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  • genes
  • Transcription activator which binds specifically to the MEF2 element present in the regulatory regions of many muscle-specific genes. (uniprot.org)
  • Studies of the transcriptional activation mechanisms leading to upregulation of the immediate early genes c- fos , zif 268, and of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) indicated that transcription factors such as the Ca 2+ /cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and the serum response factor (SRF) may play a privileged role as key neuronal activity sensors in the nucleus ( 10 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our results showed the regulation of muscle development might be more complex than had been previously acknowledged, and is regulated by the coordinated action of muscle, nerve and immunity related genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Breed-specific modules that regulated muscle phenotype divergence were identified, and hundreds of hub genes with major roles in muscle development were determined to be responsible for key functional distinctions between breeds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Muscle phenotype divergence was found to be regulated by the divergence of coexpression network modules under artificial selection, and not by changes in the coding sequence of genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phosphorylation of p53/TP53 in response to genotoxic and oxidative stresses enhances its stabilization by preventing ubiquitin ligase-mediated proteasomal degradation, and induces transactivation of p53/TP53 target genes, thus regulating apoptosis. (genecards.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, multiple and coordinated processes contribute to the fine-tuning of the transcription and translation of selected genes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (mdpi.com)
  • The four MEF2 genes, Mef2A, -B, -C, -D, encode transcription factors belonging to the MADS (MCM1-agamous-deficiens- serum response factor) superfamily of DNA binding proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • By 13.5 d p.c., each of the four Mef2 genes were expressed in overlapping yet distinct patterns in regions of the frontal cortex, midbrain, thalamus, hippocampus, and hindbrain. (jneurosci.org)
  • BMP2 controls bone cell determination by inducing miRNAs that target muscle genes but mainly by down-regulating multiple miRNAs that constitute an osteogenic program, thereby releasing from inhibition pathway components required for cell lineage commitment establish a mechanism for BMP morphogens to selectively induce a tissue-specific phenotype and suppress alternative lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major aim of Transcriptional Regulation by Neuronal Activity: To the Nucleus and Back is to illustrate key advances in the field specifically how signals are transmitted to the nucleus in response to neuronal activity, what genes are activated and how this is achieved, and how these changes in gene expression alter neuronal function. (moluna.de)
  • The MEF2 family of proteins bind to target DNA sequences present in muscle-specific genes. (activemotif.jp)
  • Proteins
  • MEF2 proteins are highly expressed in cardiac myocytes and induce myogenesis from precursor cells ( Black and Olson, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus it appears that the supply of neuronal proteins must be tightly matched to the cellular demand at any given time, to maintain proper neuronal circuit function. (pnas.org)
  • Instead the protein, which is predominantly expressed at high levels in mammalian postmitotic central nervous system neurons, functions in diverse processes such as synaptic plasticity and neuronal migration through phosphorylation of proteins required for cytoskeletal organization, endocytosis and exocytosis, and apoptosis. (genecards.org)
  • Promotes cell survival by activating anti-apoptotic proteins BCL2 and STAT3, and negatively regulating of JNK3/MAPK10 activity. (genecards.org)
  • When pre-mRNAs emerge from the transcription sites, they are associated with trans -acting proteins and RNAs, to form the RNA-protein complexes also referred as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. (mdpi.com)
  • The present invention provides methods and systems for regulating delivery of therapeutic proteins and nucleic acids. (google.es)
  • In silico analysis showed that MEF2A contained MADS (MCM1, AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS and SRF -serum response factor), MEF2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transcription domains with high homology to related proteins in other species. (scielo.br)
  • Neuron
  • Circadian remodeling of the small ventral lateral neuron (sLNv) dorsal terminals was first described at the peak and trough levels of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) immunoreactivity, that is at zeitgeber time 2 (ZT2) and ZT14 (2 hr after lights ON and lights OFF, respectively), as well as their counterparts under constant darkness (DD) (circadian time 2 [CTand CT14). (sdbonline.org)
  • immediate earl
  • Mef2 induction of the immediate early gene Hr38/Nr4a is terminated by Sirt1 to promote ethanol tolerance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The neuronal immediate early gene Arc / Arg-3.1 is widely used as one of the most reliable molecular markers for intense synaptic activity in vivo. (pnas.org)
  • An activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg-3.1) has recently emerged as an attractive candidate effector molecule/immediate early gene product ( 13 , 14 ), whose induction may correlate, at least in part, with the induced synaptic alteration phenotype ( 15 - 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • degradation
  • Notable targets include ion channels involved in atrial electrophysiology (blue box), atrial Ca2+-handling and Ca2+-signaling (red box), microRNAs (miRs) inhibiting protein translation or promoting mRNA degradation (green boxes) of several targets (indicated in bold), transcription factors and gene regulatory networks (purple box), the components of the myofilaments (teal box), oxidative stress and altered metabolism (pink box), and inflammation (orange box). (circresearch.com)
  • Neurotoxins inhibit MEF2-dependent survival via caspase-mediated degradation of MEF2. (jneurosci.org)
  • downregulation
  • Downregulation of Mfn2 causes mitochondrial dysfunction, altered calcium homeostasis, and enhanced Bax translocation to mitochondria, resulting in delayed neuronal death. (sebbm.es)
  • RhoA expression is negatively regulated by miR-133a in bronchial smooth muscles (BSM)and miR-133a downregulation causes an upregulation of RhoA, resulting in an augmentation of contraction and BSM hyperresponsiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • When nuclear or whole-cell extract is added, activated transcription factor of interest binds the oligonucleotide at its consensus binding site and is quantified using the included antibody, which is specific for the bound, active form of the transcription factor being studied. (activemotif.jp)
  • Evidence from murine and cell line models has implicated calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-lymphocytes (NFAT) signaling pathway, a Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent major proinflammatory pathway, in the pathogenesis of these diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • serum respon
  • miR-133 enhances myoblast proliferation by repressing serum response factor (SRF) mIR-133 suppresses SP1 expression In rats, miR-133b is expressed in retinal dopaminergicamacrine cell, and this expression is significantly increased during early stage during retinal degeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • dysfunction
  • Altered calcineurin/NFAT activation is increasingly linked to pathological features of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's diseases, characterized by massive synaptic dysfunction, glial activation, and neuronal death in some regions of the brain [ 26 - 29 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • roles
  • Migraine is a common, chronic, polygenic neurovascular disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors play their roles. (springer.com)