• The CA versus AA effect requires AID.The other cis-elements of Ig enhancers alone cannot attract the SHM machinery.Ig genes are the most highly mutated genes, presumably because of multiple CAGGTG motifs within the Ig genes, high transcription activity, and the presence of other cooperating elements in Ig enhancers. (nih.gov)
  • Ig genes are the most highly mutated genes, presumably because of multiple CAGGTG motifs within the Ig genes, high transcription activity, and the presence of other cooperating elements in Ig enhancers. (nih.gov)
  • The encoded protein contains a high mobility group-box DNA binding domain and participates in the regulation of cell cycle genes and cellular senescence. (cancerindex.org)
  • Ser345-phosphorylated PR-B receptors strongly associated with specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factors to regulate PR cell cycle (p21) and growth-promoting (EGFR) target genes whose promoters lack canonical progesterone response element sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Functionally important binding sites for GATA-1 are found in the regulatory regions of essentially all erythroid-cell-specific genes ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Expression of the adenovirus oncoprotein E1A, which interferes with the action of CBP, blocks the effects of CBP on GATA-1 activity, inhibits erythroid differentiation, and reduces the expression of several GATA-1-dependent genes ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • A small number of genes containing an AP-1 site in their promoters have been shown to be regulated by ERα, such as collagenase ( 8 ), human insulin-like growth factor I ( 9 ), and the human choline acetyltransferase gene ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • AP-1 was first known as a 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbyl-13-acetate (TPA)-inducible transcription factor because the TPA response element was identified as a binding site for AP-1 in many cellular and viral genes ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • AP-1 dimers regulate the expression of AP-1 target genes by binding to consensus DNA-regulatory elements ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, it remains unclear whether AP-1 is more generally recruited to promoter regions of ER target genes, particularly in the context of intact chromatin and what is the potential molecular interplay between these signaling pathways at the level of chromatin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences in order to direct which genes should be turned on or off in a tissue. (ucsd.edu)
  • Kruppel-like factor family genes are expressed during Xenopus embryogenesis and involved in germ layer formation and body axis patterning. (xenbase.org)
  • The genes encode single-pass transmembrane proteins that interact with ligands of the Delta and/or Jagged/Serrate family. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Notch target genes are normally repressed by the CSL family of proteins, but become activated through the binding of a NICD/CSL complex and its recruitment of chromatin remodeling proteins ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the retinoblastoma gene family and physically interacts with cyclins A and E". Genes & Development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is phosphorylated by several protein kinases, and induces transcription of genes in response to hormonal stimulation of the cAMP pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart development (myocardium differentiation, Skeletal muscle development (alpha-actin of skeletal muscles),) Smooth muscle development (alpha-actin of smooth muscles), Regulation of myosin heavy chain genes, cardiac muscular genes troponin T and I Regulation of proliferation, Regulation of apoptosis, Protein Kinase A (pKA) can phosphorylate TEAD1 at serine 102, after the TEA domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • TEAD proteins require cofactors to induce the transcription of target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brn3a is a transcription factor which acts in development by regulating downstream "target" genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein binds to the Xboxes of MHC class II genes and is essential for their expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RFX proteins were originally cloned and characterized due to their high affinity for a cis-acting promoter sequence, called the Xbox, found in all MHC class II genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Elk subfamily of ETS transcription factors are critical targets of the r eceptor t yrosine k inase (RTK)/Ras/ e xtracellular- r egulated k inase (ERK)-signaling pathway ( Treisman 1994 ). (genetics.org)
  • Finally, CBP and p300 were recently shown to acetylate nonhistone proteins such as the tumor suppressor protein p53 ( 16 ), the erythroid Kruppel-like factor (EKLF) ( 48 ), and the basal transcription factors, TFIIE and TFIIF ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • gene name abbreviated RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that is dysfunctional in several major cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to activation of the RTK/Ras/ERK-signaling pathway, LIN-1 functions as a SUMOylated transcriptional repressor that inhibits vulval cell fate. (genetics.org)
  • Our general objective is to investigate the role of a specific component of a cellular stress responses linked to organelle damage, the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), in the development of Parkinson's disease. (michaeljfox.org)
  • TRXR1 is also capable of reducing a wide array of cellular proteins (1,3). (cellsignal.com)
  • Thioredoxin participates in many cellular processes including redox signaling, response to oxidative stress, and protein reduction (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • CELL fates are established during development by spatially controlled activation of signal transduction pathways that regulate transcription factors. (genetics.org)
  • ATF-2 may mediate oncogenesis caused by mutant Ras protein and regulate maintenance of the aggressive cancer phenotype of some types of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once this complex is formed, these two proteins can regulate the alpha-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • One notable feature of this protein is that it contains a Caspase Activation Recruitment Domain, also known as a CARD domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • JDP 2 was found by a Sos-recruitment system,[clarification needed] to dimerize with c-Jun to repress AP-1-mediated activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human progesterone receptors (PR) rapidly activate cytosolic signaling pathways, in addition to their classical function as ligand-activated transcription factors. (nih.gov)
  • This product includes 3 vials: 1 vial of gene-specific cell lysate, 1 vial of control vector cell lysate, and 1 vial of loading buffer. (creativebiomart.net)
  • In addition, GATA-1 induces terminal erythroid maturation when introduced into the GATA-1-deficient erythroid cell line G1E ( 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence the specification of distinct CD8 + T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TFs among differentially fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. (nature.com)
  • The LIN-1 ETS transcription factor plays a pivotal role in controlling cell fate decisions during development of the Caenorhabditis elegans vulva. (genetics.org)
  • These Pn.p cells are an equivalence group, since each cell can adopt the 1° vulval cell fate (eight descendants), the 2° vulval cell fate (seven descendants), or the nonvulval 3° cell fate (two descendants). (genetics.org)
  • This global network, indicating which factors can combine to determine cell fate, will be published in the March 5 issue of the journal Cell . (ucsd.edu)
  • 1]. Cho, E.A. et al (2013) Safety and tolerability of an intratumorally injected DNAzyme, Dz13, in patients with nodular basal-cell carcinoma: a phase 1 first-in-human trial (DISCOVER). (wikipedia.org)
  • To protect from these undesirable processes, a cell can activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • and cell proliferation, and commit to cell cycle arrest because of AP-1 repression. (wikipedia.org)
  • JDP2 induces cell cycle arrest through cyclin D, p53, and cyclin A transcription, by increasing JUNB, JUND, and Fra2, and by decreasing c-JUN through the loss of p27kip1. (wikipedia.org)
  • TMEM239 protein interactions appear to be implicated in cell signaling, membrane transport and immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In drosophila the transcription factor Scalloped is involved in the development of the wing disc, survival and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)