites of simian virus 40 late RNA were identified and their relative use determined is presented. (asm.org)
  • general
  • Limiting RPi activity may be important in preventing the premature synthesis of abortive transcripts, suggesting its involvement in a general mechanism driving the RPi to RPo transition for transcription initiation. (nih.gov)
  • relative
  • Moreover, scanning the intensities of the runoff bands as they appeared in the autoradiogram of the gel allowed determination of the relative use of these sites. (asm.org)
  • least
  • Evidence suggests that this tryptophan (i) is involved in either forward translocation or DNA scrunching and (ii) in σ(54)-regulated promoters limits the transcription activity of at least one intermediate complex (RPi) before the formation of a fully functional RPo. (nih.gov)
  • immune
  • The effect of VIP/PACAP on the DC-Treg axis represents an additional mechanism for their general anti-inflammatory role, particularly in anatomical sites which exhibit immune deviation or privilege. (jimmunol.org)
  • The successful initiation of the adaptive immune response requires DC maturation, following signaling through the toll-like receptors and CD40. (jimmunol.org)
  • Beta-defensins are small cationic peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties and contribute to mucosal immune responses at epithelial sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • active
  • Therefore, a cavity (active site) where DNA can fit is produced, even though there is another binding region responsible for stable DNA complex during its fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)